Gramatica Limbii Engleze (Excelent)

  • View
    317

  • Download
    32

Embed Size (px)

Text of Gramatica Limbii Engleze (Excelent)

  • 7/27/2019 Gramatica Limbii Engleze (Excelent).

    1/183

    1. MORFOLOGIA (THE MORPHOLOGY)

    (gr. morphe = form, logos = studiu)Morfologia este partea gramaticii care cuprinde regulile de modificare a cuvintelor n

    procesul comunicrii. Ea studiaz prile de vorbire sub aspect formal, semantic ifuncional.

    Prile de vorbire sunt:

    1. Articolul (TheArticle)2. Substantivul (TheNoun)3. Adjectivul (TheAdjective)

    4. Pronumele (ThePronoun)5. Numeralul (TheNumeral)6. Verbul (The Verb)7. Adverbul (The Adverb)

    8. Prepoziia (ThePreposition)9. Conjuncia (TheConjunction)10. Interjecia (TheInterjection)

    1.1. ARTICOLUL (THE ARTICLE)

    Este un instrument gramatical care individualizeaz sau determin un substantiv.Prezena lui dovedete c substantivul pe care-l nsoete este deja cunoscut deinterlocutor.

    1.1.1. ARTICOLULHOTRT (THE DEFINITE ARTICLE)

    este the- pronunat [\] -naintea cuvintelor care ncep cu o consoan sau semi-consoanthe ball [ \ bO-l]the window[\ `wind\u ]- pronunat [I/i] - n faa cuvintelor care ncep cu o vocalthe eye[i ai]the apple [i `Epl]

    singular: plural:the girl [\ g|l] = fata the girls[\ g|lz]= fetelethe boy [\ Boi] = biatul the boys [\ Boiz] = bieiithe tree [\ trI] = copacul the trees [\ trIz] = copaciithe cat [\ kEt] = pisica the cats[\ kEts]= pisicile

    Articolul hotrt apare ntr-un mare numr de expresii:on the one side/hand = pe de o parteon the other side/hand = pe de alt parte

    at the same time = n acelai timp etc

    Articolul hotrt plasat n faa unor adjective d acestora sensul unor substantive lanumrul plural:adj. rich = bogat-bogat, bogai-bogate

    therich = cei bogai - cele bogateadj. poor = srac-srac, sraci-srace the poor = cei sraci - cele srace

    Articolul hotrt apare la gradul superlativ relativ al adjectivelor:the best = cel mai bun, cea mai bun, cei mai buni, cele mai bunethe least = cel mai puin, cea mai puin, cei mai puini, cele mai puinethe biggest = cel mai mare, cea mai mare, cei mai mari, cele mai marithe most interesting = cel mai interesant, cea mai interesant, cei mai interesani,cele mai interesante etc

    1

  • 7/27/2019 Gramatica Limbii Engleze (Excelent).

    2/183

    Articolul hotrt apare i n structura the..., the... = cu ct..., cu att... (doucomparative juxtapuse)The earlier you come, the better it is. = Cu ct vii/venii mai devreme cu att e maibine.The more we are, the easier it is.= Cu ct suntem mai muli, cu att este mai uor.

    The more interesting the book is, the more I like it . = Cu ct cartea este maiinteresant, cu att mi place mai mult.

    Articolul hotrt se intercaleaz de regul ntre un substantiv precedat de oprepoziie i prepoziia respectiv.a house in the forest = o cas n pdurea boat on the lake = o barc pe lacacross the road = peste drumat the end = la sfritat the door = la uin the end = n finalin the morning = dimineaain the village = n satin the shade = la umbr

    Articolul hotrt poate fi ntlnit n unele denumiri geografice:The Black Sea, The Danube, The Carpathians, The Alps, The HimalayaMountains, The Thames, The United Kingdom of Great Britain and NorthernIreland, The Commonwealth of Australia States and Territories, The UnitedStates of America, The Sahara Desert, The Atlantic Ocean, The Indian Ocean,The Pacific Ocean etc.

    Articolul hotrt nsoete, de obicei, substantivele cnd acestea sunt

    acompaniate/precedate de adjective.in the first/second/third/etc. sentence = n prima/a doua/a treia/etc. propoziiein the course of time = n decursul timpului, de-a lungul timpuluiin the second half= n a doua jumtatein the days/months that followed = n zilele/lunile care au urmatMount Everest is the highest mountain in the world. = Muntele Everest este celmai nalt munte din lume.

    Articolul hotrt the se mai traduce n limba romn prin articolele adjectivale cel,cea, cei, cele sau articolele posesive al, a, ai, ale.Alfred the Great = Alfred cel MareStephen the Great = tefan cel MareThe Second World War = Cel de al doilea rzboi mondial.

    1.1.2. ARTICOLUL NEHOTRT (THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE)

    este :- a [\] - naintea cuvintelor care ncep cu consoan sau semiconsoan:

    a dog [\ `dog]= un cine a wall [\ `wOl]= un zid/peretea flower [\ `flau\]= o floare a year [\ `ji\] = un an

    - an [\n] - naintea cuvintelor care ncep cu vocal:an apple [\n `Epl]= un mr an eye [\n `ai] = un ochian ear [\n `i\]= o ureche an idea[\n ai`di\]= o idee

    Articolul nehotrt introduce de obicei un element nou. El poate fi ntlnit :- n faa substantivelor nsoite/precedate de adjective :

    2

  • 7/27/2019 Gramatica Limbii Engleze (Excelent).

    3/183

    a good teacher = un profesor buna big house = o cas marea book of proverbs = o carte de proverbea house on fire = o cas n flcria little tea = puin/destul ceai

    - n unele structuri :

    a tobacconist's = o tutungeriea baker's = o brutriea greengrocer's = un aprozara blue - eyed girl = o fat cu ochialbatria confectioner's = o cofetriea jeweller's = un magazin de bijuterii

    a chemist 's = o farmaciea stationer's = o papetrieonce upon a time = a fost odata grocer' s = o bcnietwo/three at a time = cte doi/trei odat

    Articolul nehotrt are n unele cazuri funcie numeric:a hundred = o suta thousand = o mietwo saucers and an ash-tray = dou farfurioare i o scrumier

    1.1.3. ARTICOLUL ZERO (THE ZERO ARTICLE)

    Articolul zero apare:a) n nume de continente, ri, persoane, zilele sptmnii etc.

    Exemple: Africa, Asia, America, Europe, England, France, Italy, Romania,Sunday, Alice, Bob, George, John, Mary, Peter, Richard, William etc.

    b) n faa subsantivelor folosite n sens general:Children like sweets. = Copiilor le plac dulciurile.Knowledge is power. = tiina nseamn putere.

    Oil is lighter than water. = Uleiul este mai uor dect apa.Boys like toys and lots of noise.= Bieilor le plac jucriile i mult zgomot.c) n faa subsantivelor nenumrabile (uncountables):

    Gold is yellow.= Aurul este galben.This house is made of wood.= Aceast cas este fcut din lemn.

    d) naintea substantivelor abstracte sau nume de materie: care, death, hatred,honesty, hunger, love, sand, salt, tea, water etc.Salt seasons all things. (prov.) = Sarea d gust tuturor lucrurilor.

    Multe substantive abstracte apar n proverbe.Hunger is the best sauce. = Foamea este cel mai bun buctar.

    e) nume de: culori (white, black, yellow, red, green, brown, pink, violet,orange, blue, black), sporturi i jocuri sportive (football, volleyball, basketball,hockey, tennis etc.), limbi (English, Romanian, German, French etc.), mese(breakfast, snack, lunch, tea, dinner, supper).

    f) n unele expresii / structuri fixe, care trebuie memorate pentru evitarea greelilor.after dark= dup lsarea ntunericuluiafter three o'clock= dup ora treiafter dinner = dup cinday by day = zi de zidrop by drop = strop cu strop

    day after day = zi dup zi, zi de zifrom end to end = de la cap la capfrom first to last = de la primul la

    ultimulfrom place to place = din loc n locfrom time to time = din cnd n cndgood for food = comestibilgoods on sale = mrfuri/bunuri de

    vnzarein general = n generalto learn by heart = a nva pe de rost

    3

  • 7/27/2019 Gramatica Limbii Engleze (Excelent).

    4/183

    piece by piece = bucat cu bucatJust in time = chiar la timp/momentto leave for school = a pleca la coalto keep in mind = a ine minteto be on duty = a fi de serviciuto go on foot = a merge pe jos

    to put in order = a pune n ordineto be in parliament = a fi n parlamentto go to bed = a merge la culcare

    from London = de la Londrato look for help/aid = a cuta ajutorto pay on demand = a plti la cererefrom morning to night = dedimineaa pn searafrom beginning to end = de la

    nceput la sfriton certain conditions = cu anumitecondiii

    1.2. SUSBTANTIVUL (THE NOUN)Substantivul (lat.: substantivus; substans = substan; sub = sub/dedesubt, stans =

    aezat) este partea de vorbire care denumete fiine, obiecte, stri, noiuni, nsuiri etc.

    1.2.1. Clasificare- comune (Common Nouns)

    dog (cine), cat (pisic), bird (pasre), house (cas), apple (mr), girl (fat), boy(biat), water (ap).- proprii (Proper Nouns)

    John, Alice, Romania, London, Europe, Asia, July, Sunday, Great Britain etc.- abstracte (Abstract Nouns)

    friendship (prietenie), joy (bucurie), wisdom (nelepciune), safety ( siguran),theory (teorie), gratitude (recunotin) etc.

    - inidividuale (Individual Nouns)man (brbat), house (cas), stone (piatr), tree (copac) etc.

    - colective (Collective Nouns)team (echip), army (armat), family (familie), fleet (flot), crowd (mulime), flock

    (stol), swarm (roi), group (grup) etc.- nume de materie (Names of Matter)water (ap), air (aer), fire (foc), beer (bere), milk(lapte), steel (oel), silver (argint),gold (aur), snow (zpad), wine (vin), tea (ceai), salt (sare) etc.

    1.2.2. Genul substantivelor (The Gender of the Nouns)

    masculin (masculine) feminin (feminine)(he = el) (she = ea)

    actor = actor actress = actribachelor = celibatar spinster = celibatarbarman = barman barmaid = barmani

    boy = biat girl = fatbridegroom = ginere bride = mireasbrother = frate sister = sor

    dad/daddy = tati/tticu mam/mammy = mamiearl = conte countess = contes

    father = tat mother = mamgentleman = domn gentlewoman = doamn

    god = zeu goddess = zeigrandfather = grandpa =

    bunicgrandmother = grandma

    = bunichero = erou heroine = eroin

    husband = so wife = soieking = rege queen = reginlad = flcu lass = fat

    4

  • 7/27/2019 Gramatica Limbii Engleze (Excelent).

    5/183

    landlord = proprietar landlady = proprietreasman = brbat woman = femeie

    master = stpn mistress = stpnmonk= clugr nun = clugri

    nephew = nepot niece = nepoatpapa/daddy = tata mamma/mammy = mama

    policeman = poliist policewoman = poliistprince = prin princ

Search related