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Gramatica limbii engleze

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    MARIA-ROCSELANA GLCESCU

    NOTE DE CURS

    GRAMATICA LIMBII ENGLEZE

    FONETIC

    MORFOLOGIE:

    SUBSTANTIVUL

    ARTICOLUL

    ADJECTIVUL

    PRONUMELE

    NUMERALUL

    ADVERBUL

    EXERCIII

    CHEIA EXERCIIILOR

  • 2

    MARIA-ROCSELANA GLCESCU

    NOTE DE CURS

    GRAMATICA LIMBII ENGLEZE

    FONETIC

    MORFOLOGIE:

    SUBSTANTIVUL

    ARTICOLUL

    ADJECTIVUL

    PRONUMELE

    NUMERALUL

    ADVERBUL

    EXERCIII

    CHEIA EXERCIIILOR

  • 3

    CUPRINS

    Cuvnt-nainte..........................................................................................................6

    Capitolul I

    Fonetica.................................................................................................... ................7

    Alfabetul limbii engleze.............................................................................................7

    Vocale.......................................................................................................................12

    Diftongi....................................................................................................................13

    Triftongi..................................................................................................................14

    Semivocale...............................................................................................................15

    Consoane.................................................................................................................15

    Exerciii....................................................................................................................16

    Capitolul II

    Substantivul............................................................................................................18

    Substantive proprii i substantive comune...............................................................18

    Substantive concrete i substantive abstracte...........................................................19

    Substantive simple i substantive compuse..............................................................20

    Genul substantivelor.................................................................................................20

    Numrul substantivelor. Formele de singular i de plural ale substantivelor numrabile................................................................................................................23

    Substantive folosite numai la singular......................................................................33

    Substantive folosite numai la plural.........................................................................34

    Exerciii....................................................................................................................35

    Capitolul III

    Articolul.................................................................................................................37

    Articolul hotrt...................................................................................................37

    Articolul nehotrt...............................................................................................39

  • 4

    Articolul zero..........................................................................................................40

    Exerciii....................................................................................................................41

    Capitolul IV

    Adjectivul................................................................................................................42

    Clasificarea adjectivelor...........................................................................................42

    Derivarea..................................................................................................................44

    Conversiunea...........................................................................................................46

    Clasificarea adjectivelor dup coninut. Adjective modificatoare..........................46

    Adjective determinative.........................................................................................47

    Adjective demonstrative........................................................................................47

    Adjectivul posesiv...................................................................................................47

    Adjective relative....................................................................................................49

    Adjective negative..................................................................................................49

    Gradele de comparaie ale adjectivelor................................................................50

    Gradul pozitiv...........................................................................................................51

    Gradul comparativ....................................................................................................51

    Gradul superlativ......................................................................................................52

    Gradele de comparaie ale adjectivelor scurte.........................................................52

    Adjective cu forme de comparaie neregulat.........................................................53

    Exerciii....................................................................................................................53

    Capitolul V

    Pronumele...............................................................................................................55

    Pronumele personal...............................................................................................55

    Pronumele posesiv..................................................................................................56

    Pronumele demonstrativ.......................................................................................57

  • 5

    Pronumele interogativ...........................................................................................59

    Pronumele relativ...................................................................................................60

    Pronumele nehotrt.............................................................................................62

    Pronumele reciproc...............................................................................................64

    Exerciii....................................................................................................................64

    Capitolul VI

    Numeralul...............................................................................................................66

    Numeralul cardinal................................................................................................66

    Numeralul ordinal..................................................................................................71

    Fracii......................................................................................................................74

    Numeralul distributiv.............................................................................................76

    Numeralul multiplicativ..........................................................................................76

    Numeralul adverbial...............................................................................................77

    Greuti i msuri....................................................................................................77

    Exprimarea timpului...............................................................................................80

    Exerciii.....................................................................................................................81

    Capitolul VII

    Adverbul..................................................................................................................82

    Forma adverbelor....................................................................................................82

    Tipuri de adverbe....................................................................................................82

    Comparaia adverbelor...........................................................................................84

    Exerciii......................................................................................................................85

    Rezolvarea exerciiilor.............................................................................................86

    Bibliografie..............................................................................................................92

  • 6

    Cuvnt-nainte

    Prezenta lucrare este destinat a fi un ajutor n studierea linbii engleze,

    a foneticii i morfologiei acesteia, de ctre elevi, studeni sau orice doritor,

    nceptor sau avansat.

    Lucrarea este redactat bilingv, romn-englz, tocmai pentru a uura

    munca celui care o folosete prin obinuirea cu cea de-a doua limb,

    materna nefiind altceva dect suportul nvrii celeilalte.

    n ceea ce privete capitolul Fonetica, am folosit metoda exemplului

    pentru dezobinuirea de a gndi i pronuna ca n limba romn, de a face

    asocieri de sunete, vocale, semivocale sau consoane, dup model britanic.

    Celelalte capitole, Substantivul, Articolul, Adjectivul, Pronumele,

    Numeralul i Adverbul dezbat aspecte teoretice fiind nsoite i de exerciii,

    fcndu-se totodat distincia ntre limba englez (UK) i dialectul vorbit n

    SUA.

    in s aduc mulumiri Doamnei Conf. univ. Dr. Babr Eugenia de la

    U.P.S. Ion Creang din Chiinu pentru ndrumrile competente ce m-au

    ajutat n elaborarea acestei lucrri.

    Drd. Maria-Rocselana Glcescu

  • 7

    CAPITOLUL I. Fonetica

    English Alphabet

    Alfabetul limbii engleze

    English alphabet is a set of characters used for writing English today.

    To a large extent these characters are the same as the Latin alphabet, the

    difference being added in the sixteenth century with the letters U and J

    which were not available in Latin. The use of Latin alphabet for writing

    English began in the seventh century while in the fifth century for the same

    purpose was used a variant of the old runic characters of Scandinavian and

    Baltic languages.

    Alfabetul limbii engleze este setul de caractere folosit pentru

    scrierea limbii engleze actuale. n mare msur aceste caractere sunt aceleai

    cu cele din alfabetul latin, diferena constnd n adugarea n secolul al XVI-

    lea a literelor U i J care nu existau n limba latin. Folosirea alfabetului

    latin pentru scrierea limbii engleze a nceput n secolul al VII-lea dup ce n

    secolul al V-lea pentru acelai scop fusese folosit o variant a caracterelor

    rune din vechile limbi scandinave i baltice.

    The table below summarizes the current 26 characters of the alphabet,

    along with their names in English and pronunciation in International

    Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).

    Tabelul de mai jos cuprinde cele 26 de caractere ale alfabetului actual,

    mpreun cu numele lor n englez i cu pronunia n alfabetul fonetic

    internaional (AFI).

    Letter Name AFI

    Liter Nume AFI

    A a /ei/ aunt ~mtu

    B bee /bi/ bee~albin

    C cee /si/ cider~cidru

  • 8

    D dee /di/ ding~sunetul clopotului

    E e /i/ eight~opt

    F ef, eff /f/ famous~celebru

    G gee /i/ gate~poart

    H aitch /ei/ heat~cldur

    I i /ai/ instinct~instinct

    J jay /ei/ jokes~glume

    K kay /kei/ key~cheie

    L el /l/ love~dragoste

    M em /m/ man~brbat

    N en /n/ niece~nepoat

    O o //, /o/ owl~bufni

    P pee /pi/ parent~printe

    Q cue /kju/ queen~regin

    R ar //, // rain~ploaie

    S ess, es /s/ single~singur/

    T tee /ti/ teeth~dini

    U u /ju/ university~universitate

    V vee /vi/ vegetable~legum

    W double-u /dbl ju/ window~fereastr

    X ex /ks/ xerox~xerox

    Y wy, wye /wai/ youth~tineree

  • 9

    Z zed, zee /zd/, /zi/ (a doua variant doar n engleza american)

    zero~zero

    English

    Iniial din alfabetul limbii engleze mai fceau parte i o serie de

    caractere care n prezent nu se mai folosesc, precum:

    (numit thorn) i (wynn) proveneau din scrierea runic;

    (eth) era o variant a literei latine d;

    (yogh) era derivat din g;

    ligaturile w i (ash) aprute prin unirea perechilor vv i respectiv

    ae.1(wikipedia)

    Initially from English alphabet were also a number of characters that

    currently are no longer used, such as:

    (called thorn) and (Wynn) came from runic writing;

    (eth) was a Latin version of the letter d;

    (yogh) was derived from g;

    w and (ash) ligatures, occurred by joining pairs ae vv respectively

    ae.1

    In examples, words start with the letter, which should not be

    confounded with that sound.

    Practice saying and then writing your own name on letters (the

    letters name!)

    n exemple, cuvintele ncep cu litera dat, ceea ce nu se confund cu

    sunetul respectiv.

    Exersai spunndu-v i apoi scriind propriul nume pe litere

    (numele literelor!)

    Eg.: Maria-Rocselana Glcescu

  • 10

    [em] [ei][ar][ai][ei] [ar][ou][si:][es][i:][el][ei][en][ei]

    [di:][ai][el][si:][i:][es][si:][ju:] (ntruct n alfabetul limbii engleze nu exist

    literele , , , , , ele vor fi nlocuite cu a, i, a, s,t - pentru pronunarea

    numelor literelor i nu citirea lor n anumite combinaii!).

    The letters for the 42 Sounds of English

    Literele corespunztoare celor 42 de sunete ale limbii engleze

    a ......... ant, sand, caravan

    ai ........ aim, aid, drain (a lung)

    b ......... bat, bend, crab

    c ......... cat, cot, duck

    d ......... dog, dip, sudden

    e ......... egg, end, shed

    ee......... eel, creep, need (e lung)

    f........ ..fog, lift, fluff

    g......... goat, gap, digger

    h ......... hop, hit, hill

    i.......... ink, indian, this, thing

    ie.........pie, tie, die (i lung)

    j ......... jelly, jet, jumper

    k ........ king, kind, kettle

    l .......... leg, lost, shell

    m......... man, mill, shrimp

    n ..........nut, nip, spin

    o .......... orange, on, octopus

    oa ........ oak, oats, boat (o lung)

  • 11

    p .......... pig, pet, step

    q.......... queen, quick, quiet

    r........... run, rabbit, ring

    s .......... sand, sun, twins

    t .......... top, tug, mat

    u ... ...... up, under, put

    ue......... due, Tuesday, cue (u lung)

    v ......... ..van, vet, give

    w........... wind, went, want

    x............x-ray, ox, flex

    y ............ yell, yes, yellow

    z .. ....... ..zoo, zebra , zero

    sh. ....... ..ship, shop, wish

    ch ........ ..chop, chick, much

    th ......... ..this, the, with

    th ........... thumb, thorn, thirteen (spus z cu limba ntre dini ca pentru d)

    ng.... .... .. song, bang, string

    oo....... .....look, room, foot (o scurt)

    oo........... .moon, spoon, shoot ( o lung)

    ar.............art, arm, start

    er ........... kerb, stern, sister

    or .......... .order, corn, storm

    oi ............oil, ointment, spoil

    ou ........ ...out, cloud, found

  • 12

    Vowels/Vocale

    Sunet Pronunie Exemple

    a: a lung (cnd este urmat

    de dou consoane

    diferite sau cnd face

    parte din grupul ar)

    calm [ka:m]~calm

    dart [da:rt]~sgeat

    a scurt sun [sn]~soare

    dove [dv]~porumbel

    ea ~un sunet ntre e i a,

    cu gura deschis pentru

    a rosti a,dar se rostete e.

    dad [dd]~ttic

    camera[ km r ]~aparat

    fofo

    battle [ btl]~btlie

    canvas [ knv s]~pnz

    : lung bird [b :rd]~pasre

    fir [f :r]~brad

    aproximativ ca din

    limba romn

    robber [ rb r]~ho

    human [ hium n]~omenesc

    again [ gen]~iari

    i: i lung bee [bi:]~albin

    tea [ti:]~ceai

    the [i:]~articol hotrt

    (naintea cuvintelor care

    ncep cu o vocal)

    i i scurt this [is]~acesta

    live [liv]~ a tri

    riddle [ rid l]~ghicitoare

    : o lung, nchis door [d:r]~u

    four [f:r]~patru

    horse [h:rs]~cal

    o scurt, deschis doll [dl]~ppu

    colony [ kl ni]~colonie

    watch [wt]~ceas

    u: u lung room [ru:m]~camer

    screw [skru:]~urub

    suit [su:t]~costum

    u u scurt book [buk]~carte

  • 13

    full [ful]~plin

    put [put]~a pune

    Diphthongs/Diftongi

    Are groups of two sounds, consisting of a semivowel and a vowel

    pronounced in the same syllable.

    Sunt grupuri de dou sunete, formate dintr-o semivocal i o vocal

    care se pronun n aceeai silab.

    Eg./ Exemple: [ai], [au], [ei], [e], [i], [oi], [ou], [o], [u].

    [ai] I ~ eu

    - white [wait] ~ alb

    - nice [nais] ~ drgu

    - buy [bai] ~ a cumpra

    [au] mouse [maus] ~ oarece

    - town [taun] ~ ora

    - now [nau] ~ acum

    - bound [baund] ~ a lega

    [ei] name [neim] ~ nume

    - eight [eit]~opt

    - pay [pei]~a plti

    - day [dei]~zi

    [] fairy[fri]~zn

    - aeroplane [ r plane]~aeroplan

    - pair [pr]~pereche

    [i] near [ni]~aproape

    - deer [dir]~cprioar

    - dear [dir]~drag/

    [i] toy [ti]~jucrie

    - noise [niz]~zgomot

  • 14

    - choice [tois]~alegere

    - boy [bi]~biat

    [ou] open [oupn]~deschis

    - low [lou]~jos, scund

    - post [poust]~pot

    - indo [ indou]~fereastr

    [u] sure [ur]~sigur

    - hour [aur]~or

    - poor [pur]~srac, biet

    - cruel [krul]~crud, cu cruzime

    Triphthongs/Triftongi

    Are groups of three sounds, consisting of a vowel and two semivowels

    pronounced in the same syllabe.

    Sunt grupuri de trei sunete, formate dintr-o vocal i dou semivocale

    care se pronun n aceeai silab.

    Eg./ Exemple: [ai], [au], [i], [ou], [ei].

    [ai] hire [ hair] ~ a angaja, a nchiria

    - tired [taid] ~ obosit

    - trial [trail] ~ proces

    [au] our [aur] ~ al nostru

    - do ery [ dauri] ~ zestre

    - ro el [ raul] ~ roti

    [i] employer [im plir] ~ patron, antreprenor

    - royal [ ril] ~ regal, mprtesc

    - destroyer [dis trir] ~ distrugtor

    [ou]- blo er [ blour] ~ suflant

    - lo er [ lour] ~ inferior, a scdea, ntunecare

    - slo er [ slour] ~ (mai) lent/

  • 15

    [ei] payer [ peir] ~ pltitor

    - surveyor [s veir] ~ supraveghetor, controlor

    - layer [ leir] ~ strat

    Semivowels/Semivocale

    [j] which is pronounced in two ways:

    [j] which is pronounced like i in Romanian ~ you [ju:]

    [d] which is pronounced like ge, gi in Romanian language - Julius [du:

    li s]

    [j] care se pronun n dou feluri:

    [j] care se pronun ca i din limba romn ~ you [ju:] ~ tu

    [d] care se pronun ca ge, gi din limba romn ulius [ du lis]

    [w] which is pronounced like u in Romanian language:

    window [windou] ~ fereastr

    one [ n] ~ unu

    [w] care se pronun ca u din limba romn:

    window [ indou] ~ fereastr

    one [wn] ~ unu

    Consonants/Consoane

    Sound consonants: b, d, v, g, z, , d, r, l, m, n,

    Consoane sonore: b, d, v, g, z, , d, r, l, m, n,

    b - book [buk] ~ carte

    d - dog [dg] ~ cine

    v - volume [ vlju:m] ~ volum

    g - good [gud] ~ bun, bine, mrfuri

    z - zebra [ zi:br ] ~ zebr

    - revision [r vi n] ~ recapitulare

    d - jam [dm] ~ gem

    r - ring [ri] ~ inel

    l - love [lv] ~ iubire

  • 16

    m - man [mn] ~ brbat

    n - name [neim] ~ nume

    - sing [si] ~ (a) cnta

    Voiceless consonant: p, t, f, k, s, , t, , h,

    Consoane surde: p, t, f, k, s, , t, , h,

    p - open [ oup n] ~ deschis

    t - time [taim] ~ timp

    f - flower [ flau r] ~ floare

    k - king [ki] ~ rege

    s - son [sn] ~ fiu

    - she [i:] ~ ea

    t - chalk [t:k] ~ bucat

    - thin [in] ~ subire

    h - house [ haus] ~ cas

    - father [ fa: r] ~ tat

    Exercises/Exerciii:

    I. Give examples of five words that will include appropriate vocal signs

    of following graphs:

    Dai exemple de cinci cuvinte n care s se regseasc vocalele

    corespunztoare urmtoarelor semne grafice:

    a: .........................................................................................................

    ............................................................................................................

    ...........................................................................................................

    : ..........................................................................................................

    ...........................................................................................................

    i: ..........................................................................................................

    i ............................................................................................................

    : ..........................................................................................................

    ...........................................................................................................

    u: ..........................................................................................................

    u ...........................................................................................................

    II. Give examples of five words for each one of the following diphthongs:

    [ai], [au], [ei], [e], [i], [oi], [ou], [o], [u].

  • 17

    Dai exemple de cte cinci cuvinte pentru fiecare dintre urmtorii diftongi:

    [ai], [au], [ei], [e], [i], [oi], [ou], [o], [u].

    III. Give examples of five words for each of the following triphthongs:

    [ai], [au], [i], [ou], [ei].

    Dai exemple de cte cinci cuvinte pentru fiecare dintre urmtorii

    triftongi: [ai], [au], [i], [ou], [ei].

    IV.Give examples of five words that will include the following

    consonants: b, d, v, g, z, , d, r, l, m, n, , p, t, f, k, s, , t, , h, .

    Dai exemple de cinci cuvinte n care s se regseasc urmtoarele

    consoane: b, d, v, g, z, , d, r, l, m, n, , p, t, f, k, s, , t, , h, .

    V. Phonetically transcribe the following words:

    Transcrie fonetic urmtoarele cuvinte:

    ask [ ]

    dark [ ]

    but [ ]

    manner [ ]

    pen [ ]

    bear [ ]

    tree [ ]

    bring [ ]

    fog [ ]

    walk [ ]

    look [ ]

    blue [ ]

    father [ ]

    learn [ ]

    give [ ]

    judge [ ]

    chimney [ ]

    shirt [ ]

    usual [ ]

    hang [ ]

    unity [ ]

    wet [ ]

    mister [ ]

  • 18

    CAPITOLUL II

    THE NOUN

    SUBSTANTIVUL

    The noun is the part of speech that names objects, beings, actions,

    qualities, states, relationships etc., which is declined.

    Substantivul este partea de vorbire care denumete obiecte, fiine,

    aciuni, nsuiri, stri, relaii etc., care se declin.

    PROPER NOUNS AND COMMON NOUNS

    SUBSTANTIVE PROPRII I SUBSTANTIVE COMUNE

    PROPER NOUNS/ Substantive proprii :

    names of individuals /nume de persoane: April (prenume); Jefferson

    (nume de familie)

    titles/titluri: Mr. Jones, Mrs.Jefferson, Colonel Roger, King Henry

    VIII

    geographical names/ nume geografice: Great Britain, Europe, Africa,

    America, Asia, the Carpathians, The Black Sea

    celestial bodies, planets, galaxies/ corpuri cereti, planete, galaxii: the

    Sun, the Moon, the Earth, Mars, the Milky Way

    names of nations and continents inhabitants /nume de naiuni i de

    locuitori ai continentelor: the Romanians, the English, the French, the

    Germans, the Italians, the Chinese, the Europeans

    historical events /evenimente istorice: the Civil War, the War of

    Independence

    names of institutions, the titles of books, newspapers name /nume de

    instituii, titlurile crilor, numele ziarelor: Titu Maiorescu

    University, Spiru Haret National College, One Hundred Years of

    Solitude, The Guardian

    days, months, holidays/ zile, luni, srbtori: Sunday, February,

    Christmas

  • 19

    COMMON NOUNS/Substantive comune:

    human beings/fiine omeneti: man, woman, boy, girl

    fauna species and flora/ faun i flor: dog, cat, lion, nightingale,

    swan, fish, deer, fox, rabbit, koala, peony, pansy

    goods/ lucruri: house, table, chair, picture, book, pencil, desk

    names of materials and substances/ nume de materii i substane: iron,

    coal, salt, pepper, bread, butter, sugar, soap

    actions/aciuni: action, going, learning, playing, reading, singing,

    teach

    characteristics/ nsuiri: ability, beauty, bravery, cowardice,

    foolishness

    feelings/sentimente: love, hatred, courage, fear, anxiety

    relationships/relaii: brotherhood, betrayal, care, friendship, heatred,

    fellowship

    CONCRETE NOUNS AND ABSTRACT NOUNS

    SUBSTANTIVE CONCRETE I SUBSTANTIVE ABSTRACTE

    Concrete nouns are/substantivele concrete sunt: brother, doctor, dog, cat,

    grass, tree, window, door, rain.

    Abstract nouns/substantive abstracte: work, rest, love, comfort, illness.

    SIMPLE NOUNS AND COMPOUND NOUNS

    SUBSTANTIVE SIMPLE I SUBSTANTIVE COMPUSE

    Simple nouns are/substantivele simple sunt: man, lad, maid, pupil, bear,

    goat, sparrow, apple, bush, milk, juice, pen, ink, bag.

    Compound nouns are formed from two or more words. It can range in a

    single word, hyphenated or separately.

  • 20

    Substantivele compuse sunt formate din dou sau mai multe cuvinte. Se

    pot scrie ntr-un singur cuvnt, legate prin cratim sau separat.

    Noun + noun /Substantiv + substantiv: postman, milkmaid,

    countrywoman

    Adjective + noun/ Adjectiv + substantiv: blackberry, Red Cross,

    sweetheart, gentleman

    Verb + noun/Verb + substantiv: breakfast, cut-throat, pickpocket,

    scarecrow

    Verb + adverb /Verb + adverb: drawback, fly-over, make up, take off

    Adverb + verb/ Adverb + verb: welcome, welfare

    Noun + preposition + noun/ Substantiv + prepozitie + substantiv:

    editor-in-chief

    Pronoun + verb + negation/ Verb + pronume + negaie: forget-me-

    not

    Gerund + noun/Gerund + substantiv: dining room, driving licence,

    parking area

    Noun + verb/ Substantiv + verb: chimney-sweep

    GENDER OF NOUNS

    GENUL SUBSTANTIVELOR

    In English noun has four genders: masculine, feminine, neutral and

    common.

    n limba engleza substantivul are patru genuri: masculin, feminin,

    neutru i comun.

    the masculine gender/genul masculin: man, boy, father, uncle,

    landlord, bull, stallion

    the feminine gender/ genul feminin: woman, girl, mother, aunt,

    landlady, cow, mare, hen

    neuter gender /genul neutru: book, house, desk, baby, cub, freedom,

    beauty

    common gender/ genul comun: parent, child, cousin, friend, doctor,

    engineer, worker, cook, teacher

  • 21

    Distinction between the masculine gender and feminine is made in

    many different ways.

    Distincia dintre genul masculin i feminin se face n mai multe feluri.

    a) The suffixes added to the masculine form:

    Prin sufixe adugate la forma de masculin:

    -ess: prince princess, sorcerer sorceress, author- authoress, ogre-ogress

    alte sufixe:

    - ix: director directrix/ directress, prosecutor-prosecutrix

    - ine: hero heroine, landgrave- landgravine

    -a: czar-czarina, don-donna

    -e/-enne: comediant-comedienne

    -ette/-use: usher-usherette, chaffeur-chauffeuse

    Two nouns form the masculine from their feminine /Dou substantive au

    masculinul format de la feminin:

    bridegroom bride; widower widow

    2. Different words:

    Prin cuvinte diferite:

    Nouns naming persons /Substantive care denumesc persoane:

    bachelor (burlac) spinster (celibatar/fat btrn)

    nephew (nepot) niece (nepoat)

    uncle (unchi) aunt (mtu)

    Nouns naming animals /Substantive care denumesc animale:

    cock/rooster (coco) hen (gin)

    drake / gander (gscan) goose (gsc)

    3. Compound nouns in which the first element indicates gender/Substantive

    compuse n care primul element indic genul:

  • 22

    Nouns naming persons /Substantive care denumesc persoane:

    brother-in-law (cumnat) / sister-in-law (cumnat)

    father-in-law (socru) mother-in-law (soacr)

    boy friend (prieten/iubit) girl friend (prieten/iubit)

    Nouns naming animals /Substantive care denumesc animale:

    male camel female camel (n limba romn se ntlnete o singur form,

    substantivul fiind epicen-cmil)

    he leopard she leopard

    dar i: he/ dog wolf (lup) she / bitch wolf (lupoaic)

    cock-pigeon (porumbel) hen pigeon (porumbi)

    4. Compound nouns provided in the second element indicates genus/

    Substantive compuse n care al doilea element indic genul:

    chairman (preedinte) chairwoman (preedint)

    milkman (lptar) milkmaid (lptreas)

    policeman (poliist) policewoman (poliist)

    Englishman (englez) Englishwoman (englezoaic)

    Examples of nouns that belong to common gender/Exemple de

    substantive care aparin genului comun: adult (adult), artist (artist), child

    (copil), doctor (doctor).

    Example of nouns that belong to neuter gender/ Exemplu de

    substantive care aparin genului neutru: bottle (sticl/flacon), desk

    (banc/pupitru/birou), knife (cuit), picture

    (imagine/fotografie/tablou/poz/film), window (fereastr), book (carte),

    baby (copil/prunc).

    NUMBER OF NOUNS

  • 23

    NUMRUL SUBSTANTIVULUI

    THE SINGULAR AND PLURAL OF COUNTABLE NOUNS

    FORMELE DE SINGULAR I DE PLURAL ALE SUBSTANTIVELOR

    NUMRABILE

    Many nouns have different singular and plural forms, they are called

    the countable nouns and form the plural by adding the ending -s or -es.

    Multe substantive au forme diferite la singular i plural, ele numindu-

    se substantive numrabile i formeaz pluralul prin adugarea terminaiei -

    s sau -es.

    Nouns ending in voiceless consonant, such as [k]; [f]; [p]; [t]; [],

    add to plural -s which is pronounced [s]: book books, cap caps ,

    carrot, carrots.

    Substantivele terminate n consoane surde, precum: [k]; [f]; [p];

    [t];[], la plural adaug -s care se pronun [s]:

    book books; ,

    cap caps;

    carrot- carrots.

    Nouns ending in consonants sound like: [b]; [d]; [g]; [l]; [m]; [n]; []; [r];

    [v] and [] and vowels, added to the plural -s which is pronounced [z]:

    pub pubs

    bed beds

    frog frogs

    girl- girls

    room rooms

    Substantivele terminate n consoane sonore, precum: [b]; [d]; [g]; [l];

    [m];[n];[]; [r]; [v] i [] i n vocale adaug la plural -s care se

    pronun [z]:

    pub pubs/crcium, bar - baruri

    bed beds/pat-paturi

    frog frogs/broasc broate

    girl- girls/fat fete

    room rooms/camer camere

  • 24

    Nouns ending in -ch, -sh, -ss and -x add on plural -es which is

    pronounced [iz]: branch branches

    lunch lunches

    watch watches

    bush bushes

    business businesses

    apex apices

    Substantivele terminate n -ch, -sh, -ss i -x adaug -es care se

    pronun [iz]:

    branch branches/ramur ramuri

    lunch lunches/prnz prnzuri

    watch watches/ceas ceasuri

    bush bushes/ tufi - tufiuri

    business busunesses/afacere afaceri

    apex apices/vrf vrfuri

    Nouns ending in -y form the plural in two ways.

    When -y is preceded by a vowel add -s to the singular form:

    donkey donkeys

    key keys

    boy boys

    toy toys

    Substantivele terminate n -y formeaz pluralul n dou feluri.

    - Cnd -y este precedat de o vocal se adaug - s la forma de singular:

    donkey donkeys/mgar mgari

    key keys/cheie chei

    boy boys/biat biei

    toy toys/jucrie jucrii

    - When -y is preceded by a consonant, y becomes i and add -es:

    country-countries

    enemy-enemies

    but: baby babies

    lady ladies

    fly flies

    - Cnd -y este precedat de o consoan, y se transform n i i se

    adaug -es:

    country-countries/ar - ri

    enemy-enemies/duman dumani

  • 25

    dar: baby babies/copil, bebe copii

    lady ladies/doamn doamne

    fly flies/musc mute

    - When -qu- form a consonant group as examples: colloquy, Soliloquy,

    the plural will be: colloquies, respectively soliloquies.

    - Cnd qu- formeaz un grup consonantic ca n exemplele: colloquy,

    soliloquy, pluralul va fi: colloquies, respectiv soliloquies.

    Some nouns ending in -f and -fe turning them into the plural form -

    ves:

    calf calves

    half halves

    leaf leaves

    loaf loaves

    thief thieves

    wolf wolves

    knife knives

    life lives

    wife wives

    Unele substantive terminate n f i fe formeaz pluralul

    transformndu-le n -ves:

    calf calves/ viel-viei;

    half halves/ jumtate-jumti;

    leaf leaves/ frunz-frunze;

    loaf loaves/ felie felii;

    thief thieves/ ho-hoi;

    wolf wolves/ lup-lupi;

    knife knives/ cuit-cuite;

    life lives/ via-viei;

    wife wives/ soie-soii

    There are nouns ending in -f or -fe which form the plural by adding

    the ending -s:

    chief chiefs

    cliff cliffs

    cuff cuffs

    Exist i substantive terminate n -f sau -fe care formeaz pluralul

    prin adugarea terminaiei s:

  • 26

    chef chefs/ buctar-ef - buctari-efi

    cliff cliffs/ stnc-stnci

    cuff cuffs/ manet-manete

    Nouns ending in -o form the plural in two ways:

    Nouns adding to plural -s (pronounced [z]):

    When final o is preceded by a vowel:

    cameo cameos

    kangaroo kangaroos

    Nouns of foreign origin:

    alto altos

    banjo banjos

    canto cantos

    Substantivele terminate n -o formeaz pluralul n dou feluri:

    Substantivele care primesc la plural -s (pronunat [z]):

    Cnd o final este precedat de o vocal:

    cameo cameos/ camee;

    kangaroo kangaroos/ cangur-canguri

    Substantive de origine strin:

    alto altos/voce, instrument voci, instrumente

    banjo banjos/banjo banjouri (instrument muzical)

    canto cantos/cnt cnturi

    Nouns which add-es (pronounced [z]) to form plural are those

    whose o final is preceded by a consonant:

    cargo cargoes

    hero heroes

    negro negroes

    Substantivele care primesc la plural -es (pronunat [z]) sunt cele

    al cror -o final este precedat de o consoan:

    cargo cargoes/ marf-mrfuri; ncrctur-ncrcturi

    hero heroes/ erou-eroi

  • 27

    negro negroes/ negru-negri

    There are nouns of foreign origin that form the plural in both ways:

    calico calicos (USA)/calicoes (UK)

    flamingo flamingos/flamingoes

    getto gettos/gettoes

    Exist substantive de origine strin care formeaz pluralul n ambele

    feluri:

    calico calicos/calicoes/pnz pnze

    flamingo flamingos/flamingoes/flamingo flamingi (dar i flamingo)

    getto gettos/gettoes/ghetou ghetouri

    Nouns ending in -th add -s in the plural, which is pronounced

    [s] or [dz], or in both ways:

    [s]: birth births / birth-birth

    breath breaths

    death deaths

    [dz]: bath baths

    mouth mouths

    path paths

    Substantivele care se termin n -th adaug -s la plural, care se

    pronun [s] sau [z], sau n ambele feluri:

    [s]: birth births /natere-nateri;

    breath breaths/ respiraie-respiraii;

    death deaths/moarte-decese;

    [z]: bath baths/ baie-bi;

    mouth mouths/ gur-guri;

    path paths/cale-ci

    Irregular simple nouns form the plural by changing the vowel or keep

    the same form (some nouns have the same form for both singular and plural

    meanings. Other words change form completely):

    Nouns:

    man men

  • 28

    woman women

    foot feet

    goose geese

    tooth teeth

    louse lice

    mouse mice

    Substantive neregulate simple care formeaz pluralul prin schimbarea

    vocalei sau pstreaz aceeai form:

    Substantivele:

    man men/ brbat brbai;

    woman women/ femeie-femei;

    foot feet/ picior-picioare;

    goose geese/gsc-gte;

    tooth teeth/ dinte-dini;

    louse lice/ pduche-pduchi;

    mouse mice/ oarece-oareci

    Nouns: child children and ox oxen form the plural the by adding

    -en.

    Substantivele: child children/ copil-copii i ox oxen/ bou-boi

    formeaz pluralul adugnd en.

    There are names that belong to the animal kingdom which have the

    same form in singular and plural:

    - animals names: bison, deer, grouse, moose, reindeer, sheep, fish

    - nouns as herring and sardines, crab and lobster, or dolphin, shark and

    whale can be used in the plural.

    Exist nume care aparin regnului animal care au aceeai form la

    singular i la plural:

    - nume de animale: bison (bizon/i), deer (cerb/i-cprioar//e), grouse

    (coco/i de munte), moose (elan/i), reindeer (ren/i), sheep (oaie/oi), fish

    (pete/peti)

    - substantive ca herring i sardine, crab i lobster, sau dolphin, shark i

    whale pot fi folosite la plural.

    The plural of nouns derived from Latin and Greek

    Pluralul substantivelor provenite din latin i greac

  • 29

    Most of nouns derived from Latin and Greek retain their original form.

    Majoritatea substantivelor care provin din latin i greac i pstreaz

    forma originar.

    a) Nouns derived from Latin/ Substantivele provenite din latin

    Nouns ending in -a on singular, add -ae on plural, which is pronounced

    [i:]:

    algae - algae;

    make - form from (and formulas);

    larvae - larvae;

    vertebra - vertebrae

    Substantivele care se termin n -a la singular primesc -ae la

    plural, care se pronun [i:]:

    alga algae;

    formula formulae (dar i formulas);

    larva larvae;

    vertebra vertebrae

    Nouns ending in -us in the singular, change -us in -ion plural:

    cactus - cacti;

    focus -foci;

    fungus - fungi;

    genius genii (and geniuses);

    hippopotamus- hippopotami;

    Substantivele terminate n -us la singular, schimb -us n -i la

    plural:

    cactus cacti;

    focus foci;

    fungus fungi;

    genius genii (dar i geniuses);

    hippopotamus- hippopotami;

    Nouns ending in -us add -es on plural:

    bonus - bonuses;

  • 30

    callus - calluses;

    chorus - choruses

    Substantive terminate n -us adaug -es la plural:

    bonus bonuses;

    callus calluses;

    chorus choruses

    Nouns ending in -um in the singular add -s to plural:

    geranium - geraniums

    gymnasium - gymnasiums

    Substantivele terminate n -um la singular adaug -s la plural:

    geranium geraniums (mucat-mucate);

    gymnasium gymnasiums (gimnaziu gimnazii)

    Nouns ending in -x in the singular transforms -x in -ces to plural:

    appendix - appendices

    helix - helices

    index - indices

    Substantivele terminate n -x la singular transform -x n -ces la

    plural:

    appendix appendices (anex/apendice- anexe);

    helix helices (spiral, elice-spirale, elice);

    index indices (index-indexuri)

    b)Nouns derived from the Greek /Substantive provenite din limba

    greac

    Nouns ending in -is the single transform -is in -es to plural:

    analysis - analyses;

    axis - axes;

    basis - bases

    Substantivele terminate n is la singular transform -is n -es

    la plural:

    analysis analyses (analiz-analize);

    axis axes (ax-axe);

    basis bases (baz-baze)

  • 31

    Nouns ending in -on to the singular change -on in -a to plural:

    automaton - automatic;

    criterion - criteria;

    phenomenon - phenomena

    Substantivele terminate n -on la singular schimb -on n -a la

    plural:

    automaton automata (automat/robot-automate/roboi);

    criterion criteria (criteriu-criterii);

    phenomenon phenomena (fenomen-fenomene)

    The plural of compound nouns /Pluralul substantivelor compuse

    Examples of compound nouns written in one word, separated by a hyphen

    or written separately, forming the plural by adding - (e)s in the second / the

    last element.

    Exemple de substantive compuse scrise ntr-un singur cuvnt, desprite

    prin cratim sau scrise separat, care formeaz pluralul adugnd -(e)s la al

    doilea / ultimul element:

    Noun + noun/Substantiv + substantiv:

    armchair armchairs;

    boy band boy bands;

    coffee grinder coffee grinders;

    fellow worker fellow workers;

    footnote-footnotes;

    Noun + suffix-ful/Substantiv + sufixul ful:

    armful armfuls;

    handful handfuls

    Adjective + noun/Adjectiv + substantiv:

    blackbird blackbirds;

    blind spot blind spots;

  • 32

    white knight white knights;

    Gerund + noun/Gerund + substantiv:

    advertising agency advertising agencies;

    listening device listening devices;

    parking ticket parking tickets

    Verb + noun/Verb + substantiv:

    cutthroat cutthroats/asasin asasini

    pickpocket pickpockets/ho de buzunare, punga - hoi de buzunare,

    pungai

    Verb + adverb/Verb + adverb:

    grown-up grown-ups;

    layout layouts;

    make-up make-ups

    Compound Nouns consist of three words/Substantive compuse formate

    din trei cuvinte:

    forget-me-not - forget-me-nots;

    four-by-four - four-by-fours;

    four-in-hand - four-in-hands;

    Examples of cmpound nouns, separated by a hyphen or written

    separately, adds the plural sign to the first item.

    Exemple de substantive compuse, desprite prin cratim sau scrise

    separat, care adaug semnul pluralului la primul element:

    dropper-in droppers-in;

    hanger-on hangers-on;

    passer-by passers-by

  • 33

    NOUNS USED IN THE SINGULAR ONLY

    SUBSTANTIVE FOLOSITE NUMAI LA SINGULAR

    Name of materials and substances /Nume de materii i substane

    bread pine; butter unt; cheese brnz; coffee cafea; chocolate

    ciocolat; soap spun; juice suc; tea ceai; milk lapte

    Ele se numr astfel: a loaf of bread two loaves of bread/o felie de pine-

    dou felii de pine

    a packet of butter two packets of butter/ un pachet de unt dou pachete

    de unt

    Abstract nouns /Substantive abstracte: beauty frumusee; equality

    egalitate; longevity longevitate; poverty srcie; acceptance

    aprobare; pride mndrie; wealth bogie; optimism optimism;

    pessimism pesimism; romanticism romantism; brotherhood frie

    Games/ Jocuri:

    basketball baschet;

    bridge bridge;

    cricket crichet;

    football fotbal;

    golf golf;

    handball handbal;

    soccer fotbal (USA)

    Disorders and diseases/Afeciuni i boli:

    appendicitis apendicit;

    cancer cancer; gout gut;

    scarlet fever febr scarlatin;

    tuberculosis tuberculoz

  • 34

    Unique nouns /Substantivele unice, precedate de articolul hotrt: the

    Sun Soarele; the Earth Pmntul

    Nouns/Substantivele: advice- sfat; furniture mobil; information

    informaie; knowledge cunotine/noiuni; luggage bagaj; news - tiri;

    business afacere; income venit; homework tem; intelligence

    informaie/spion; nonsense nonsens; produce produs/marf; progress

    evoluie; remorse remucare; strength putere (n limba romn, aceste

    substantive au forme diferite pentru singular i plural, n timp ce n limba

    englez au numai form de singular).

    NOUNS USED IN THE PLURAL ONLY

    (PLURALIA TANTUM)

    SUBSTANTIVE FOLOSITE NUMAI LA PLURAL

    Articles of clothing in two parts/Obiecte de mbrcminte formate

    din dou pri: braces bretele; jeans pantaloni de bugi, salopet;

    pyjamas pijamale; pants pantaloni (USA); rubbers cauciucuri; shorts

    pantaloni scuri; tails fracuri; tights colani; trousers pantaloni;

    Instruments composed of two parts/ Instrumente formate din dou

    pri: compasses compas; fetters ctue; scales balan; scissors

    foarfec; glasses/spectacles ochelari; tongs clete

    Parts of the body /Pri ale corpului: brain creier; intestines

    intestine; loins spate, ale; thews muchi; whiskers favorii/musti de

    pisic

    Names of sciences/Nume de tiine: aesthetics estetic; cybernetics

    cibernetic; dynamics dinamic; economics economie; phonetics

    fonetic; physics fizic; politics - tiine politice

    Names of game/Nume de jocuri: billiards biliard; cards joc de

    cri; bowls bauling; dominoes domino; draughts joc de dame; marbles

    bile

    Geographic names /Denumiri geografice: the Alps Alpi; the

    Carpathians Carpai; the Highlands

  • 35

    Names of nationalities taken as a whole /Nume de naionaliti, luate

    ca ntreg: the Dutch danezi; the English englezi; the French francezi

    Surnames taken as a whole/Nume de familie, luate ca ntreg: the Craig cei

    din familia Craig; the Poters cei din familia Poters; the Smiths cei din

    familia Smiths.

    Exercises/Exerciii

    I. Make up sentences according to the model, choosing the appropriate

    noun in column two:

    Scriei propoziii dup exemplul dat, alegnd substantivul propriu

    potrivit din coloana a doua:

    The language spoken by the people of Greece is Greek.

    Italy Romanian

    Germany Arabic

    China French

    France Dutch

    Arabia Spanish

    England German

    Holland Chinese

    Spain English

    Sweden Italian

    Romania Japanese

    Portugal Swedish

    Denmark Russian

    Turkey Portuguese

    Russia Danish

    Japan Turkish

    II. Write the plural of the following nouns:

    Scriei pluralul urmtoarelor substantive:

    room hen pet

    dog letter eye

    day enemy guy

    echo hero fife

  • 36

    gulf proof knife

    shelf wife elf

    loaf wolf cloth

    birth mouth oath

    truth child goose

    louce ox man

    CAPITOLUL III

    THE ARTICLE

    ARTICOLUL

    Is an inflexible part of speech (unlike Romanian) that accompanies a

    noun, indicating that the object named by the speaker is known.

  • 37

    Este o parte de vorbire neflexibil (spre deosebire de limba romn)

    care nsoete un substantiv, artnd msura n care obiectul denumit este

    cunoscut de vorbitor.

    English grammars are three types of articles: the definite article,

    indefinite article and zero article.

    Gramaticile limbii engleze prezint trei tipuri de articole: articolul

    hotrt, articolul nehotrt i articolul zero.

    The Definit Article/Articolul hotrt

    Preced substantive numrabile i nenumrabile. Are o singur form

    pentru toate genurile, pentru singular i plural: the.

    Eg./Ex.: the laptop the laptops (laptopul-laptopurile);

    the girl the girls (fata-fetele).

    n limba romn se traduce prin -l, -i, -a i poart numele de articlol

    hotrt enclitic, aflat, spre deosebire de limba englez, la sfritul cuvntului

    (ex. : copilul, elevii, fata).

    Form

    Form

    Pronunciation

    Pronunie

    Examples

    Exemple

    The []-(d)z, cu limba

    ntre dini

    the dress- rochia

    the student- studentul

    the storm- furtuna

    the sun- soarele

    The [i]- zi (z cu limba ntre

    dini)

    the egg oul

    the armchair-fotoliul

    the hour-ora

    Articolul hottt este folosit astfel:

    1. naintea unui substantiv menionat anterior:

    In that room was silence. Everyone in the room listened.

    2. naintea substantivelor unice:

    The earth is round.

    3. naintea unui substantiv care denumete specia:

    The monkey believes that it looks like human being.

  • 38

    4. naintea unor substantive proprii care denumesc: ri, insule, peninsule,

    capuri, ape, muni, puncte cardinale, evenimente istorice, instituii,

    publicaii, organizaii:

    The United States of America

    The Canary Islands

    The Cape of Good Hope

    The Pacific Ocean

    The Danube

    The Arabian Sea

    The Angel Falls

    The Persian Gulf

    The Carpathians

    The Stone Ages

    The Renaissance

    The First World War

    The British Museum

    The Tate Gallery

    The Financial Times

    The Titanic

    The British Council

    5. naintea adjectivelor la gradul superlativ sau a numeralelor ordinale:

    Which is the deepest sea in the world?

    The first book I read it was the Holy Bible.

    6. naintea adjectivelor pe care le substantivizeaz:

    the rich bogaii

    the beautiful frumosul

    the deaf - surzii

    7. Cnd are sens de pronume demonstrativ:

    Alexander the Great - Alexandru cel Mare

    8. n faa substantivelor precedate de prepoziii sau cele regsite n expresii:

    by the way apropo

    in the end la sfrit

  • 39

    to break the ice a sparge gheaa

    against the law - mpotriva legii

    on the one hand pe de o parte

    to tell the truth a spune adevrul

    in the afternoon dup-amiaza

    The Indefinite Article/ Articolul nehotrt

    Are n limba englez dou forme: a i an. Ca i articolul hotrt, nu

    face distincie de gen i st n faa cuvntului determinat.

    Form

    Form

    Pronunciation

    Pronunie

    Examples

    Exemple

    a - se utilizeaz

    naintea

    cuvintelor care

    ncep cu o

    consoan sau o

    semivocal

    [] form neaccentuat

    [ei] form accentuat

    a picture - un tablou

    a boy un biat

    a window o

    fereastr

    a university o

    universitate

    an - se utilizeaz

    naintea

    cuvintelor care

    ncep cu o vocal

    [n] form neaccentuat

    [n] - form accentuat

    an eye un ochi

    an hour o or

    an elephant un

    elefant

    an agreement- o

    nelegere/un acord

    Articolul nehotrt poate fi utilizat n expresii:

    to make a fortune - a face (o) avere

    to put an end to a pune capt la

    to have a good time a se simi bine/a petrece bine

    a lot of o mulime de

    as a rule ca regul

  • 40

    to be in a hurry - a fi grbit

    to take a rest a se odihni

    to keep a secret - a ine un secret

    to have a drink a bea o butur

    a couple doi

    a dozen o duzin/doisprezece

    a score douzeci

    all of a sudden brusc

    on an average n medie

    Zero Article/ Articolul zero

    Indic absena articolelor hotrt sau nehotrt. Se folosete:

    - naintea numelor de persoane i a titlurilor academice: Anna, Janne

    Year, Dr. Raed Arafat, Professor Juliet Hopkins.

    - naintea denumirilor anotimpurilor: Winter is cold.

    - naintea substantivelor ce denumesc ntreaga clas: Students, dogs,

    words etc.

    - naintea substantivelor nenumrabile, luate ca tot: sugar, flour etc.

    - naintea substantivelor abstarcte: knowledge, wisdom, freedom, justice,

    poverty, life.

    n expresii:

    face to face fa n fa

    in trouble n necaz

    for fun pentru distracie

    at noon la amiaz

    at dawn n zori

    hand in hand mn n mn

  • 41

    for love din dragoste

    on credit pe credit

    Exercises/Exerciii:

    I. Fill in the spaces with the definite and indefinite articles a or an in the

    blanks whenever necessary:

    Completeaz spaiile folosind articolele hotrt i nehotrt unde este cazul:

    Here is...(1)very subtle difference between ...(2) judge and ...(3) jury: ...(4)

    judge deals with questions of law, while... (5) jury deals with questions of

    fact. ...(6) difference between...(7) questions of law and the questions of fact

    is also...(8) very subtle one. ...(9) example of ...(10) question of fact is...(11)

    issue whether...(12) defendent was at...(13) particular place at...(14)

    particular time. This issue is called by lawyers...(15) question of primary

    fact. On...(16) other hand, in...(17) criminal trial, where...(18) intention is

    relevant, ...(19) question of fact will require...(20) evaluation of all...(21)

    surrounding circumstances in coming to...(22) conclusion about...(23)

    deferdants state of mind. For example, in...(24) shop lifting (...25 offence

    of theft), if...(26) defendant was in...(27) state of confusion resulted

    from...(28) side effects of medication and he had no intention to steal

    goods,...(29) jury would be called upon to elucidate these facts. This is no

    longer conclusive in...(30) complex cases of fraud or deception, where these

    issues are more important than ...(31) primary facts. Moreover,...(32) judge

    will have to deal with ...(33) question of law when defining...(34) constituent

    elements of the offence of theft. (The role of Judge and Jury, Curs de

    limba englez pentru studenii facultilor cu profil juridic, Molnar Oprea,

    N., Mateescu, M., C., Suciu, C.)

    II. Fill in the blanks the appropriate article whenever necessary:

    1. I take seriously... freedom and... justice even more.

    2. At the zoo we saw ...hippo and ....monkey. ...monkey mock and...

    hippo wallow.

    3. Moira read ....report and was conscious that she is.... in trouble.

    4. Lovers walked ....hand in hand.

    5. ...students can not find ....words to examinations.

    6. ...teacher corrects carefully ...tests.

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    7. ... shoemaker and ...baker happily headed to London.

    8. I saw on ...night sky ...Ursa Major.

    9. ...Spring is ... season of falling in love.

    10. ... window opens up when... door slams down.

    CAPITOLUL IV

    THE ADJECTIVE

    ADJECTIVUL

    Adjectivul este partea de vorbire care descrie sau determin un

    substantiv: big-mare; red-rou; generous-generos (sau echivalentul acestuia).

    n limba englez, cea mai mare parte a adjectivelor preced substantivele pe

    care le descriu sau le determin: beautiful girl, unfriendly man, dar exist i

    situaii n care adjectivele urmeaz substantivele (sau pronumele): court

    martial, knight errant, sau cnd sunt folosite cu valoare stilistic.

    ntrebrile la care rspund adjectivele, sunt: what is like? (cum este?),

    which? (care?), of what sort? (de care fel?) etc.

    Sintactic, adjectivele pot fi atribute sau nume predicative.

    Clasificarea adjectivelor

    Adjectivele pot fi clasificate dup: form, coninut i regim gramatical.

    Clasificarea adjectivelor dup form

    Simple Adjectives/Adjective simple Compound Adjectives/Adjective

    compuse

    Sunt acele adjective care nu mai pot

    fi descompuse n alte elemente

    independente

    Sunt acele adjective formate din

    dou sau mai multe cuvinte (diferite

    pri de vorbire) cu un neles unitar

    Ex.: good-bun/frumos

    clever-detept

    wise-nelept

    wonderful-minunat

    stupid-prost

    Ex.: bright red-rou deschis

    braveheart-viteaz/curajos

    waterproof-

    impermeabil/hidrofug

    breakneck-ameitor/periculos

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    life-size~n mrime natural

    Formarea adjectivelor compuse

    Compunerea este un mijloc de mbogire a vocabularului, realizndu-

    se astfel nenumrate combinaii.

    Adjectivele compuse sunt adjective relative prin definiie. Exemple de

    adjective provenite din diverse pri de vorbire:

    Substantiv+adjectiv: snow-white~alb ca zpada

    manlike~brbtesc

    Substantiv+participiu prezent: heart-breaking~dureros, sfietor

    long-lasting~de durat

    Substantiv+participiu trecut: ball-shaped~sferic

    home-made~de artizanat/fcut n cas

    Adjectiv+adjectiv: dark-red~rou nchis

    light-green~verde deschis

    Adjectiv+substantiv: short-term~pe termen scurt

    long-distance~ndeprtat

    Adjectiv +participiu prezent: ever-living~nemuritor

    fast-moving~rapid, grbit

    Adjectiv +participiu trecut: dark-coloured~nchis la culoare/de culoare

    nchis

    short-spoken~concis

    Adverb+djectiv: all-powerful~atotputernic

    outrageous~revolttor, ofensator

    Adverb+substantiv: downhill~n pant

    above-class~desupra claselor,clas superioar

    Adverb+ participiu prezent: upstanding~n picioare,drept, vertical

    well-deserving ~binemeritat

    Adverb+ participiu trecut: well-done ~bine fcut, foate bine!

    above mentioned~mai sus amintit/menionat

    Adjectiv + substantiv+ed: long-armed~cu mini lungi

    green-shirted~cu cma verde

    Numeral+ substantiv+ed: one-storied~cu un singur etaj

    two-handled~cu dou mnere

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    three-cornered~triunghiular

    four-leafed~cu patru foi

    Derivarea

    Este un procedeu de mbogire a vocabularului realizat prin adugarea

    de prefixe sau sufixe. n unele cazuri se va schimba ultima silab dinaintea

    sufixului.

    Adjective derivate prin prefixare:

    a-: alike~aidoma; alive~viu

    ab-: abnormal~anormal

    ante-: antecedent~precedent

    anti-: antipathetic~antipatic

    bi-: biannual~bianual

    circum-: circumspect~ circumspect

    contra-: contradictory~contradictoriu

    counter-: counterfeit~contrafcut

    de-: deceivable~neltor

    dis-: disagreable~dezagreabil

    e-: egregious~remarcabil

    ex-: exhausting~extenuant

    extra-: extraordinary~nemaipomenit

    in-: inactive~inactiv

    im-: impartible~indivizibil

    ir-: irresponsible~iresponsabil

    il-: illegitimate~nelegitin

    inter-: international~internaional

    mis-: misunderstood~greit neles

    non-: non-returnable ~nereturnabil

    ob-: obnoxious~antipatic

    op-: oppresive~apstor

    out-: outdoor~exterior

    over-: oversensitive~ supersensibil

    per-: perceivable~perceptibil

    pel-: pellucid~transparent

    pre-: preceding~precedent, premergtor

    pro-: prospective~posibil

    poly-: polymorphous~polimorf

    re-: recurrent~recurent, periodic

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    retro-: retrospective~retroactiv, retrospectiv

    sub-: subcarpathic~subcarpatic

    suc-: succinct~succint

    super-: superhuman~supraomenesc, suprauman

    sur-: surrounding~nconjurtor

    trans-: transgenic~ transgenic/e

    ultra-: ultraviolet~ ultraviolet

    under-: underestimated~subestimat

    un-: unnecessary~inutil, superfluu

    up-: upstanding~drept, cu inut

    Adjective derivate din substantive sau adjective prin sufixare:

    -able: confortable~confortabil

    -ible: responsible~responsabil

    -al: immortal~nemuritor

    -an: Romanian~romn

    -ian: Presbyterian~prezbiterian

    -ant: defiant~sfidtor

    -ar: triangular~triunghiular

    -arian: sextagenarian~sextagenar

    -ate: appropriate~potrivit,adecvat, apropriat

    -ed: sugared~ndulcit

    -en: golden~de aur, aurit

    -ent: innocent~ inocent

    -er: upper~superior, de sus

    -ful: beautiful~frumos, atrgtor

    -ial: judicial~judiciar, judectoresc, principial

    -ic: heroic~eroic

    -ical: economical~econom, chibzuit, necheltuitor

    -ing: astonishing~uimitor, uluitor

    -ish: foolish~prostesc

    -ive: effective~eficace, efectiv, folositor

    -less: toothless~tirb

    -like: brotherlike~fresc

    -ly: weekly~sptmnal

    -ous: glorious~ glorios

    -some: handsome~chipe

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    -ward: backward~napoi

    -y: visionary~vizionar, imaginar

    Conversiunea

    Unele adverbe, substantive, precum i participiile trecute i prezente,

    descriind un adjectiv pot fi folosite ca adjective.

    Adverbe: the above table

    the right scale

    n cazul substantivelor compuse dintr-un participiu prezent i un

    substantiv, participiul are neles adjectival:

    a dining room

    washing machine

    writing paper

    Participii trecute cu valoare adjectival:

    a limited number

    a broken arrow

    Numele materiilor folosite cu valoare adjectival:

    a wool coat

    an ice look

    Substantivele care preced alte substantive capt valoare adjectival

    i formeaz un adjectiv compus:

    business dinner

    a memory stick

    Clasificarea adjectivelor dup coninut

    Modifying Adjectives/Adjective modificatoare

    Qualitative / Qualifying Adjectives- Adjective calitative, calificative

    -arat nsuirile, calitile substantivelor determinate:

    a wise man

    a thankful gesture

    full moon

    - sunt antepuse substantivelor (cu unele excepii):

    a warm wind

    Tibetan wisdom

    -au grade de comparaie

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    Determinative Adjectives/ Adjectivele determinative

    Nu schimb nelesul substantivelor determinate dar spre deosebire de

    cele din limba romn, nu au categoria gramatical a genului (cu unele

    excepii), a numrului (cu unele excepii) sau a cazului (cu excepia

    adjectivului interogativ whose?).

    The Demonstrative Adjective/Adjectivul demonstrativ

    Adjectivele demonstrative sunt antepuse substantivelor determinate.

    Ele sunt:

    this, that, these, those singurele care se acord dup numr cu substantivele

    determinate;

    the former-the latter

    the other

    the same

    such

    the very

    Exemple:

    This girl is my best friend.

    That dress is horrible.

    Those files are unavailable.

    We will not have such student.

    The Possessive Adjective/Adjectivul posesiv

    Adjectivele posesive arat posesia unuia sau mai multor lucruri, stri etc.,

    sunt antepuse substantivului pe care l determin; au aceeai form,

    indiferent de genul i numrul substantivului determinat; au funcia

    sintactic de atribut.

    Persoana Genul Numrul

    Sg. Pl.

    I my-

    al meu/a mea

    our-

    al nostru/a noastr

    II your

    al tu/ a ta al vostru/

    a voastr

    III M his - a lui

    their - a lor F her - ei

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    N its - lui, ei

    Exemple:

    My mother is the most beautiful in the world.

    Our students believe they will succeed in the exams.

    Your book is on the table, theirs is browsable by wind.

    His book was open to the page that we had been indicated.

    Her glasses were all the rage that summer.

    I watched a dog. Its eyes were gentle.

    Interrogatives Adjectives/Adjectivele interogative

    n limba englez, adjectivele interogative sunt:

    what...?; with what...?; by what...? - care? ce? / cu care...? cu ce...?

    cu/prin/de care?

    which...?; for which...? - care (anume)?; pentru care...?

    (for/in) whose...? - (pentru/n) al, a, ai, ale cui?

    how much...? ct()...? ci...?

    how many...? - ci...? cte...?

    Exemple:

    What day will tomorrow be?

    Which student has learned for today?

    Whose house is opposite to the theater?

    How much money do you need?

    How many men are in the room?

    Relatives Adjectives/ Adjectivele relative

    n limba englez, adjectivele relative sunt: what, whatever, which,

    whichever, whose. Ele determin substantivele i sunt antepuse acestora.

    Exemple:

    I do not know what life is this.

  • 49

    Whatever shoes I diddle, legs still gonna hurt me.

    He told me which project is eligible.

    Whatever task you give me, I fulfill it.

    Ana, whose plans I have shared you, is the hard worker of the company.

    Indefinite Adjectives/ Adjectivele nehotrte

    n limba englez, adjectivele nehotrte sunt: some, any, each, every,

    all, both, either, little, a little, few, a few, one, much, many, several,

    other, another, the other, whole, certain.

    Ele sunt antepuse substantivele determinate, au aceleai forme, indiferent

    de de genul i numrul substantivelor i ndeplinesc funcia sintactic de

    atribut.

    Exemple:

    I have some homework to do.

    Any student dreams that he has escaped of exams.

    I have no problem.

    Each girl dreams of Prince Charming.

    Every university is proud of its graduates.

    All the dogs are looking for a master.

    Both parents take care of his education.

    Either song can be sang tonight.

    Negative Adjectives/Adjectivele negative

    Adjectivele negative au rolul negaei not i a determinantului a(n)

    .a.m.d.

    Exemple: no, neither.

    no entry not an entry/nicio intrare

    neither bags-nici una dintre (cele dou) geni.

    The comparison of adjectives

    Gradele de comparaie ale adjectivelor

    Ca i n limba romn, n limba englez adjectivul are trei grade de

    comparaie:

    Gradul pozitiv-the Positive Degree

  • 50

    Gradul comparativ-the Comparative Degree

    - comparativ de superioritate-the Comparative of

    Superiority

    - comparativ de egaliate-the Comparative of Equality

    - comparativ de inferioritate -the Comparative of Inferiority

    Gradul superlativ- the Superlative Degree

    -superlativ absolut- the Absolute Superlative

    -superlativ relativ- the Relative Superlative

    The Positive Degree-Gradul pozitiv

    Arat forma de baz a adjectivului: nice dog, ce nu presupune

    vreo comparaie a nsuirii.

    Nice and quiet girl sat down near me silently.

    The Comparative Degree- Gradul comparativ

    Calitatea unui adjectiv superioar, egal sau inferioar fa de un alt

    adjectiv indic prezena gradului comparativ.

    Comparativul de superioritate se poate forma: sintetic, prin adugarea

    sufixului -er adjectivului la gradul pozitiv; sau analitic, folosind adverbul

    more n faa adjectivului la gradul pozitiv.

    Exemple:

    You are stronger than me.

    The girl in front of me is more beautiful than next to her.

    Comparativ de egaliate se formeaz analitic: as+adjectiv la gradul

    pozitiv+as.

    My old book is as useful as the new one.

    n limba englez se ntlnesc expresii i locuiuni care au n componen

    comparativul de egalitate, dar au neles de superlativ (similies) i valoare de

    figuri de stil.

    as black as coal~negru ca tciunele

    as clear as cristal~limpede ca cristalul

    as sharp as a thorn~ascuit/neptor ca un ghimpe

  • 51

    as sweet as honey~dulce ca mierea

    as quik as thought~iute ca gndul

    as wise as an owel~nelept ca o bufni

    as loyal as an apostle~loial/fidel ca un apostol

    as hungry as a wolf~flmnd ca un lup

    as dry as dust~uscat ca nisipul

    as cold as ice~rece ca gheaa

    as brave as a lion~curajos ca un leu

    as calm as the silent sea~calm ca marea tcut

    as soft as silk~moale/fin ca mtasea

    Comparativ de inferioritate se formeaz analitic, astfel:

    less+adjectiv la gradul pozitiv +than

    It is less likely to rain now.

    The cake is less sweet than the ice cream.

    not as/not so +adjectiv la gradul pozitiv +as

    The flowers are not so fragrant in winter as in spring.

    The students are not so happy when they start the school as they are when

    end it.

    The Superlative Degree - Gradul superlativ

    Gradul superlativ are dou forme: superlativul relativ i superlativul

    absolut. Un adjectiv este la superlativ atunci cnd exprim o nsuire la cel

    mai nalt sau cel mai sczut grad.

    Superlativul relativ arat gradul cel mai nalt sau pe cel mai sczut al

    unei nsuiri, prin comparaie cu alta, pe cnd superlativul absolut exprim

    calitatea/nsuirea la cel mai nalt grad, fr a face o comparaie.

  • 52

    Superlativul relativ format sintetic:

    adjectiv la gradul pozitiv+sufixul est:

    the longest street~cea mai lung strad

    Superlativul relativ format analitic:

    adverbul most+ adjectiv la gradul pozitiv:

    the most beautiful girl~cea mai frumoas fat

    Superlativul absolut se formeaz cu ajutorul adverbelor:

    very~foarte; too~prea; awfully~ngrozitor; terrible~teribil;

    utterly~extrem

    He was very upset that he failed the exam on Tuesday.

    It was terrible to hear that your father died.

    Degree of comparison of short adjectives

    Gradele de comparaie ale adjectivelor scurte

    Comparativul i superlativul sintetic al adjectivelor scurte

    adjective monosilabice:

    -terminate n consoan precedat de vocal scurt, dubleaz consoana

    final:

    hot~fierbinte hotter~mai fierbinte the hottest~cel mai fierbinte

    -terminate n e, -ee, adaug r lacomparativ i st la superlativ:

    large~spaios larger~mai spaios the largest~cel mai spaios

    -terminate n y, precedat de consoan, se schimb n i naintea sufixelor

    er i -est:

    busy~ocupat busier~mai ocupat the busiest~cea mai ocupat

    -terminate n y precedat de vocal, adaug sufixele er i est.

    sly~viclean slyer~mai viclean slyest~cel mai viclean

    adjective bisilabice

    -terminate n y, acesta se schimb n i naintea sufixelor er i -est:

    happy~fericit happier~mai fericit the happiest~cel mai fericit

    -terminate n er i le:

    clever~inteligent cleverer~mai inteligent cleverest~cel mai inteligent

    humble~umil humbler~mai umil humblest~cel mai umil

  • 53

    Irregular comparison of adjective

    Adjective cu forme de comparaie neregulat

    Sunt ntrebuinate din vechime i sunt relativ puine

    good~bun better~mai bun the best~cel mai bun

    bad~ru worse~mai ru the worst~cel mai ru

    much~mult more~mai mult the most~cel mai(majoritatea)

    little~puin/mic less~mai puin the least~cel mai puin

    few~puini fewer~mai puini the fewest~cel mai puin

    old~btrn/vechi older~mai btrn the oldest~cel mai vechi

    old~btrn elder~mai mare(vrst) the eldest~cel mai mare

    far~departe further~mai departe the furthest~cel mai ndeprtat

    late~trziu later~mai trziu the later~cel mai trziu

    late~trziu latter~ a doua parte the last~ultimul

    Exercises/Exerciii:

    I. Completai spaiile libere folosind cuvintele de mai jos:

    Fill in the blanks using the words below:

    green; quadratic; big; silly; great; spherical; lovely; sweet; dizzy; hasty;

    four-leaf; waterproof; slowly; strange; good.

    1. The ... street was full of people.

    2. ... face of my mother followed me since childhood.

    3. Walking ...is specific to the elders. So, hurry up!

    4. The ... man was carried by the whole lot until he get....

    5. It is ...to succeed on examination, but what do you do when you fail?

    6. My watch is ..., so I swam in the sea with it.

    7. ...Park encompassed me with all ...sounds and ... smells.

    8. The ... traveler has forgotten his book on the train seat.

    9. ... clover brings ....luck.

    II. Trecei urmtoarele adjective la comparativ i superlativ

    Make the comparatives and superlatives of the following adjectives:

    good, near, late, ill, heady, little, long, difficult, gray, cruel, big, dear,

    ripe, strong, fine, quiet, common, lazy, real, small, happy, foolish,clever,

    many, pickly, wealthy, old, narrow.

  • 54

    III. Construii enunuri cu urmtoarele comparative

    Make sentences using the following comparative:

    as sober as a judge

    as slippery as an eel

    as red as an lobster

    as fresh as a daisy

    as silent as a grave

    as good as gold

    as gentle as a lamb

    as pale as a ghost

    as proud as a peacock

    as quiet as a mouse

    IV. Dai exemple de cinci propoziii care s conin adjective

    interogative.

    Give examples of five sentences containing interrogative adjectives.

    CAPITOLUL V

    THE PRONOUNE

    PRONUMELE

    It is a flexible part of speech that can be used instead of a noun or a noun

    sentences.

  • 55

    Este partea de vorbire flexibil ce poate fi folosit n locul unui

    substantiv sau al unei propoziii substantivale.

    There are eight known types of pronouns./Sunt cunoscute opt tipuri de

    pronume:

    Pronumele personal-The Personal Pronoun

    - posesiv- The Possesive Pronoun

    - reflexiv i pronumele de ntrire- The Reflexive and the

    Emphatic Pronoun

    - demonstartiv- The Demonstrative Pronoun

    - interogativ- The Interrogative Pronoun

    - relatriv- The Relative Pronoun

    - nehotrt- The Indefinite Pronoun

    - reciproc- The Reciprocal Pronoun

    The Personal Pronoun/Pronumele personal

    Se clasific dup gen, numr i caz

    No. Pers. N D Ac

    Sg. I

    a II-a

    a III-a masc.

    a III-a fem.

    a III-a neutru

    I

    You

    He

    She

    It

    (to) me

    (to) you

    (to) him

    (to) her

    (to) it

    me

    you

    him

    her

    it

    Pl. I

    a II-a

    a III-a

    We

    You

    They

    (to) us

    (to) you

    (to) them

    us

    you

    them

    Persoana I singular se refer la persoana care vorbete:

    I must learn to pass the exams!

    Persoana I plural se refer la vorbitor / una sau mai multe persoane/

    ntr-un discurs cnd se folosete pluralul n locul singularului/cnd se

    folosete cu un neles general valabil:

    Today we are going shopping together.

    We all want to be healthy.

  • 56

    We, King Richard the IIIrd

    , decided...

    Persoana a II-a, you, se refer la cel sau cei crora li se vorbete.

    Distincia dintre singular i plural deriv din context.

    Have you ever suspected that you are cheating?

    Persoana a III-a singular feminin she, sau masculin, he, este acea

    persoan despre care se vorbete:

    She is thinking of me.

    He comes extremely tired from work every day.

    Persoana a III-a neutru, it, este folosit n locul unui substantiv care

    denumete un lucru, un fenomen, un animal sau o noiune abstarct. n limba

    romn genul neutru este specific substantivului, n cazul pronumelui nu se

    face aceast distincie, folosindu-se pronumele el/ea:

    Rocselana: Do you like my green purse?

    Loredana: Its lovely!

    Persoana a III-a plural, they, este singura form, att pentru feminin,

    masculin, neutru, singular sau plural. n limba romn se face distincia pe

    genuri, astfel: ei/ele.

    They dont know where theyll spend their summer holidays.

    The Possesive Pronoun/Ponumele posesiv

    Pronumele posesiv nlocuiete numele unui obiect, precum i numele

    posesorului acestuia, fiind clasificat dup gen, numr i persoan, astfel:

    Persoana

    Numrul

    Singular Plural

    Persoana I mine - a mea ours a noastr

    Persoana II yours/thine (form

    arhaic) a ta

    yours/thine (form

    arhaic) a voastr

    Persoana III his a lui

    hers - a ei

    theirs a lor

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    Pronumele posesiv se comport precum substantivul pe care l nlocuiete,

    putnd fi:

    1. subiectul propoziiei:

    His house is old but mine is new.

    2. nume predicativ:

    I think these bags are hers.

    3. complement direct:

    I lost my glasses. I think Ill use yours.

    4. complement prepoziional:

    In front of our house we planted pansies.

    5. Parte a unei comparaii:

    My books are more interesting than yours.

    The Demonstrative Pronoun/Pronumele demonstrativ

    Pronumele demonstrativ ine locul unui substantiv, a unui adjectiv sau a

    unei ntregi propoziii, precizndu-i locul n spaiu i timp.

    Pronumele demonstrative au aceleai forme ca i adjectivele

    demonstrative, dar se deosebesc de acestea prin faptul c ele apar singure,

    nlocuind substantivul, pe cnd adjectivele demonstrative preced

    substantivul.

    n limba englez, pronumele demonstrativ are urmtoarele forme:

    this-these /aceasta, acesta-acelea, aceia

    that-those /aceea, acela-acelea, aceia

    the former-the latter/ primul, prima, cel/cea dinti-cea/cel de-al doilea,

    ultimul

    the first-the last/ primul, cel dinti-ultimul

    the other-the others/cellalt, ceilali

    the same/ acelai, aceeai

    such/aceasta, acesta-acestea, acetia

    such-and-such/cutare

    suchlike/alii,altele

    so/aa

    one-ones/cel-cei

    This se folosete n locul unei persoane, obiect etc. apropiat n spaiu i

    timp de vorbitor.

  • 58

    Eg./Ex.: Pron. dem.: This is my mother, my beautiful one.

    Adj. dem.: This mother is very fond of her daughter.

    These se folosete n locul mai multor persoane, obiecte etc. apropiate n

    spaiu i/sau timp de vorbitor.

    Eg./Ex.: Pron. dem.: These are her ideas.

    Adj. dem.: These ideas are hers.

    That se folosete n locul unei persoane, obiect etc. deprtat n timp

    i/sau spaiu de vorbitor.

    Eg./Ex.: Pron. dem.: That is my house.

    Adj. dem.: That house is mine.

    Those se folosete n locul mai multor persoane, obiecte etc. apropiate n

    spaiu i/sau timp de vorbitor.

    Eg./Ex.: Pron. dem.: Those are her amazing shoes.

    Adj. dem.: Those shoes of hers are amazing.

    The former se folosete att la singular ct i la plural, referindu-se la

    prima/primul dintre dou persoane, obiecte etc.

    The latter se folosete att la singular ct i la plural, referindu-se la

    cea/cel de-al doilea, ultimul, cel din urm dintre dou persoane, obiecte

    etc.

    Eg./Ex.: Pron. dem.: Mariam and Mahmoud are my nephews: the former

    goes to kindergarten, the latter is a student.

    Adj. dem.: I have two children: the former child is a girl, the latter

    child is a boy.

    The other se folosete att la singular (cnd este i adjectiv demonstrativ),

    ct i la plural the others atunci avnd doar valoare pronominal. Se

    traduce prin: cellalt/cealalt, iar forma de plural: ceilali/celelalte.

    Eg./Ex.: Pron. dem.: I have two brothers: one lives in Kuwait, the other,

    in U.S.A.

    Adj. dem.: The other teacher is my favourite.

    Pron. dem.: I join the others.

    The same se folosete att la singular ct i la plural: acelai/aceeai/

    aceiai/aceleai.

    Eg./Ex.: Pron. dem.: The same is her brother.

    Adj. dem.: The same name is on my mind.

    Such se folosete att la singular ct i la plural i nseamn

    aceasta/acesta/acestea/ acetia.

    Eg./Ex.: Pron. dem.: Such is my idea.

    Adj. dem.: Such story is incredible!

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    So, ca pronume demonstrativ, nlocuiete o ntreag propoziie.

    Eg./Ex.: Ann: I think she is one of us.

    Dan: I dont think so!

    The Interrogative Pronoun/Pronumele interogativ

    Pronumele interogativ ine locul substantivului sau echivalentului

    acestuia, introducnd propoziii interogative. Unele pronume interogative au

    aceeai form cu cea a adjectivului interogativ, difereniindu-se de acesta prin

    locul pe care l ocup n propoziie, adjectivul precednd substantivul, pe

    cnd pronumele l nlocuiete.

    n funcie de persoana sau lucrul pe care l nlocuiete, dar i de cazul n

    care se afl, pronumele interogativ n limba englez are urmtoarele forme:

    who?, whose?, whom?, what? i which?

    Declinarea pronumelui interogativ

    Cazul

    Pronumele interogative

    N who?

    cine?

    what?

    ce? care?

    which? care?

    Ac. whom?

    pe cine?

    what?

    pe care?

    which? pe care?

    D (to) whom? cui? - -

    G whose?

    al, a, ai, ale cui?

    - -

    - who? se folosete pentru persoane

    - what? se folosete pentru lucruri i animale (pentru persoane, doar

    cnd se refer la meserie)

    - which? se folosete pentru persoane i lucruri

    N. Who speaks so loud?

    What is this? This is my book.

    What is Mary? She is a lady-chef.

    What is going on there?

    Which is the most beautiful women, Mary or June?

    Ac. Whom Im going to meet at that wedding?

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    What are they looking for?

    Which of the two you have invited?

    D. To whom did you tell my secret?

    G. Whose is this bag?

    Whose brother are you?

    Pronumele interogative who? i what? pot fi urmate de else,

    accentund astfel enunul:

    who else? - i mai cine?/cine altul?

    Who else is there?

    what else? ce altceva? (ce mai vrei?)

    What else do you want?

    Pronumele interogative se ntlnesc i n expresii, precum:

    what about...?

    hats-her-name?

    what-do-you-call it?

    which is which?

    who is who?

    hats hat?

    The Relative Pronoun / Pronumele relatriv

    La fel ca celelalte pronume, pronumele relativ ine locul unui substantiv

    sau unui echivalent al acestuia menionat anterior, numit antecedentul

    relativului i leag o subordonat atributiv/relativ de propoziia principal

    sau regent care cuprinde antecedentul.

    The student1 /who gave me her courses

    2/ is his sister.

    1/

    Studenta1/ care mi-a dat cursurile

    2/ este sora lui.

    1/

    Pronumele relativ who ine locul substantivului the student

    antecedentul lui - i introduce propoziia subordonat who gave me her

    courses, atributiva/relativa, care d informaii despre antecedent.

    Declinarea pronumelui relativ

    Cazul

    Pronumele relativ

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    N who - care that care which care

    Ac. whom pe care

    i precedat de prepoziii:

    by whom de (ctre)

    care

    with whom cu care

    for whom pentru care

    that pe

    care

    nu poate fi

    precedat de

    prepoziii

    which pe care

    i precedat de prepoziii:

    by which pentru care

    for which pentru care

    in which n care

    D (to) whom crui,

    creia, cror(a)

    - (to)which crui,

    creia, cror(a)

    G whose al, a, ai, ale

    crui(a)/crei(a)/cror(a)

    - of which al, a, ai, ale

    crui(a)/crei(a)/cror(a)

    Pronumele relativ who se folosete cnd antecedentul este o fiin.

    I saw the man/who led you at home.

    The woman /whom you met on Sunday/ is his mother.

    Pronumele relativ which se folosete cnd antecedentul denumete

    obiecte, animale sau poate nlocui o ntreag propoziie.

    Those are the books /which I have always wanted to buy/.

    We have three rabbits/ which we keep at the country house./