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  • CUPRINS

    Alfabetul limbii engleze 3Vocalele limbii engleze 4Consoanele limbii engleze 5Substantivul ... 6Articolul 9Prepozitia ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 13Conjunctia ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 21Adverbul ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 23Adejectivul ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 30Numeralul ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 38Pronumele ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 43Verbul ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 47

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  • Alfabetului Limbii Engleze

    Engleza foloseste un alfabet latin cu literele cunoscute si in alte limbi straine de origine indo-europeana dar cunoaste grupuri de litere care se pronunta diferit. De exemplu, "th" este grupul cel mai cunoscut.

    Ceea ce este mai interesant in alfabetul englez este ca adesea "y" si "w" devin vocale si astfel intervin schimbarile necesare (articolul nehotarat "a" se transforma in "an" daca cuvintele incep cu una dintre aceste litere).

    Engleza este o limba tonala in care intonatia este importanta. De aceea, adesea, vocea ajuta sa transmita ironia sau surpriza, afirmatia sau interogatia. Spre exemplu, intrebarea poate fi formata cu ajutorul inversiunii subiectului cu auxiliarul verbului dar exista si posibilitatea mentinerii afirmatiei si a schimbarii intonatiei.

    Diacriticele apar destul de rar in limba engleza, in special in cuvintele imprmutate (appliqu, attach, crpe, lite) si pronuntia lor este identica cu cea din limba din care provin, in mare parte din franceza.

    Vocalele Limbii Engleze (the voewls)

    Limba engleza are 12 vocale, lungi (mai lungi decat in limba romana, pe care le indicam in transcrierea fonemica prin doua puncte [:]), si scurte (mai scurte decat in limba romana):

    a scurt, intre "a" anterior si "o", ex.: nut [nat] nuca

    a: mai lunga decat vocala romaneasca, urmata de obicei de "r" (care nu se pronunta, doar daca urmatorul cuvant incape cu o vocala!), ex.: arm [a:m] brat, car [ca:] masina

    [a] a cu barcuta deasupra, e scurt, si intalnit in silabe neaccentuate, ex.: a pen [ a pen] un stilou, at home [at haum] acasa, after [a:fta] dupa, England [ingland] Anglia

    Litera Transcriere foneticaa [ei]b [bi:]c [si:]d [di:]e [i:]f [ef]g [dji:]h [eitch]i [ai]j [gei]k [kei]l [el]m [em]n [en]o [ou]p [pi:]q [kju:]r [a:]s [es]t [ti:]u [ju:]

    v [vi:]w ['dablju:]x [eks]y [wai]z [zed]

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  • [a: ] a cu barcuta deasupra, prelungit si pronuntat printre dinti, intr-un zambet larg, ex.: girl [ga:l] fata, learn [la:n] a invata

    [ae] este un sunet intermediar intre "e" si "a", pronuntat cu gura foarte mult deschisa, ex.: Ann [aen] Ana, has [haez] (el, ea) are

    e similar cu vocala romaneasca, ex.: men [men] barbati, many [meni] multi, multe

    i scurt, intre "i" si "e"

    it [it] el, ea (pentru substantive ce denumesc obiecte, animale si notiuni abstracte), ex: big [big] mare

    i: vocala lunga, intalnita in exclamatiile din limba romana!, ex: be [bi:] a fi, see [si:] a vedea

    o intermediara intre o si a, ex: dog [dog] caine, not [not] nu (adverb)

    o: lung, intre "u" si "o", ex: all [o:l] toti, toate, door [do:] usa

    u scurt, intre "u" si "o", ex: good [gud] bun

    u: lung, ex: you [iu:] tu, voi, do [du:] a face

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  • Consoanele Lmbii Egleze

    Unele consoane englezesti sunt deosebite de cele din limba romana:

    a. urmate de aspiratie, de un "h" usor, cand sunt folosite la inceputul cuvintelor k come [cham] a veni (de regula, "e"-ul din pozitie finala nu se citeste!)p pen [phen] stilout ten [then] zece

    b. alveolare; varful limbii se sprijina pe alveolele incisivilor superiori d did [did] facutt ten [ten] zecen not [not] nu

    c. interdentale, tine varful limbii intre dinti si rosteste "s" (consoana surda) sau "z" (consoana sonora)

    ["s"] thank ["s"aenc] multumesc["z"] then ["z"en] atunci

    d. "l" velar, pozitie finala / "l" clar, apare inainte de vocale tell [tel] a povesti like [laic] a place

    e. "n" velar / "n" clar sun [san] soare English [inglish] englez

    f. "r" fricativ, nu se pronunta in pozitie finala, decat daca urmatorul cuvant incepe cu o vocala

    Henry

    g. "s"-ul dintre doua vocale, sau uneori cel aflat la sfarsitul cuvantului se pronunta "z" please [pli:z] va rog (adu-ti aminte ca "e" final, dupa consoana, nu se citeste!)his [hiz] al lui

    h. "sh" are ca echivalent "sh"-ul romanesc: shogun English [inglish] englez

    i. "ts" indentic cu "ts"-ul romanesc nuts [nats] nuci

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  • Substantivul (the noun)

    Felul substantivelorSubstantivele n limba engleza se pot mparti n patru categorii:

    substantive comune: cat, girl, lamp substantive proprii: England, London, Mr Smith, Mary substantive abstracte: beauty, love, courage, fear, joy substantive colective: crowd, group, team

    GenulSubstantive de genul masculin sunt fiintele si animalele de sex masculin:

    Ex.: man, boy, lion, dogSubstantivele de genul feminin sunt fiintele si animalele de sex feminin:

    Ex.: woman, girl, cat, giraffeSubstantive de genul neutru sunt lucrurile, plantele, animale sau fiinte al caror sex nu

    este cunoscut (pronume: it/they):Ex.: world, peace, house, mouse, baby

    Exceptii: tarile, navele, n majoritatea cazurilor si autovehiculele sau alte vehicule sunt de genul feminin.

    Substantivele de genul comun sunt o particularitate a limbii engleze. Substantivele care intra n aceasta categorie au aceeasi forma pentru ambele sexe:

    Ex.: child (copil, copila), cook (bucatar, bucatareasa), teacher (profesor, profesoara).Unele substantive au forme diferite pentru genul masculin si cel feminin:

    Ex.: boy - girl, husband - wife, brother - sister, father - mother, son - daughter, uncle - aunt, dog - bitch, bull - cow, king - queen

    NumarulNumarul este forma pe care o ia un substantiv pentru a arata ca ne referim la unul sau mai

    multe obiecte sau fiinte. Singularul coincide cu forma de baza a unui substantiv: dog, girl, wife, world, storm Pluralul substantivelor se formeaza prin adaugarea unui s la forma de singular:

    Ex.: cat+s=cats, day+s=days, world+s=worlds Pluralul substantivelor teminate n ch, o, sh, s, x se formeaza adaugnd es la singular.

    Ex.: church+es=churches, bush+es=bushes, class+es=classes, potato+es=potatoes, bush+es=bushes, box+es=boxes

    Pluralul neregulat Substantive terminate n consoana+y fac pluralul n ies:

    Ex.: company - companies, factory - factories, baby - babies Unele substantive terminate n o fac plural prin adaugarea unui s.

    Ex.: soprano - sopranos, piano - pianos, photo - photos Unele substantive terminate n f sau fe vor suferi la plural schimbarea n ves.

    Ex.: leaf - leaves, half - halves, wife - wives, life - lives, self - selves, wolf wolvesExceptii: roof - roofs, handkerchief - handkerchiefs, gulf - gulfs, wharf - wharfs/ wharves

    Cteva substantive formeaza pluralul prin schimbarea unei vocale interneEx.: foot - feet, man - men, tooth - teeth

    Pluralul substantivului child este children. Unele substantive ramn identice la plural Ex.: aircraft, deer, series, sheep, species, fish

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  • Pluralul substantivelor compuse n cazul substantivelor compuse numai ultimul cuvnt va trece la plural.

    Ex.: boy-friends, break-ins, travel agents Exceptii: substantivele compuse al caror prim element este man sau woman vor primi semnul

    pluralului pentru ambele substantive componente.Ex.: men drivers, women teachers, men servants

    n cazul substantivelor compuse formate din constructii de genul substantiv + prepozitie / adverb + substantiv, substantivul de baza va primi semnul pluralului.

    Ex.: sisters-in-law, passers-by, men-of-war, hangers-on, lookers-on, runners-up Abrevierile sau initialele vor forma pluralul prin adaugarea unui s

    Ex.: MPs (Members of Parliament), VIPs (very important persons)

    Substantivele unice (uncountable nouns)Sunt substantive care nu se pot numara (uncountable) deoarece reprezinta fie unicate, obiecte

    puternic individualizate, notiuni abstracte. Nume de substante: bread, coffee, gold, paper, cloth, glass, oil, stone, wood Abstractiuni: earth, paradise, nature, the present, advice, death, help, information, news,

    beauty, experience, horror, knowledge, friendship, theory, literature Alte substantive: baggage, damage, shopping, reading, luggage, parking, weather

    Substantivele unice sunt ntotdeana la singular si vor lua un verb la singular:Ex.: This coffee is cold. The weather was dreadful.

    Nu sunt precedate de a/an; pentru a exprima o unitate din aceste substantive se foloseste: some, any, no, a little, bit, piece of, slice of, etc.

    Ex.: I do not want any help. I need some information. This slice of bread is hard. The piece of advice you gave me helped.

    Nota: Multe dintre substantivele unice pot avea si sensuri care se pot numara, astfel devenind substantive comune si comportndu-se ca atare (primes a/an la singular, pot avea plural).

    Sens Unic / Sens ComunHer hair is black. (Parul ei este negru.) She found a hair in the milk. (A gasit un fir de par n lapte.)Their house was made of wood. (Casa lor este din lemn.)We picnicked in the woods. (Am mers la picnic n padure.)

    1.5. Forma posesiva Se adauga 's la forma de singular a substantivelor care nu se termina n s:

    Ex.: a child's voice, the people's choice, a horse's mouth, women's clothes Vom folosi doar apostroful (') cu formele de plural ale substantivelor care se termina n s.

    Ex.: a boys' school, the Johnsons' residence Numele proprii terminate n s vor primi fie doar apostrof ('), fie 's

    Ex.: Mr Jones's / Mr Jones' car, Yeats's / Yeats' poems n cazul substantivelor compuse si a titlurilor ultimul cuvnt va primi 's

    Ex.: My father-in-law's guitar, Henry the Eighth's wives 's se foloseste si dupa initiale sau abrevieri.

    Ex.: The CEO's assistant, the PM's speech Forma posesiva se foloseste n general cnd vorbim de oameni, animale, tari. Se foloseste de

    asemenea n urmatoarele cazuri: n expresii temporale

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  • Ex.: yesterday's newspaper, in five years' time, ten minutes' break n expresii construite dupa modelul bani + worth

    Ex.: ten dollars' worth of bananas, a shilling's worth of stamps n alte expresii uzuale:

    Ex.: for heaven's sake, a winter's day, the water's edge, the plane's wings, the train's departure

    n cazul anumitor substantive folosite la posesiv, este uzuala omisiunea substantivului urmator atunci cnd sensul comunicarii este clar (magazine, birouri, oficii, casa, locuinta).Ex.: You can buy this at the baker's (shop). Mary bought her tickets at the travel agent's (office). The kids went to Bobby's (house).

    Ideea de posesie se poate exprima si cu ajutorul constructiei of+substantiv. Aceasta constructie se foloseste mai ales pentru lucruri sau fiinte umane sau animale atunci cand acestea sunt urmate de o propozitie subordonata.

    Ex.: the walls of the town, the roof of the church, the keys of the houseI took the advice of the girl I met on the bus and went to buy the book.

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  • Articolul (the article)

    Pentru ca un substantiv sa capete nteles ntr-o propozitie oarecare, acesta trebuie sa fie nsotit de un determinant substantival. Cel mai des folosit determinant substantival este articolul. Articolele se pot clasifica dupa cum urmeaza: Articolul hotart - the Articolul nehotart - a / an Articolul zero (forma implicita sau neexprimata)

    Articolele sunt forme invariabile, adica nu se schimba n functie de numarul sau genul substantivului si se aseaza n fata substantivului determinat.

    Articolul hotart ( the ) se foloseste:1. inaintea unui substantiv singular numarabil sau nenumarabil sau a unui substantiv plural

    numarabil pentru a face o noua referire la ceva ce a fost deja sau la care s-a facut deja aluzie:

    He wanted to go to the bank to change some money, but all the banks were on strike.Dave had a nasty accident when he was young. You can still see the scar.Do you remember the fun we had when we were at school together?

    2. pentru a face referire la cineva sau ceva anume:The American economy is suffering at the moment.The people I work with are very friendly.I dont like the president of that company.

    3. in fata unui substantiv reprezentand o anume persoana sau un lucru sau un grup de persoane sau lucruri:

    I dont feel well. Can you call the doctor? (= medicul personal)The kids arent at home. (= proprii tai copii)Can you pass me the butter, please? (= untul de pe aceasta masa)Shall I drive the car? (= aceasta masina)Maria Callas sang so beautifully that the audience threw flowers onto the stage. (= publicul care o urmarea a aruncat flori pe scena pe care canta ea)

    4. cu referire la ceva unic in mod absolut:The sun rises in the East and sets in the West.The weather at the North Pole is very cold.The President of the United States visited the Pope last May.

    5. in fata adjectivelor pentru a face referire la un anumit grup sau clasa de oameni. In acest caz NU este nevoie de substantiv:

    Only the strong survive. (= oamenii puternici in general)The question of the unemployed came up again.Robin Hood stole from the rich and gave to the poor.

    6. in fata unui substantiv la singular pentru a se referi la un anume grup de oameni, animale sau obiecte:

    The Indian elephant is smaller than the African elephant.The dolphin is said to be a very intelligent animal.Henry Ford invented the automobile.The customer is always right.

    7. inaintea unor substantive proprii pentru a denumi zone geografice, nume de mari si rauri, lanturi muntoase, grupuri de insule, nume la plural de tari si deserturi:

    the Middle East, the North of England, the Ivory Coast

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  • the Atlantic, the Mediterranean Sea, the English Channel, the River Thames, the Straits of Gibraltarthe Himalayas, the Alps, the Carpathiansthe Hawaiian Islands, the Falklands the United States of America, the Netherlands, the Philippinesthe Arizona Desert, the Mojave DesertNOTA: THE nu se foloseste cu nume de munti izolati.Ben Nevis is the highest mountain in Scotland.

    THE nu se foloseste cu nume de lacuri.Lake Superior, Lake Victoria, Lake Ontario

    8. in fata numelor de instruente muzicale:Rachmaninov began to play the piano when he was only 4 years old.The guitar has always been my favourite instrument.

    9. in fata unor adjective nationalitati cu referire la oameni dintr-o anumita tara. Aici se foloseste un verb la plural:

    The Swiss have decided not to join the EU.The Spanish are doing very well in this years Olympics.NOTA: In anumite cazuri, se pot folosi numai substantive la plural.The Germans were upset about losing the WW II. The Americans hosted the 1994 World Football Championship.

    10. inaintea adjectivelor superlative si a numeralelor ordinale:Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon.Laura is the most beautiful in my class.That is the silliest thing I have ever heard.NOTA: Uneori numeralele oridinale pot fi folosite fara THE atunci cand se face referire la ordinea in care se petrec evenimentele.Brendan came first ad Colin second at 100 meters.We went to Manhattan first, then on to Brooklyn.

    Articolul nehotart ( a / a n). Se foloseste a naintea substantivelor care ncep cu o consoana si an naintea substantivelor

    care ncep cu o vocala (a, e, i, o, u). Articolul nehotart se foloseste:1. inaintea unui substantiv pentru a ne referi la ceva sau cineva pentru prima data:

    Ive received a postcard from a friend of mine in the US.After months of searching, my brother found a job.The Jacksons live in a bungalow.

    2. pentru a exprima ce este ceva sau cineva, inclusiv slujbe sau profesii:My neighbour is a sociologist and his wife is an architect.Jenny doesnt eat meat; shes a vegetarian.There is a man at the door who says he is a detective.That was a kind thing to say.

    3. dupa verbul be sau alte verbele copulative, cand dupa ele urmeaza locutiuni prepozitionala sau propozitii relative care ofera mai multa informatie despre cineva sau ceva:

    I read an interesting article about pollution in yesterdays paper.Jacks son is a talented artist.He studied law at University and became a judge.I bought a painting that reminded me of my childhood home.John Smith wrote an interesting article on Education in the Times yesterday.

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  • 4. cu unele expresii numerice insemnand unu sau su expresii ale pretului, vitezei, raportului si cantitatii:

    A hundred guests were invited.Petrol costs 1.50 a litre in England.Hes crazy driving at 190 kilometres an hour.You must take this medicine four times a day if you want to get better.There was a great deal of noise coming form the house next door.

    5. cu substantive numarabile la singular pentru a da definitii, a face afirmatii generale, exclamatii sau cand ne exprimam dorinte:

    A thesaurus is a dictionary of synonyms.A house built of stone is stronger than a house built of wood.An apple a day keeps the doctor away. (proverb)Wow! What a pretty girl walked by just now.Id like a nice cool glass of beer.

    Articolul a / an si one 1. Atunci cnd numeri sau masori timpul, distanta, greutatea, etc. se poate folosi fie a/an fie one pentru singular:

    Ex.: a / one pound, a / one million pounds You can take an/ one hour for lunch.

    2. Dar a/an si one nu nseamna ntotdeauna acelasi lucru: Ex.: A box is no good. (We need a crate not a box).One box is no good, we need two boxes.

    Articolul zero. Nu se foloseste articol n urmatoarele cazuri:1. in fata substantivelor nenumarabile sau numarabile la plural cand se face o afirmatie

    generala (adesea precedate de determinanti ca: some, any, a piece of, a lot of etc.):Water quenches thirst on a hot day.Pollution in big cities is very worrying.Dogs make good companions.There is some luggage to be taken upstairs.Is there any bread in the kitchen?

    2. in fata substativelor abstracte cand sunt folosite in mod generic: beauty, happiness, fear, hope, knowledge, intelligence etc.; cu exceptia cazurilor cand sunt folosite cu sens mai bine specificat:

    Knowledge comes to us through our senses. DAR: She got the job because she has a knowledge of English.Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. DAR: What a beauty!

    3. in fata substantivelor proprii, nume de persoane si numele unei companii, cu exceptia situatiilor cand se vorbeste de familie ca un tot:

    He works for Microsoft.Helen and George Parker are coming to dinner tonight. DAR: The Parkers are coming to dinner tonight.

    4. pentru a vorbi despre sporturi, in fata numelor de echipe etc:He loves football and supports Manchester Utd.

    5. inaintea meselor zilei:Where did you have breakfast / lunch / dinner?

    6. inaintea cuvintelor home, church, university, prison, hospital, market etc. atunci cand ele reprezinta o institutie sau o idee generala. THE se foloseste totusi atunci cand se face o referire speciala la locul respectiv:

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  • Al Capone was arrested and put in prison for tax evasion. (ne referim nu la o anumita inchisoare, ci la institutie)His mother went to the prison once a week to visit him. (aici ne referim la acea inchisoare unde se afla Al Capone)My mother goes to church every Sunday. (biserica in sensul de institutie, serviciu religios)She sometimes goes to the church near the Royal Palace. (acea biserica anume).Our University is 150 years old. (institutia universitatii)Emma and Ben often go to the university to talk to their professor. (la o universitate anume, in cladirea ei)

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  • Prepozitia

    1. Prepozitia de loc - s e foloseste cu verbe statice: to be/to stay/to exist/to stand, etc. in in, la, pentru spatii mari Ex: I live in Bucharest. at in, la, pentru spatii reduse Ex: I live at Sinaia. within in cadrul, pentru suprafete restranse Ex: A lot of words have been said within

    these walls. against rezemat Ex: The man is against the wall.

    impotriva Ex: We are against them. on pe (pozitia pe o suprafata) Ex: The book is on the table. Pentru apropiere:

    imediata: next to, close to, beside apropiere: near, near by, by

    Pozitia pe verticala: over deasupra under dedesubt (fara raportare la un punct fix) above deasupra below dedesubt (cu raportare la un punct fix) Ex: above zero, below the water

    level underneath punctul cel mai de jos on top of punctul cel mai de sus (prin atingere) Ex: The green book is underneath.

    (este cea mai de jos carte) Pozitia pe orizontala:

    in front of in fata behind in spate (pentru lucruri pentru a indica pozitia) Ex: The tree is in front of the

    house. after dupa before inainte (pentru oameni, pentru a indica ordinea) Ex: Im before you at the

    queue. between intre 2 among printre (mai mult de 2)

    2. Prepozitia de miscare - se foloseste numai cu verbe de miscare to la, catre (pp atingerea punctului) Ex: I go to school. towards la, catre (nu pp atingerea punctului) Ex: I go towards office. Into in (pp patrunderea intr-un spatiu) Ex: Put the bag into the house. Onto pe (pp miscarea pe o suprafata orizontala;se pune ondaca sta)The cat is running

    onto the floor. along de-a lungul (pp miscarea pe o suprafata plana si lunga) Ex: Im walking along the

    beech. through prin (pp traversare si patrundere) Ex: I walk through the park. across traversare (nu si patrundere) Ex: I run across the street. about prin (arata o miscare nedefinita) Ex: I walk about town (prin oras, fara un tel

    precis) around in jurul (pp o miscare circulara) Ex: I dance around the fire. out of pp iesirea dintr-un volum Ex: Get out of my house. off pp desprinderea de o suprafata Ex: The plane takes off. up-and-down in sus si in jos pe un plan vertical Ex: The children run up-and-down the

    stairs.

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  • from de la, de pe, din Ex: Take it from my bag. past langa (pp apropierea imediata prin miscare) Ex: I drive past the university (si nu

    near the university!, pt ca sunt in miscare)

    3. Prepozitia de timp in pentru ani, lunile anului, anotimpuri, perioade ale vietii (in my childhood), in anumite momente ale zilei (in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening) at pentru ora (at 10 oclock), in anumite momente ale zilei (at noon, at midday, at

    midnight, at dusk), pentru varsta (at the age of 15), mesele zilei (at lunch time), cu week-end (at the week-end) si in sarbatori (at Christmas)

    on cu zilele saptamanii (on Sunday), data (on the 15th of June) si sarbatorile (on Christmas day cand este vorba de ziua de Craciun, nu de toata perioada)

    before si after inainte si dupa, cu raportare la un punct fix by nu mai tarziu de Ex: Try to arrive by ten. during in timpul over in timpul, dar pe perioade scurte Ex: Read it over the week-end. throughout / althrough de-a lungul, dar pe o prioada lunga de timp Ex: Althrough the

    years.

    4. Diferentiere intre prepozitii in time on time

    cu ceva timp inainte la fix in the end at the end

    finally, in cele din urma la capatul (urmeaza un substantiv) in with

    pentru ceva cu care esti imbracat pentru o trasatura fizicaEx: A woman in trousers. A woman with long hair.

    as likepentru rol, functie, pozitie pentru comparatieEx: I work as a teacher. Ex: I talk like a teacher. (I am a teacher) (I am an engineer)

    on aboutin legatura cu, folosit academic despre Ex: Give me a book on Economics. Ex: Lets talk about sex.

    due to owing todatorita (doar dupa to be) datorita (restul inafara de to be)Ex: My success is due to her. Ex: Owing to my work I succeeded.

    over acrosspp traversarea peste un obstacol traversare pe josEx: Im over the ocean. (cu avionul) Ex: Im across the ocean. (cu barca)

    despite in spite ofdupa urmeaza CD (niciodata sub.) dupa urmeaza genitivEx: Despite the bad weather I left. Ex: In spite of the bad weather I left.

    made of recunosc materialul Ex: made of gold made from deduc ceva elemente Ex: the cake is made from cocoa made with recunosc 1 element Ex: a chocolate made with milk (dar laptele nu este

    elementul de baza) in in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening at at dawn, at midnight

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  • on pentru orice moment al zilei atunci cand exista un atributEx: In the morning dar On a fine day

    At night dar On a starry night

    5. Pentru mijloace de locomotie by cu orice mijloc de transport, daca nu este determinatEx: by car, by bus, by plane (dar on foot!) in pentru autovehicule, daca sunt determinateEx: in my fathers car, in the car that you bought me on pentru toate celelalte in afara de autovehicule daca sunt determinateEx: on my fathers plane, on the tube/subway/underground

    6. Expresii cu Prepoziii Prepozitia Expresii

    About (despre) About the town-prin ora About six oclock-n jurul orei ase A journey about the world-o cltorie prin lume About my head-deasupra capului meu About all-mai presus de orice,n primul rnd

    Across (de-a curmeziul sau de-a latul)

    To walk across the street-a traversa strada Across the road-peste drum

    After (dup) After dark-dup lsarea ntunericuluiAfter breakfast-dup micul dejunAfter five oclock-dup ora cinciDay after day-zi de zi,zi dup ziTime after time-deseori,foarte adeseaAfter theat-dup aceeaThe day after tomorrow-poimine

    Against-mpotriv,contra Against the laws-mpotriva legilor A race against time-o curs contra cronometruTo lean against a wall-a se sprijini de un perete

    Along-de-a lungul Along a valley-de.a lungul unei viAlong the sea shore-de-a lungul rmului

    Among-ntre Among us-ntre noi(cnd este vorba de 3 sau mai multe persoane)Among his friends-printre(ntre) prietenii luiAmong the most important reasons-printre cele m.imp.cauze(motive)

    Around-mprejur A trip around the contry-o cltorie prin arTo sit around the table-a edea n jurul meseiI will come around ten-o s vin pe la zece (n jur de ora zece)

    At la At noon-la prnzAt day break-la revrsatul zorilorAt sunset-la apusul soarelui,la asfinitAt rondom-la intmplareAt work-la lucruAt the door-la uAt the beginning-la nceputAt the end-la sfritAt the same time-n acelai timpAt the age of-la vrsta deAt first-la nceput

    15

  • At last-la sfrit,n cele din urmAt full speed-la vitez maxim,cu toat vitezaAt first sight-la prima vedereAt what time?-la ce or?At once-imediatAt least-cel puinAt my disposal-la dispoziia mea

    Byfore-nainte Byfore my eyes-naintea ochilor meiByfore one aclock-nainte de ora unuTo sail byfore the wind-a naviga cu vntul n spate

    Behind(bihaind)-n spate Behind the clouds-n spatele norilorTo hide behind the door-a se ascunde n spatele uii

    Below(bilou)-sub To strike below the belt-a lovi sub centurBelow sea level-sub nivelul mriiBelow the ground-sub pmntBelow the average-sub nivelul mediu

    Beneath-sub,mai jos de Beneath ones dignity-sub demnitatea cuivaBesides-n afar de He has two cars besides this-el are dou maini n afar de aceastaBetween-ntre, se folosete cnd este vorba de dou elemente sau dou persoane

    Between the two world wars-ntre cele dou rzboaie mondiale An understanding between us-o nelegere ntre noi

    Beyond-dincolo de Beyond doubt(deaut)-fr ndoialBeyond the sea-dincolo de mareBeyond limits-peste limit

    By-de,de ctre,prin To open by force-a deschide cu foraTo travel by train-a cltori cu trenulTo go by car-a merge cu mainaDay by day-zi de ziStep by step-pas cu pasDrop by drop-strop cu stropPiece by piece-bucat cu bucatOne by one-unul cte unulTwo by two-doi cte doiTo learn by heart-a nva pe de rostTo go by the post-office-a trece pe lng potBy force of circunstances-prin fora mprejurrilorTo sleep side by side-a dormi unul lng altul

    For-pentru Good for food-comestibilTo leave for school-a pleca la coalTo look for help-a cuta ajutorTo cry for help-a striga dup ajutorFor a time-un timp,pentru un timpTo go for a walk-a merge la plimbareTo read for pleasure-a citi de plcereWhat is this good for?-la ce este bun sta?For all the world-pentru nimic n lumeTo have a taste for art-a avea gust artisticFor this reason-pentru(din) acest motivFor the sake of peace-n numele pciiEnough(inagh) for the present-suficient deocamdat

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  • Im sorry for you-mi pare ru de tine(pentru tine)From-din,de la From first to last-de la primul la ultimul

    From heaven to earth-de la cer la pmntFrom bad(bead) to worse-din ce n ce mai ruFrom place to place-din cnd n cndFrom morning to night-de dimineaa pn searaLight from the sun-lumin de la soareA man free from care-un om liber de grijiA man from the country-un om de la arTo be far from home-a fi departe de casFrom theat point of view-din punctul acela de vedereFrom my point of view-din punctul meu de vedereTo be released from prisom-a fi eliberat din nchisoareSeen from above-vzut de susSeen from below(bilou)-vzut de dedesubtOn my way from Piteti to Bucharest-n drumul meu de la P.la BTo tell one thing from another-a deosebi un lucru de cellalt

    In-n In the morning-dimineaa In the shade(eid)-la umbrIn the end-la final In the garden-n grdinIn heaven-n cerIn spring-primvaraIn summer-varaIn fall-toamnaIn winter-iarnaTo be in danger(deinger)-a fi n pericolTo lie(lai) in bed-a sta ntins n patTo live in the country-a sta la arIn our centuri(aur senturi)-In all seasons-n toate anotimpurileIn my youth-n tinereea meaIn his memory-n memoria luiEarly in the morning-dimineaa devremeIn the past-n trecutIn the future(fiucir)-n viitorIn come just in time-a veni la timpTo keep(kip)in mind(maind)-a ine minteDone in haste-fcut n grabTo put in mind-a-i pune n gndTo put in order-a pune n ordineIn general-n generalTo work in vain-a munci n zadarTo be in pain-a fi ndureratTo speak in public-a vorbi n publicTo take in hand-a lua n mn

    Into-n,spre To lead into error-a duce n eroare To get into difficulties-a da de greutiTo fall into the river-a cdea n ru(lac)To burst into tears-a izbucni n lacrimi

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  • To get into trouble-a da de bucluc,belea,necazTo pour walter into a glass-a turna ap n pahar

    Inside-nuntru Inside the room-nuntrul camereiHis is inside-el e nuntru

    Near-lng Near the sea shore-lng rmNear at hand-la ndemn,aproapeNear you-lng tine

    Of-de A crown of gold-o coroan de aurA flock of sheep-o turm de oiHard of hearing(hiring)-surd,tare de urechiA book of proverbs-o carte de proverbeThe force of the wind-fora vntuluiA place of honour-n loc de onoareA man of mark-un om nsemnat(important)A man of no importance-un om oarecare(fr importan)To wear adress of silk-a purta o rochie de mtaseLove of a mother-iubire de mamMaster of the house-stpnul caseiA piece of paper-o bucat de hrtieA friend of mine-un prieten de-al meuThe events of late-evenimentele din ultimul timpIn days of old-n zilele de mult apuseOf course-bineneles,cu siguran,sigur c da

    Off-departe de Keep off the grass-nu clcai pe iarbTo be off duty-a fi liber,a nu fi la serviciuTo fall off the horse-a cdea de pe cal

    On-pe To be on duty-a fi de serviciuTo sit on the grass-a sta pe iarbSome goods(gudz)on sale-nite mrfuri de vnzareHaus on fire-o cas n flcriTo go on foot-a merge pe josOn a beautiful day-ntr-o zi frumoasOn such a day-ntr-o astfel de ziOn this occasion(ocheijen)-cu aceast ocazieOn certain conditions-cu anumite condiiiTo stand on tip toe-a sta n vrful picioarelorTo be on land-a fi pe uscatOn the whole-n ansamblu,n general,n mareOn an average-n medieTo be on holiday-a fi n vacanTo sit on a chair-a sta pe un scaunTo pay on demand-a plti la cerereTo pay on the spot-a plti pe locOn the celing-pe tavanOn a desert island(ailnd)-pe o insul pustieOn the point of-a fi pe punctul de a

    Over-peste Over the rocks-peste stnci To be head over heels in love-a fi ndrgostit luleaTo stay somewhere(samuer) over night-a sta undeva peste noapteTo be famous all over the world-a fi celebru(cunoscut )n toat ara

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  • To cook over the fire-a gti la focTo tremble all over-a tremura din toate mdularele,a tremura tot

    Past Past his comprehension-peste puterea lui de a nelege To be past work-a nu mai putea munci,a nu mai putea s munceascTo be past danger(deinger)-a fi n afara pericoluluiHave past one-unu i jumtateIt is past five oclock-este trecut de ora cinci

    Round-n jurul A round table-o mas rotund A round peg in a square hole-potrivit ca nuca n pereteRound the world-n jurul lumii

    Since-de,de la Since four oclock-de la ora patruI havent seen him since-nu l-am mai vzut de atunci

    Through-prin To go through thick and thin-a trece prin foc i apThrough the wood-prin pdureTo at through fear-a aciona de fricAll through the night-toat noaptea,tot timpul nopiiTo go through life-a trece prin via

    Through whom?-prin cine Throughout this country-de-a lungul i de-a latul acestei ri Throughout our holidays-pe tot parcursul vacanei noastre,tot timpul vacanei noastre

    Till-pn,pn la To be up lill late-a se culca trziu,a nu se culca devreme Till death do us part-pn ce moartea ne va despri

    To-la,ctre To go to bed-a merge la culcareTo take to wife-a lua de soie(nevast)From end to end-de la cap la capFrom hand to mouth-de la mn pn la gurTo come to an end-a lua sfritTo finish-a termina,a se terminaTo be wet to the skin-a fi ud pn la pieleTo count up to ten-a numra pn la zeceFrom time to time-din cnd n cnd,din timp n timpTo dance to the musics-a dansa dup muzicI dont want to!-nu vreau

    Under-sub Under lock and key-sub cheie,sub pazUnder the tree-sub copacTo swim under water-a nota sub apTo be under arms-a fi sub armeTo be under a vow(veau)-a fi sub un jurmnt,a fi legat prin jurmntTo be under sentence of death-a fi condamnat la moarteUnder what conditions?-n ce condiiiUnder these conditions-n aceste condiiiIn under ten minutes-n mai puin de 10 minuteTo be under age-a fi minorTo be under treatement-a fi sub ngrijire medical a fi n tratamentUnder my feet-sub tlpile(picioarele) meleThe ball rolled underneath a table-mingea s-a rostogolit sub o mas

    Up-n susul,ctre The ups and downs of life-urcuurile i coborurile vieii,geutile vieiiTo run up the hill-a alerga pe deal n susTo walk up a hill-a urca un deal

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  • Wake up!-trezete-te,scoal-teUntil-pn la,pn n Until the end of life-pn la sfritul vieiiUpon- To refuse upon the principle-a refuza din principiu

    Upon the top of the hill-n vrful dealuluiUpon our word-pe cuvntul nostru

    Within-n,nuntrul,nu mai trziu de To keep within doors-a ine n casWithin the law-n limita legiiWithin a week-n mai puin de o sptmnWithin our room-n interiorul camerei noastre

    Without-fr To be without help-a fi fr de ajutorTo come without delay-a veni fr ntrziereTo escape without damage-a scpa nevtmatTo come without fail-a veni sigur(negreit)To come without doubt-a veni fr ndoialIt goes withaut sayng(seing)-se nelege de la sineI will leave withaut him-o s plec fr el

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  • Conjunctia

    A. Dupa aspect1. Simple: but, if, and.2. Compuse: however, unless, otherwise.3. De legatura: asas, bothand, eitheror, neithernor, not onlybut also, whetheror .4. Locutiuni: as well as, as if (de parca), as though (de parca), for instance, thats why, so long as (atata timp cat).

    B. Dupa functie1. De coordonare

    a) and - care leaga - propozitii intre ele - parti de vorbire de acelasi felEx: I go and stay there for a week

    b) as well as Ex: I work in a school as well as at home.

    c) neithernor Ex: I am neither in the kitchen nor in the bathroom.

    d) not onlybut alsoEx: I am not only intelligent but also pretty.

    e) as wellEx: He is calm and good as well.

    f) eitherorEx: They are either brother and sister or husband and wife.

    g) furthermore (cu atat mai mult)Ex: I speak English, furthermore I wood like to visit England.

    h) conjunctii adversative: but, while, whereas (pe cata vreme, tinand seama de) contrasteaza cu propozitia principala.Ex: I am tall but fat.

    I am talking while you are righting.k) conjunctii disjunctive: or, else, or else (ori, cu alte cuvinte), otherwise (altfel).

    Ex: Would you prefer coffee or tea?Please put your coat else you get whet.

    Learn your lesson otherwise you fail.i) conjunctiile concluzive: consequently, on that account, so, then, that is why (iata de

    ce), therefore (de aceea).Ex: I havent slept therefore/that is why I am tired.

    j) conjunctii explicative: for example, for instance, namely, that is to say.Ex: Only one friend of mine left Romania, namely Ela.

    I like do a lot of thinks for instance/example reading, dancing,

    2. De subordonare acelea care introduc o propozitie secundara. Unele dintre ele sunt specializate pe anumite tipuri de propozitii.Ex: pt. concesive: through, although (desi)

    pt. conditionale: ifpt. comparative: as if (de parca), as though pt. predicative sau pt. subiective, completive directe, attributive

    Subordonate predicative introduse prin:a) what - Ex: The question is what I must read.

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  • b) who - Ex: The question is who is he.c) where - Ex: The question is were I go.d) when - Ex: The question is when I can come.e) whatever, whoever, that, why

    Subordonate subiective introduse prin:a) that - Ex: It is necessary that you should understand this rule.b) what Ex: It doesnt matter what you believe.c) who Ex: It hasnt be decided who is the leader of the team.d) which, whoever, whatever, whichever, when, how, why, where, if, whether.

    Subordonate completive directe (cele cu forma de complement): if, that, whether, whatever, whoever, wherever, why, whichever.

    Ex: She sad that she was tired.I dont know if you leave Romania.I dont know whoever wants my dog.I do whatever you want me to do.I may take whatever book you want.

    Subordonate indirecte introduse prin: to whom, to what, to anyone, whoever.Ex: I may give the flowers to whom you want.

    You interpret whatever she says.

    Subordonate prepozitionale introduse prin: who, whom, whoever, whichever, how daca sunt precedate de o prepoziitie.

    Ex: You depend on what I say. You must approved of whatever she says.

    Subordonate atributive introduse prin: whose, which, whom, were, why, when, that.Ex: This is the woman who loves me.

    This is the man whose wife is pretty.This is the boy whom I greeted.

    Subordonate adverbiale introduse prin: as, like, much as, how, in the manner, as if, as though, just.

    Ex: No one speaks like you do.They acted much as I told them. (respectand majoritatea celor spuse de

    mine)

    Subordonate conditionale introduse prin: if, on condition that, only if.Ex: I shall come soon if/on condition that I find my passport.

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  • Adverbul

    Adverbele sunt cuvinte care ne spun mai multe despre cum , unde, cnd, ct de frecvent sau n ce msura are loc o actiune.

    Functia adverbelorAstfel, adverbele determina n general verbe:Ex.: The bus moved slowly. (cum?)I am going home tomorrow. (cnd?)Adverbele pot determina: adjective: You look absolutely fabulous! adverbe: She played the violin extremely well. You're speaking too quietly. propozitii intregi: Perhaps we'll see you again next year.

    In general adverbul este terminat in ly, dar nu tot ce are ly este adverb. De regula se formeaza din adjectiv + ly.

    Modificari ortografice:1. daca adjectivul se termina in e, acesta se pastreaza ely

    Ex: nice nicelyExceptii: due duly (datorat)

    true truly whole wholly

    2. daca adjectivul se termina in le, se transforma e in y/ lyEx: capable capably

    3. daca adjectivul se termina in ll, se adauga doar llyEx: full fully

    4. daca adjectivul se termina in ic, se adauga allyEx: automatic automatically

    5. daca adjectivul se termina in y, indiferent daca este precedat de vocala sau de consoana, se transforma in i si se adauga ily

    Ex: pretty prettilygay gaily

    Exceptii: shy shylywry wrylycoy coyly (sfios)

    6. adjectivul good face adverbul wellNOTA: ca sa verific L-urile unui adverb, il desfac in adjectiv + ly

    Ex: usually = usual + lybitterly = bitter + lyawfully = awful + ly

    Adverbe care au 2 forme cu acelasi inteles (oricare din ele este corect)1. bright = brightly2. sound = soundly3. fair = fairly4. tight = tightly (sunt echivalente)5. dear = dearly

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  • 6. dead = deadly7. cheap = cheaply

    Ex: The sun shines bright / brightly.NOTA: forma in ly se va prefera totusi cand adverbul determina un adjectivEx: He is deadly tired. (si nu he is dead tired).

    Adverbul cheap se va folosi in loc de cheaply doar pentru a caracteriza activitati comerciale (to buy, to sell, to get)

    Ex: She bought it cheap.darWe traveled cheaply.

    Adverbe cu 2 forme cu 2 intelesuri diferiteclean = completcleanly = intr-o maniera curata

    clear = exactclearly = intr-o maniera clara

    close = apropiatclosely = indeaproape

    deep = adancdeeply = profund

    direct = directdirectly = imediat

    due = spre (la busola) Ex: They went due South.duly = punctual

    easy = usor Ex: Take it easy!easily = intr-o maniera lejera

    free = gratisfreely = pe sleau, deschis

    full = completfully = pe scara larga, intr-o maniera extinsa

    hard = greuhardly = de-abia, cu greu, aproape deloc

    high = sushighly = foarte

    just = tocmaijustly = asa cum se cuvine

    late = tarziulately = in ultima vreme

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  • large = extinslargely = pe scara larga

    most = majoritateamostly = cu precadere

    near = langanearly = aproape ca

    pretty = foarteprettily = intr-o maniera draguta

    right = exactrightly = cu precizie, clar

    sharp = fixsharply = intr-o maniera taioasa

    short = bruscshortly = imediat

    Adverbe si adjective cu aceeasi forma si intelesfastfarearlyalikealonepast

    solostraightnextlittleoutside

    NOTA: daca adjectivul se termina in ly, el devine adverb prin contructia

    in a + adj + manner

    Ex: He is a friendly person. adjHe speaks to me in a friendly way / manner.

    advcoward = las (substantiv)cowardly = las (adjectiv)in a cowardly manner = cu lasitate (adverb)

    Gradele de comparatie - se construiesc astfel:

    daca adjectivul si adverbul au aceeasi forma, se comporta ca un adjectiv scurt (gradele se fac cu er si est)

    Ex: I run fast / not so fast as / as fast as / faster than / the fastest of all / very fast daca adverbul se obtine din adjectiv + ly, face gradele de comparatie ca un adjectiv lung

    (cu more si the most)

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  • Ex: He runs quickly / less quickly than / as quickly as / more quickly than / the most quickly of all / very quickly

    Comparatia regulata well better the best badly worse the worst much more the most far farther the farthest further the furthest near nearer the next little less the least late later the last

    Clasificarea adverbelor1. Adverbe de mod 2. Adverbe de loc si directie 3. Adverbe de timp, durata si frecventa 4. Adverbe de probabilitate 5. Adverbe de grad

    Adverbe de modAdverbele de mod ne arata cum, in ce mod are loc o actiune. Ele se aseaza in propozitie

    dupa verb sau dupa complementul acestuia. fairly foarte, dar nu extraordinary. Fairly se cupleaza intotdeauna cu adjectivul

    la gradul pozitiv.Ex: Your story is fairly interesting.

    quite este mai puternic decat fairly. Se foloseste cand vreau sa fac o apreciere favorabila.

    Ex: This car is quite cheap.NOTA : cand se refera la adjective sau adverbe care nu au grade de comparatie,

    quite capata sensul de absolut, complet, de-a dreptul.Ex: Your dress is quite unique.

    rather se foloseste cand am de facut o apreciere nefavorabila si sensul este = foarte, neasteptat de. Se foloseste numai cu caracteristici negative. Poate fi precedat si urmat de articolul a

    Ex: This car is rather expensive.Ex: This is a rather difficult exercise.

    This is rather a difficult exercise. pretty foarte (familiar, intre prieteni)

    Ex: Im pretty tired. very Este cel mai cunoscut si se cupleaza cu orice (pozitiv, comparativ sau

    superlativ)Ex: I do my very best.

    He is very much faster than I am. much / a lot = se cupleaza cu comparativul

    Ex: He is much faster than I am. by far = se cupleaza cu superlativul

    Ex: He is by far the fastest of all.

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  • too se cupleaza cu pozitivulEx: He is too fast.

    enough se cupleaza cu pozitivul, dar se aseaza dupa elEx: He is fast enough for a champion.

    so se cupleaza - cu much, many, little, few + substantiv- cu adjectiv / adverb la pozitiv

    Ex: It is so difficult.I have so many friends / so much money.There is so little time left.

    such urmat de - substantiv numarabil la sg precedat de a- de constructia adjectiv + substantiv la pl

    Ex: He is such a man.They are such interesting persons.

    Adverbe de loc si directieNe arata unde are loc actiunea verbului. Se aseaza in general dupa verbul principal sau

    complementul sau.Ex:

    Dupa verb: I looked everywhere. John looked ...away, up, down, around... I'm going ...home, out, back...

    Dupa complement: They built a house nearby. She took the child outside.A. Here / there. Cu verbe de miscare, here exprima ideea de nspre/ cu / mpreuna cu

    vorbitorul, iar there contrariul, departe, fara participarea vorbitorului:Ex.: Come here (= spre mine) It's in here (= vino impreuna cu mine sa vezi) Put it there (= departe de mine) It's in there (= du-te singur sa vezi)Expresii cu here/ there: down here, down there, over here, over there, under here, under

    there, up here, up there.B. Adverbele de loc terminate n -wards - exprima ideea de miscare ntr-o anumita

    directie:Ex.: backwards, forwards, downwards, upwards, inwards, outwards, northwards, southwards, eastwards, westwards, homewards, onwards.

    Cats don't usually walk backwards. The ship sailed westwards.De retinut! Towards este prepozitie, nu adverb, astfel nct va fi ntotdeauna urmat

    de un substantiv sau pronume:Ex.: He walked towards the car. She ran towards me.C. Adverbe care exprima att locul ct si directia: ahead, abroad, overseas, uphill,

    downhill, sideways, indoors, outdoors.

    Adverbe de timp, durata si frecventaArata cand a avut loc o actiune dar si durata sau frecventa actiunii. Cnd: today, yesterday, later, now, last year Durata, pentru ct timp: all day, not long, for a while, since last year

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  • Ct de frecvent: sometimes, frequently, never, often, yearlyDe obicei, adverbele de timp se aseaza la sfrsitul propozitiei sau emfatic, la nceputul ei:Ex.: One of my children wrote to me yesterday.Later the boy understood the story.

    Adverbele care indica durata se aseaza la sfarsitul propozitiei:Ex.: She stayed in the house all day.

    My mother lived in France for a year.

    Adverbele de frecventa exprima frecventa unei actiuni si se aseaza de obicei in fata verbului principal, dar dupa verbele auxiliare (cum ar fi be, have, may, must):

    I often eat vegetarian food. (in fata verbului principal) You must always fasten your seat belt. (dupa verbul auxiliar must)I have never forgotten my first kiss. (dupa verbul auxiliar have si in fata verbului

    principal forgotten)Unele adverbe de frecventa exprima regularitatea incidentei unei actiuni si se plaseaza la

    sfarsitul prepozitiei:This magazine is published monthly.He visits his mother once a week.Adverbe de fecventa: frequently, generally, normally, occasionally, often, regularly,

    sometimes, usually.De retinut! Yet se foloseste in propozitii interogative sau negative.

    Have you finished your work yet? No, not yet. They haven't met him yet.

    Still exprima ideea de continuitate. Se foloseste in propozitii pozitive sau interogative. I am still hungry. Do you still work for the BBC?Adverbe de timp usuale: ago se foloseste cand raportarea se face fata de un moment prezent

    Ex: I saw her one hour ago.NOTA! daca raportarea se face fata de un moment trecut, in loc de ago se pune beforeEx: I told her that I had met her one hour before.

    for arata durata unei actiuni fara a prezenta momentul de inceput si sfarsit al actiunii. Este specific prezentului perfect simplu si continuu si trecutului perfect continuu.Ex: I havent met her for two years.NOTA! se poate intalni si cu timpul trecutEx: I was a student for two years (Im no longer a student).NOTA! pentru perioade lungi de timp (for ages, for centuries)ATENTIE! nu se pune for dupa verbele:

    to lastto taketo waitto spendto stayEx: Ive been waiting ten minutes, (si nu Ive been waiting for ten minutes).

    It lasts five seconds, (si nu it lasts for five seconds). since arata inceputul perioadei fara a preciza durata si momentul final. Este specific

    prezentului perfect simplu si continuu si trecutului continuu.

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  • Ex: I havent met her since Monday.

    Adverbe de siguranta si probabilitateAcestea exprima cat de sigur este vorbitorul de actiunea sau evenimentul pe care il

    relateaza: certainly, definitely, probably, undoubtedly, surely, maybe, obviously, perhaps, possibly, really. Se aseaza in propozitie intre verbul auxiliar si verbul principal.

    Ex.: He has certainly forgotten the meeting.Pentru o formulare emfatica sau o reliefare a afirmatiilor, se aseaza n debutul frazei:

    Ex.: Undoubtedly, Winston Churchill was a great politician.De retinut! Surely asezat la inceputul propozitiei inseamna ca vorbitorul este

    convins de adevarul unei afirmatii, dar incearca sa obtina o confirmare: Surely you've got a bicycle?

    Adverbe de gradAceastea exprima intensitatea sau gradul de indeplinire a actiunii unui verb, adjectiv sau

    adverb: almost, nearly, quite, just, too, enough, hardly, scarcely, completely, very, extremely.Locul lor in propozitie este fie in fata adjectivului sau adverbului pe care il determina, fie

    in fata verbului principal:Ex.: The water was extremely cold.

    He was just leaving. She has almost finished. Enough, very, too

    Enough inseamna "pana la punctul necesar pentru a..." si se plaseaza dupa adjectiv sau adverb:

    Is your coffee hot enough? (adjectiv)He didn't work hard enough. (adverb)

    Too = "mai mult decat este necesar pentru..." si se aseaza in fata adjectivului sau adverbului:This coffee is too hot. (adjective)He works too hard. (adverb)Very intareste sensul unui adjectiv sau adverb si se aseaza in fata acestora:The girl was very beautiful. (adjectiv)He worked very quickly. (adverb)De retinut! Exista o diferenta importanta intre too si very: Very exprima un fapt: He

    speaks very quickly. Too sugereaza existenta unei probleme: He speaks too quickly (for me to understand).

    Alte adverbe asemanatoare lui very: extremely, especially, particularly, pretty, rather, quite, fairly, rather, not especially, not particularly.

    Locutiuni adverbiale subst + after + subst

    day after day year after yearmonth after month

    during urmat intotdeauna de substantiv. A nu se confunda cu while (in timp ce), care presupune actiuni paralele. During poate fi inlocuit cu in daca se refera la perioade de timp

    Ex: during my life = in my life from to poate fi inlocuit cu till, dar niciodata cu until, pentru ca until nu presupune

    cunoasterea momentului de sfarsit al actiuniiEx: I work until I die. (nu stiu cand)

    29

  • I get up at 8 oclock and work till 10 oclock.NOTA! until nu poate fi cuprins in expresia from to in loc de to

    30

  • Adjectivul (the adjective)

    Forma adjectivuluiAdjectivele sunt invariabile. Ele nu si schimba forma n functie de gen sau numar.

    Ex.: A hot potato, some hot potatoes.Pentru a sublinia sau accentua sensul unui adjectiv se pot folosi very, really:

    Ex.: A very hot potato, some really hot potatoes.

    Pozitia adjectivului De obicei adjectivul se aseaza n fata substantivului determinat:

    Ex.: A good movie. Dupa verbe auxiliare ca to be, to become, to seem, to look, to taste, to appear, to feel, to

    keep, to make, to smell, to sound, to turn, etc:Ex.: The movie is good. You seem upset.

    This cheese tastes different. Dupa substantiv n expresii fixe:

    Ex.: the Princess Royal, the President elect, the court martial

    Cteva adjective, ca de exemplu chief, main, poor (=unfortunate) stau numai n fata substantivului determinat:

    Ex.: This is the main purpose of the meeting.That poor woman was living in a garage.

    Altele pot sta numai dupa un verb auxiliar: asleep, upset, awake, afraid, alike, alive, alone, annoyed, ill, well, sorry

    Ex.: He's asleep.I'm alone.

    Unele adjective si schimba sensul n functie de pozitia pe care o ocupa. Adjectivele involved, present, concerned au sens diferit daca sunt plasate n fata substantivului sau dupa acesta.

    Ex.: These are the people involved / concerned. (the people who have something to do with the matter)

    They had an involved discussion on the matter. (detailed, complex)I am a concerned mother. (worried, anxious)The list of the students present is outside, on the door. (students who were

    there)The present status of the matter requires urgent attention. (current)

    Functiile adjectivuluiAdjectivul ne spune mai multe despre calitatile substantivul determinat. Pot exprima: Sentimente sau calitati:

    Ex.: They make an original couple.She is a single mother.

    Nationalitatea sau originea:Ex.: Ricardo is Spanish. His mother is Argentinean and his father is Canadian.

    I bought him a Swiss watch for Christmas. Diferite caracteristici ale unui obiect:

    Ex.: The table is long.

  • The steel tray was a gift.

    Vrsta:Ex.: My hat is too old. I will buy another one.

    He is still very young, almost a boy.

    Dimensiuni, marime si masuri:Ex.: "Gone with the Wind" is a very long film.

    That boy is too tall. Culoarea:

    Ex.: I have a red jacket to go with my new white skirt. Materie / material:

    Ex.: He wore a cotton shirt.It was a silver tray, not a steel tray.

    Forma:Ex.: A rectangular envelope.

    A round table. Judecati, pareri sau opinii:

    Ex.: Grammar is fascinating. The show was entertaining.

    Ordinea adjectivelorAtunci cnd se folosesc doua sau mai multe adjective pentru a descrie acelasi substantiv,

    ordinea lor depinde de functiile acestora. Exista mai multe variante, dar cea mai obisnuita ordine este: Value/opinion, Size, Age/Temperature, Shape, Colour, Origin, Material

    Value/opinion delicious, lovely, charmingSize small, huge, tinyAge/Temperature old, hot, young, littleShape round, square, rectangularColour red, blonde, blackOrigin Swedish, Victorian, ChineseMaterial plastic, wooden, silver

    Ex: a green round plastic bucketan elegant little French clocka small round wooden table

    Gradele de comparatie1. pozitiv = adjectivul nu se schimba2. comparative:

    a. de inferioritate b. de egalitatec. de superioritate

    3. superlative:a. relativeb. absolut

    Comparativ de inferioritate

  • adj scurte (mono si bisilabice) se formeaza din: not so/not as + adj + asEx: This room is not so big as the bedroom.

    This room is not as big as the bedroom. adj lungi se formeaza: less + adj + than

    Ex: The chair is less comfortable than the bed.

    Comparativ de egalitateAtat pt adj scurte cat si pt lungi: as + adj + as.

    Ex: The bed is as good as the chair.Ideea de egalitate mai poate fi sugerata si prin constructia: the same + subst + asNOTA! as si nu like !!!

    Ex: This room is the same size as the other one.

    Schimbare de valoare gramaticalaAdjectiv Substantivbig, small size (masura)long, short length (lungime)broad, narrow breadth (largime pt ceva concret)wide, narrow width (largime pt ceva abstract)high, low height (inaltime)deep, shallow depth (adancime)heavy, light weight (greutate)strong, weak strength (putere)..etc.

    Constructii cu comparativul de egalitate:as brave as a lionas blind as a batas black as coalas busy as a beeas cool as a cucumberas clear as daylightas dry as a boneas easy as ABCas fresh as a daisyas hairy as a gorillaas mad as a hatter (palarier)as poor as a church-mouseas silent as a graveas wise as Solomonas soft as silkas smooth as grassas gentle as a lamb.etc.

    Comparativul de superioritate adj scurte: adj + er + than. Modificari ortografice:

    daca adj se termina in e, se adauga doar r Ex: nice nicer daca adj se termina in y precedat de consoana, se transforma y in ier Ex: pretty

    prettier Exceptii: shy shyer

    sly slyer

  • wry wryer (stramb) daca adj se termina in consoana precedata de vocala, dublez consoana finala Ex: big

    bigger pt adj lungi: more + adj + than

    Ex: The book is more interesting than the movie.Adj provenite din latina sunt urmate de to si nu de than

    Ex: He is superior to me.

    Superlativul relativ adj scurte: the + adj +est

    Ex: large the largestsilly the silliest

    adj lungi: the most+ adjEx: This is the most expensive thing.

    ATENTIE! dupa superlativ urmeaza prepozitiile of sau inEx: He is the best of all/the best in my group.

    ATENTIE! daca se face comparatie intre 2 elemente, comparativul implica superlativul: the + comparativ

    Ex: Between you and me, I am the older.

    Superlativul absolutvery + adjvery poate fi inlocuit cu: extremely

    exceptionallytremendouslyawfully

    ATENTIE! nu toate adj au grad de comparatie, unele definesc ideea de unitate (own, complete, proper, perfect, marvelous, maximum, minimum). Altele au sufixe si prefixe:

    extra largeover crowdedsuper fineultra shortpriceless

    Comparatia neregulatagood better the bestbad worse the worstill worse the worstmany more the mostmuch more the mostlittle less the leastnear nearer the nearest (cel mai apropiat); next (urmatorul)far farther the farthest (in spatiu)far further the furthest (in timp)late later the latest; the last (ultimul); the latter (ult din 2). Dintre 2, primul este the

    former, nu the first.up upper the upmost

  • in inner the inmostout outer the outmostfore former the foremost old older the oldestold elder the eldest (doar atributiv, pt membrii aceleiasi familii)

    Ex: My elder brother is older than me. (fratele meu mai mare)

    Constructii adjectivale1) cu mult mai = much/ a lot + comparativ

    Ex: It is much warmer today / a lot warmer today2) de departe cel mai = by far + superlativ

    Ex: This is by far the hottest day of the year.3) din ce in ce mai = comp + and + comp

    Ex: It is warmer and warmerATENTIE! pt adj lungi se repeta doar more

    Ex: It is more and more interesting.4) cu cat mai, cu atat mai (the + comparativ the + comparativ)

    ATENTIE! Expresia e obligatoriu sa se repete identic si verbul to be lipseste:Ex: The more, the better (cu cat mai mare, cu atat mai bine)

    ATENTIE! Mai multe adjective care determina acelasi substantiv se despart prin virgula. Daca nu apare virgula intre ele atunci cel care nu este urmat de virgula este adverb.

    ATENTIE! Ordinea adjectivelor care determina un substantiv va tine cont de cele subiective (primele expuse) si de cele obiective (imediat langa substantiv).

    ATENTIE! Un adjectiv poate sa determine si un verb. Verbul va fi obligatoriu to be sau orice alt verb de perceptie care poate fi inlocuit cu to be.

    Ex: I am intelligent He looks happy sau He is happy.

    Adjectivul demonstrativ anuleza articolul substantivului invariabil ca forma (M/F) se aseaza in fata substantivului pe care il determina daca nu determina un substantiv devine pronume demonstrativ

    Ex: this aceasta, acesta (singular apropiere)these acestea, acestia (plural apropiere)

    ambele merg cu here.that acela, aceea (singular departare)those acelea, aceia (plural departare)

    ambele merg cu there.NOTA! Indepartarea in spatiu presupune si indepartarea in timp. Deci that si

    those se vor cupla cu trecutul.Ex: This book is good. (this = adjectiv, book = substantiv)

    This is a good book. (this = pronume)

    Adjectivul posesiv invariabil ca forma si numar anuleaza articolul substantivului se aseaza in fata substantivului pe care-l determina forme: my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their

  • Ex: My book.Adjectivul interogativ

    pozitie initiala in propozitie invariabil ca forma anuleaza articolul determina un substantiv forme: what, which, whose, how much, how many.

    Diferenta: what./whichWhich presupune selectie dintr-un numar limitat.

    Ex: Which boy is your best friend?What nu presupune selectie.

    Ex: What days of the week do you know?

    Diferenta how much / how manyHow much presupune cantitatea si se foloseste pentru substantive nenumarabile.

    Ex: How much money do you want?How many inseamna numar si se foloseste la substantive numarabile.

    Ex: How many books do you want?

    Adjectivul relativ pozitie mediana introduce o propozitie secundara invariabil determina un substantiv anulandu-i articolul forme:

    whatever (fara selectie), whichever (selectie din numar limitat), whose (a, al, ai, ale cui).

    Ex: You may take 1/ whatever books you want 2/.

    Adjectivul nehotaratSOME (unii, niste, vreo, cativa) - Utilizare:

    1. In propozitia enuntiativa urmat de substantiv nenumarabil sau numarabil la plural.Ex: I have some money / friends.

    2. In propozitia interogativa in care se face o afirmatie sau o invitatie.Ex: Would you like some coffee?

    3. In propozitia in care stiu sigur ca primesc raspuns pozitiv.Ex: Mother, can you give me some money?

    4. In propozitia interogativa in care intrebarea nu se refera la some.Ex: Why are there so many people in some (so many) restaurants?

    5. In propozitia negativa al carui sens este afirmativ.Ex: I never go home without buying some chocolate.

    6. Cand poate fi inlocuitorul lui certain.Ex: Certain people/some people believe they are the best.

    ANY - este inlocuitorul lui some in:1. Propozitia interogativa la care nu stiu ce raspuns voi primi.

    Ex: Is there any milk left?

  • 2. In propozitia enuntiativa dar cu sensul de oricine, oricare, orice.Ex: Any book is good for you.

    3. In propozitia care contine un adverb negativ de genul: hardly, barely, scarcely (de abia, cu greu, deloc).

    Ex: I hardly eat any bread (nu mananc paine aproape deloc)4. In propozitia care contine if. (if = incertitudine)

    Ex: If you find any books, buy them.5. In propozitia care contine o expresie de indoiala: maybe, perhaps.

    Ex: I doubt there are any good films in town.6. In propozitia negativa in care verbul este negat.

    Ex: I havent any friends here.

    NO - Se foloseste numai in propozitia negativa in care verbul este la afirmativ.Ex: I have no friends here.

    EVERY (fara particularizare)Ex: Every day I go to my office. (nu ma duc chiar in fiecare zi)

    EACH (cu particularizare)Ex: Each person has a name. (fiecare, particularizare)

    EITHER (fiecare din doi)

    NEITHER (nici unul din doi)ATENTIE! Dupa each, every, either sau neither rmeaza substantiv numarabil la

    singular iar acordul cu verbul se face la singular.

    Expresii cu every si each Each other = unul pe altul (pp reciprocitate)Every bit/inch = fiecare bucaticaEvery right = tot dreptul Every now and than = din cand in candEvery other day = alternativEvery so often = la interval regulat de timp fara a sti exact cand.

    SUCH (astfel) - Urmat de substantiv numarabil la plural sau nenumarabil.Ex: I have such friends/information.

    SUCH A - Urmat de substantiv numarabil la singular.Ex: This is such a man of honor.

    ALL - Urmat de substantiv nenumarabil sau numarabil la plural.Ex: All books/information must be used.

    WHOLE - Urmat de substantiv numarabil la singular.Ex: I like the whole book.

    NOTA! Pt perioade de timp se poate folosi si whole si allEx: Im home all the morning/ the whole morning. (whole este cotat ca fiind mai

    puternic)

  • THE OTHER - Urmat de substantiv numarabil la singular sau plural.Ex: The other child/children can swim.

    Expresia The other day = some days ago, cere obligatoriu trecutul.Ex: I was there the other day. (Am fost acolo acum cateva zile)

    OTHER + Urmat de substantiv numarabil la plural.Ex: Give me other examples.

    + Daca e precedat de no poate fi urmat si de numarabil la singular.Ex: No other man is as good as you are.

    ANOTHER + substantiv la singular (different, in addition) Ex: Would you like another drink? = vrei inca unul (suplimentar) sau un altul (diferit)?

    BOTH + substantiv numarabil la plural (pt. doi)Ex: I like both kids -> acordul in plural

    Both are intelligent.

    SEVERAL (mai multi intr-un numar nedefinit) + substantiv numarabil la plural.Ex: We spent several days there.

    MOST (majoritatea) + substantiv numarabil la plural sau nenumarabil.Ex: Most books/information can be read easily.

    ENOUGHATENTIE! Daca e urmat de substantiv nenumarabil sau numarabil la plural are pozitie

    mobila.Ex: I have enough money/money enough to be happy.

    ATENTIE! Daca e urmat de substantiv numarabil la singular se aseaza dupa el.Ex: He is man enough to understand me.

  • Numeralul

    1. Numeralul cardinal - arata numarul, cantitatea

    Numeralul zero1) zero = pentru calcul matematic si pentru exprimarea temperaturii

    Ex: Its ten degrees above zero.2) love = zero pentru exprimarea scorului la tenis (15-0 = fifteen-love)3) nil = (nothing) = zero pentru exprimarea scorului la fotbal4) naught = zero cand face parte din partea zecimala a unui numar5) oh = zero pentru numere de telefon

    De la 1 la 12 avem forme distincteDe la 13 la 19 avem (numeral simplu + teen), la care accentul cade pe sufix si i-ul este

    lung.De la 20 la 90 avem (numeral cardinal + ty), care este scurt si cu accentul pe prima silaba.

    Ex: 40 = forty (nu mai are u!)Numeralele compuse se scriu cu cratima

    Ex: 42 = forty-twoOne hundred = 100 - Ca numeral nu poate avea plural, dar are ca substantiv. Este substantiv

    cand:a) este urmat de of:

    Ex: hundreds of pagesb) nu determina alt substantiv:

    Ex: hundreds are hereNumeralul compus peste suta se scrie cu prepozitia and la englezi si fara la americani.

    Ex: 210 = two hundred and tenOne thousand = 1,000 - Aceleasi reguli ca la suta.One million = 1,000,000 - Fara s la TOEFL, dar este corect si cu s (2 millions) in

    engleza.One billion = 1,000,000,000 - Americanii zic milliard.

    Utilizarea numeralului cardinal:1) pentru exprimarea temperaturii (cu verbul to be)2) pentru calcule matematice:

    Addition (to add = a aduna)2 + 3 = 5 two plus/and three is/are/equals five

    (acordul se face in sg si in pl)Subtraction (to subtract = a scadea)5 3 = 2 five minus/take away is two

    (acordul se face doar in sg)Multiplication (to multiply = a inmulti)2 x 3 = 6 two multiplied by three/twice three/3 times 2 is/are/equals six

    (acordul se face in sg si in pl)Division (to divide = a imparti)6 : 3 = 2 six divided by three is two

    (acordul se face doar in sg)reminder = rest

    Root = radical - cube root = radical de ordinul 3- square root = radical de ordinul 2

  • Power = putereMore than = >Less than = 1, numitorul va fi in plural Ex: 2/3 = two thirds

    Intregul = the wholeFractia pe 100 = per centProcentaj = percentage

    Numeralul distributiv - Arata distributia lucrurilor:One by one = unul cate unulTwo at a time = 2 odataBy twos / in twos = cate 2

  • Numeralul adverbial - Arata de cate ori se repeta o actiune:once = o datatwice = de 2 ori3 times4 times, etc.NOTA! nu exista twice more, ci twice as much as = de 2 ori mai mult

    Numeralul multiplicativ - Arata de cate ori creste o cantitate:double = twofold = indoit (de 2 ori)tenfold = inzecit

  • PronumeleFunctia pronumelui

    Pronumele sunt cuvinte lipsite de inteles de sine statator. Ele nu denumesc si nu aracterizeaza nimic, functia lor fiind aceea de a inlocui un substantiv, facand astfel referire la o idee, obiect sau actiune mentionate anterior sau cunoscuta de catre interlocutor.

    Ex.: John did all the work.He did all the work.Who did all the work?

    Forma pronumeluiPronumele au forme specifice in functie de: Numar: singular - this; plural these Caz: Nominativ - she; Genitiv - hers; Dativ - to her; Acuzativ her Gen: masculin - he; Feminin - she; neutru - itPronumele pot fi simple (you, which, many) sau compuse (everybody, whatever, no one).

    Clasificarea pronumelor1. Personale 2. Reflexive 3. Nehotarate 4. Demonstrative 5. Relative 6. De ntarire 7. Interogative 8. Reciproce

    Pronumele personale Nominativ Genitiv Dativ Acuzativ

    Singular

    I mine (to) me meyou yours (to) you youhe his (to) him himshe hers (to) her herit its (to) it it

    Pluralwe ours (to) us usyou yours (to) you youthey theirs (to) them them

    ATENTIE! I se scrie intotdeauna cu majuscula. Its (pronume) nu are apostrof. It's vine de la it is sau it has!

    Forme arhaice si poetice: pers. II sg. - thou, thine, (to) theeYou / They impersonal - putem folosi aceste doua pronume pentru a vorbi despre

    oameni in general.Ex.: You have to drive on the other side of the road in Great Britain.

    They say she's very clever.It - poate indeplini o serie de functii de mare importanta: It impersonal (in expresii impersonale temporale, exprimand starea vremii, distante sau

    in contructii pasive) Ex.: It's 7 o'clock.

  • It was spring. Is it Monday? How hot it is! How far is it to the station?

    It demostrativEx.: Who is it? It's the postman.

    It's the children.

    Pronumele reflexiveAcestea insotesc un verb si se refera la subiect. Se folosesc atunci cand subiectul si

    complementul direct se refera la aceeasi persoana.Forme: Singular: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself

    Plural: ourselves, yourselves, themselvesEx.: I wanted to do it myself but he insisted on helping me. he fell off the ladder and injured herself.

    Pronumele nehotarateSome, any, every se pot combina cu -one, -body, -thing pentru a obtine pronumele nehotarate:

    anyone, anybody, anything, someone, somebody, something, everyone, everybody, everything.No poate forma impreuna cu -body sau -one pronumele: nobody, no-one.NOTA! Atat in engleza britanica cat si in cea americana, pronumele nehotarate

    anyone, anybody, someone, somebody, everyone, everybody, no-one sunt din punct de vedere gramatical la singular si trebuie folosite cu un verb la singular.

    Alte pronume nehotarate: enough, few, fewer, less, little, many, much, several, more, most, all, both, every, each, any, either, neither, none, some.

    De retinut! Daca acestea forme preceda un substantiv nu mai sunt pronume, ci determinanti substantivali.

    Ex.: Few will be chosen; fewer will finish, Little is expected.

    Pronumele demonstrativPronumele demostrative: this, these, that, those, such pot functiona atat ca pronume, cat si ca

    determinanti substantivali.Ex.: That is incredible! (referring to something you just saw)

    I will never forget this. (referring to a recent experience)Such is my belief. (referring to an explanation just made)

    This si these sugereaza ideea de apropiere temporala sau spatiala, pe cand that si those sugereaza ideea de departare.

    Ex.: These (pancakes sitting here now on my plate) are delicious. Those (pancakes that I had yesterday morning) were even better.

    This (book in my hand) is well written; that (book that I'm pointing to, over there, on the table) is trash.Aceasta idee de departare se poate transforma chiar in dispret sau instrainare afectiva:

    Ex.: Are you going to wear these? (They are awful. I do not like them at all.) Can you belive I would have bought that?

    Pronumele relativePronumele relativ face referire la un substantiv sau inlocuitor substantival mentionat in

    contextul aterior (antecedent) si leaga propozitia sau grupul de cuvinte care explica sau da mai multe detalii despre substantivul antecedent de propozitia continand substantivul determinat.

    Pronumele relative sunt : who, whoever, which, that.

  • Ex.: The student who studies hardest usually does the best.Alegerea corecta dintre which si that se inscrie printre cele mai frecvente nelamuriri ale

    studentilor la limba engleza. In general, which se foloseste pentru a introduce propozitii care au natura de paranteze, explicatii suplimentare dar care pot fi inlaturate sau omise fara a schimba intelesul frazei. Din acest motiv propozitiile introduse prin which sunt in general intre virgule. Din contra propozitiile introduse de that sunt considerate indispensabile sensului frazei si nu se vor pune intre virgule.

    Who si formele sale se refera la persoane, which se refera la lucruri, iar that poate face referire la ambele.

    Ex.: The man who hijacked the plane wanted to get to Cuba The couple who live next door have the radio on all night. The team that won the championship received a great reception. This is the program which won the prize. We'll plant new trees to replace those which fell.

    Pronumele de intarireInsoteste substantive sau pronume personale pentru a le sublinia. Ca forma sunt identice cu

    pronumele reflexive: Singular: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itselfPlural: ourselves, yourselves, themselves

    Ex.: I myself don't know the answer.Mary did all this herself.Mary herself did all this.

    Expresii: by myself = singur, de unul singur Ex.: I worked by myself.

    Pronumele interogativPronumele interogative introduc intrebari, propozitii interogative directe sau indirecte.Forme: who? what? which? whose? (to) whom?

    Ex.: Who said that? Whose are those books?

    I do not remember to whom I gave my sweater. What happened? What's the weather like?

    Pronumele reciproceForme: each other si one another. Se folosesc pentru a exprima relatii de reciprocitate intre

    fiinte, idei, lucruri.Ex.: If Bob gave Alicia a book for Christmas and Alicia gave Bob a book for Christmas,

    we can say that they gave each other books. My mother and I give each other a hard time. They borrowed each other's ideas.

    De retinut! Each other se refera la doua obiecte, pe cand one another face referire la mai mult de doua obiecte sau fiinte.

    Ex.: The scientists in this lab often use one another's equipment.Hockey players hit one another quite frequently.

    Pronumele IT functii:1. Pronume personal, persoana a treia sg.,gen neutru folosit pentru obiecte i noiuni

    abstracte, nepersonificate, animale nepersonificate i crora nu li se cunosc sexul sau sunt luate n sens generic.Ex: Here is a book. It is very interesting.

  • How ould is your baby? It is five months ould.

    2. Pronume personal-folosit pentru a indica: a. Timpul dup calendar sau ceas : It is six oclock on the 4th of February.b. Scurgerea timpului: It is getting lake se face trziuc. Starea atmosferic: It is getting dark se ntunericete; Its rather cloudy mai

    degrab e norat d. Fenomene meteorologice i naturale: It is raining cats and dogs plou cu

    gleata(torenial); It thunders tun; It lightens fulger; It is ten degrees above zero sunt +10

    f. Distanele: Itsnearly ten kilometres to Albota-sunt aproape 10 km pn la Albota.g. Starea lucrurilor n general: Its ok sau its all right!

    3. Pronume demonstrativ (echivalent cu That sau Which rsferindu-se la ceva vzut sau menionat nainte)

    Ex : He expressed his sympathies i-a prezentat condoleaneleIt was nice of him (to do that) drgu din partea lui (s fac asta)

    4. Pronume introductiva. Introductiv anticipativ - are rolul de a introduce propoyiia printr-un subiect formal

    deoarece subiectul real este deplasat dup numele predicativ pentru a-l scoate n eviden.Ex: Its nice to see /seeing such a garden este o plcere s vezi o asmenea

    grdin.Subiectul real se poate exprima prin: Infinitivul lung to see Construcii gerumviale O propoziie subiectiv,de obicei introdus prin conjuncia That.b. Introductiv de ntrire sau subliniere avnd rolul de a sublinia foarte puternic sau de a

    scoate n eviden oricare parte a propoziiei cu excepia predicatului.Ex: Its Peter who/that solved all the problems.- Peter este cel care a rezolvat

    toate problemele.

    5. Pronume nesemnificativ folosit ca, complement direct formal mai ales al unor verbe intranzitive. Acest tip de pronume apare frecvent n engleza vorbit.

    Ex: Shall we cab it to the station ? S lum taxiul pn la staie. No,I would rather foot it. Nu,prefer s merg pe jos.

  • Verbul (the verb)

    A. Verbele auxiliare ( to be, to do, to have ) Sunt verbe deosebit de puternice Au forme distincte pt. prezent si trecut Intra in alcatuirea altor timpuri verbale:

    to be la toate formele de continuu to have la toate timpurile perfecte

    Nu-si pot forma participiul nedefinit (forma in ing) cu exceptia situatiei cand verbul to have pierde sensul de a avea, a poseda si intra in alcatuirea alocutiunilor verbale (to have a bath, to have a shower, to have a rest, to have talk, to have a walk, to have lunch).

    Isi fac singure interogativul prin inversarea cu subiectul Isi fac negativul prin adaugarea negatiei not Isi fac singure intrebarea disjunctiva si raspunsul scurt

    Ex: He has a car. Hasnt he? Yes, he has. Trecutul verbelor auxiliare

    Pt. to be was la pers I si a II-a singular, were pt. toate celelalte Pt. to have had

    VERBUL BE BE WAS BEENUtilizare:

    1. pentru construirea timpurilor continue si a formei pasive:The old man is taking an afternoon nap.The bridge was destroyed by the earthquake.

    2. pentru a exprima existenta, starea fizica sau mentala sau alte informatii despre o persoana sau un lucru:

    Dr. Johnson is a dentist. He is calm and patient.3. pentru a exprima varsta:

    The baby is two months old. How old are you?4. BE TO + INFINITIV: pentru a da ordine/instructiuni sau pentru a comunica un plan:

    You are to finish your homework before dinner. (= You must finish)The chairman is to give his annual speech tomorrow. (= He plans to give)

    5. BE ABOUT TO + INFINITIV: pentru a indica viitorul imediat:Meg is about to leave. (= Meg is on the point of leaving.)

    6. THERE + BE + SUBSTANTIV: pentru a indica existenta unei fiinte sau a unui lucru:There are two pieces of cake left in the fridge.There is a person outside the door.

    VERBUL DODO DID DONE Utilizare: DO se foloseste atat ca verb auxiliar cat si ca verb propriu-zis.A. DO ca verb auxiliar:

    1. pentru a forma negativul si interogativul prezentului simplu so trecutului simplu:The kitten doesnt play with strangers.Did they go to the opera yesterday?

    2. pentru a evita repetarea aceluiasi verb sau aceleiasi expresii:My company made a profit last year but IBM did not.

  • Mary typed that letter very badly. She certainly did!3. pentru a sublinia un afirmativ sau imperativ:

    Do eat your vegetables!Youre wrong: I did pay you!

    B. DO ca verb propriu-zis are sensul general de a duce la bun sfarsit, a realiza, a executa, a administra, a pune in practica:

    Students should do the exercises at the end of each unit.He always does the job well.The office clerk did the transaction yesterday.

    NOTA: A nu se confunda DO cu MAKE! Verbul MAKE are sensul general de a crea, a produce, a construi, a cauza, a face sa fie sau a prepara. Comparati:

    to do someone a favour to make a friendto do ones best to make the bedto do good to make moneyto do the dishes to make a ruleto do the shopping to make a mistaketo do ones homework to make a messto do a crossword puzzle to make a livingto do ones duty to make fun of someoneto do well/badly to make oneself at home

    VERBUL HAVEHAVE HAD HAD Utilizare: HAVE se foloseste atat ca verb auxiliar cat si ca verb propriu-zis.A. HAVE ca verb auxiliar:

    1. pentru a forma alte timpuri:Present perfect: I have worked.Past perfect: I had worked. Future perfect: I will have worked.Past conditional: I would have worked.

    2. HAD BETTER + INFINITIV fara TO (short INFINITIVE):They had better study hard from the first day of school. (It would be a good idea if they studied hard from)Youd better go home. (It would be a good idea if you went home.)

    3. I WONT HAVE + COMPLEMENT + -ING:I wont have that dog sleeping on my bed! (I wont permit that dog to sleep on my bed!)

    B. HAVE ca verb propriu-zis:1. posesia:

    Anne always has a cold.Anne doesnt always have a cold.Does Anne always have a cold?

    Cand HAVE este urmat de GOT, se intareste sensul posesiv. Debbies got a lovely voice. Have you got a computer?

  • 2. a manca, a bea sau a organiza:The twins usually have dinner early.My aunt Mary doesnt have coffee often.Our neighbours had a cocktail party last week.

    3. HAVE + COMPLEMENT + PAST PARTICIPLE:Mrs. Riley had her house painted. (Mrs. Riley got someone to paint her house.)My best friend has his hair trimmed every Friday. (My best friend has someone to cut his hair every Friday.)

    B. Verbele modale Verbe puternice Au forme distincte pt. prezent si trecut Nu au infinitiv lung (adica cu to in fata)

    Ex: I can (fara to) go Nu permit dupa ele verbe la infinitiv lung Nu apar niciodata singure, cu exceptia raspunsului scurt Nu pot avea forma in ing Nu isi pot forma toate timpurile Au inlocuitori Isi fac interogativul prin inversare cu subiectul Isi fac negativul prin adaugarea negatiei not Isi fac singure intrebarea disjuncta si raspunsul scurt

    CAN Utilizare:

    1. pentru a cere, a acorda sau a refuza permisiunea, similar cu may, dar mai putin formal:You can drive at seventeen in the UK.Can I borrow your pen, please? Ive left mine at home.You cannot go hunting out of season.

    NOTA: forme alternative: You are permitted / are allowed to / may drive ar seventeen in the UK.

    ATENTIE: la negativ, could si might au sensuri diferite. Ex: Ken could not be building the house by himself. (It is impossible, it is too much work.)

    Ken might not be building thehouse by himself. (He is building the house himself, he probably has help.)

    2. pentru a face referire la probabilitate, posibilitate sau imposibilitate in prezent, in trecut sau la conditional:

    Look, theres plenty of snow, we can go skiing today. Lets try his office, he could be there.Bill cannot drive for a few weeks, hes broken his leg.

    3. pentru a face referire la abilitate sau indemanare in prezent, in trecut sau la conditional:She is a great secretary; she can type ninety words a minute.Can you speak English?Tim is hopeless. He cant even fry and egg.If he studied harder, he could pass the exam.

  • NOTA: pentru alte timpuri, se foloseste be able to:She will be able to / has been able to type 100 words a minute.

    4. could + INFINITIV perfect, pentru a se referi la o actiune care nu a avut loc:You could have hurt your back lifting that heavy table. I could have driven you to the airport, but I didnt have my car.

    cand nu stim daca actiunea s-a petrecut sau nu:Have you seen my umbrella? Dad could have taken it.

    NOTA: forme alternative:You might have hurt your back lifting that heavy table. You would probably have hurt your back lifting that heavy table.

    Inlocuitori: to be able to, to be capable to

    MAYUtilizare:

    1. cu referire la evenimente sau actiuni posibile sau probabile in prezent, adesea cu sens de viitor. Might poate fi folosit pentru a sublinia o foarte redusa posibilitate:

    Theres a black cloud above us. It may rain.Alice may get angry if you tell her. If you try hard enough, you might convince him to come.

    si cu forma continua:Call me after eight I may be working hard late tonight. Alex says he might be going on holiday without his parents this year.

    NOTA: formele alternative sunt:Maybe it wil rain. It is likely to rain.Maybe Alice will get angry if you tell her. Alice is likely to get angry if you tell her.

    2. pentru a cere, a oferi sau a refuza permisiunea politicos:May I open the window? It is very hot in this office.You may go in to see the doctor now.You may not smoke in my car.

    NOTA: forme alternative:Am I allowed to open the window?You are not permitted to smoke in my car.Can I open the window? (can poate fi si el folosit, dar este considerat mai putin politicos)

    3. cu well pentru a indica o foarte mare probabilitate:I think it may well rain today, look at those black clouds.The Government may well decide to raise the price of gas again.

    NOTA: forme alternative:I think it is very likely to rain today.The Government is very likely to deicde to raise the price of gas.

    ATENTIE: may / might as well are alt sens:There is nothing interesting on TV this evening, I may / might as well have an early night. (= Din moment ce nu este nimic interesant la TV, e mai bine sa ma duc devreme la culcare.)

  • 4. cu o constructie perfecta pentru a face referire la o presupunere in trecut:Bill isnt at his office, he may have gone home early. Brian might not have been killed by Sally.

    5. cu o constructie perfecta pentru a face referire la ceva care s-ar fi putut petrece in trecut, dar nu s-a petrecut; se poate folosi numai might:

    You might have burnt your hand while taking that hot tray out of the oven (but you didnt).A lot of people, who might have been saved, died when the Titanic sank.

    6. Exprimarea unei interdictiiEx: People may not bring dogs into the hotel.

    7. Exprimarea unei urariEx: May all your dreams come true.

    8. Dupa verbele to hope si to trustEx: I hope you may find tickets for the cinema.

    9. La forma negativa are doar forma may not (nu exista forma contrasa maynt)10. La trecut are forma may have+participiu trecut si might mai ales pt conditional.11. Inlocuitori: to be allowed to, to be permitted to

    MUST1. = trebuie, arata obligativitatea

    Ex: I must go now.2. Arata o deductie logica

    Ex: As she left at four she must be at home now.3. Negativ: mustnt (nu trebuie), neednt (nu este necesar).4. Trecut: must + have + participiu trecut si had to.5. Inlocuitori: to have to, to be obliged to, to be compelled to (toate = a fi obligat)6. Diferenta dintre must si have to.

    Must => arata obligativitatea din punctul meu de vedere;Have to => arata obligativitatea impusa de altii.

    Ex: I must go now.I have to wear uniform.

    NEED1. Are 2 valori: (a) verb lexical, (b) verb modal.

    (a) Verb lexical - este un verb regulatEx: I need a new car. Do I need a new car?(b) Verb modal se foloseste numai in propozitii interogative si negative