50703370 Gramatica Limbii Engleze Timpurile

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  • 7/27/2019 50703370 Gramatica Limbii Engleze Timpurile



    UNIT I



    ExercisesI. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.

    1. Mary (see) Peter standing at the bus stop.Mary: Hello, Peter. What bus you (wait) for?Peter: Hello, Mary. I (wait) for an 18 or a 17.

    2. Mary: You usually (go) to work by car, dont you?Peter: Yes, but the car (belong) to my mother and she sometimes (want) it. She (use)it today to take my son to the dentist.

    3. Mary: I usually (go) by car too. John (takes) me because he (pass) my office on hisway to the headquarters of the ING Bank. But this week he (work) in the local branchin the opposite direction: so I (queue) like you.

    4. Peter: Heres an 18 now. You (come) on it or you (wait) for a 17?Mary: I (think) Ill take the 18. If I (wait) for a 17 I may be late, and if you (be) late atmy office everyone (look) at you.

    5. The cashier used to do the accounts and I used to check his figures; now the computer(do) it all.And who (check) the computer?No one. The computer (not need) a second opinion.And what (happen) if the computer (make) a mistake?The computer never (make) a mistake.

    II. Complete the sentences using one of these verbs: get, change, ri se, fal l , increase.

    You dont have to use all the verbs and you can use a verb more than once.

    1. The population of the world very fast.2. Bill is still ill but he better slowly3. The world . Things never stay the same. 4. The cost of living . Every year things are more expensive. 5. The economic situation is already very bad and it worse.

    III. Complete using one of the following:

    I apologise, I insist, I promise, I recommend, I suggest

    1. Its a nice day. we go out for a walk. 2. I wont tell anybody what you said. 3. (in a restaurant) You must let me pay for the meal. 4. for what I said about you. It wasnt true and I shouldnt have said it.5. The new restaurant in Hill Street is very good. it.

    IV. Complete the sentences using the most suitable form of BE. Sometimes you

    must use the simple (am/is/are) and sometimes the continuous is more suitable

    (am/is/are being).1. I cant understand why so selfish. He isnt usually like that.

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    2. Tom very nice to me at the moment. I wonder why. 3. Youll like Jill when you meet her. She very nice. 4. Normally you are very sensible, so why so silly about this matter?5. Why isnt Daniel at work today? ill?

    V. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense.1. We (plan) a mail shot to launch our new product.2. The advertising campaign for sports shoes usually (target) younger consumers.3. This watch (not/be) a genuine Rolex. It (be) a counterfeit.4. When you (travel) by plane, you can choose to sit by the window or in an aisle seat.5. If you always (buy) the same brand, people (say) you (be) loyal to that brand.

    VI.Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense.1. Ann: Ive got a letter from our German partners. They (say) they (come) to Bucharest

    next week and (want) us to meet and sign the new contract.2. Jones and Co. (have) a sale at the moment. Shall we look in on our way home?

    Id love to but Im afraid I wont have time. I (meet) Tom at 5.30. You (go) out with Tom often?

    3. Englishmen very seldom (talk) in the underground. They (prefer) to read theirnewspapers.Those two men in the corner (talk).But they (not/talk) English.

    4. The building opposite our company (be pulled) down. Thats why we (use) theback entrance at present. If you (go) out by the front door you (get) covered withdust.

    5. These apples (cost) 15p a bag. You (think) that is expensive?It (depend) on the size of the bag.




    I. Identify the types of Past tenses in the following sentences and explain their use:1. What were you doing before you came here?2. What did you do before you came here?3. What were you doing in my room?4. I was wondering if you wanted to come to the theatre.5. I picked up a cake and bit a piece off to see how it tasted.6. He walked into the bar and ordered a vodka and tonic.

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    7. When Mary came in I was telephoning Harry.8. When she arrived I telephoned Harry.9. I lived in Paris for seven years when I was a child.10.When did you last see her?

    II. Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple:1. Police (say) they (arrest) Olivia because her statements (not/add up).2. We (try) to find new services which (be) sophisticated and (have) added value.3. When (you/meet) the company accountant?4. It was hard work carrying the bags. They (be) very heavy.5. The bank recently (open) a branch in Germany.6. She (have) a stressful job as a sales representative.7. He (not/accept) this reply as valid.8. When (you/be) in this house last?9. The company (not/disclose) how much it expects to gain from the two deals.10. My friend (be) hungry, so we (drive) to a shopping mall to get some food.11. How long ago (you/return) from your trip to Egypt?12. I (look) everywhere for ideas.13. They recently (fail) to negotiate a mutually acceptable new contract.14. He (go) to the small stable where his horse (be), (harness) it, (mount), and (ride) out

    to the beach.15. They (not/want) to go against the wishes of their government.16. You (feel) out of place in your suit and tie.17. She (walk) back to the table and (sit) at the nearest of the two empty places.18. The discussion (take place) in a famous villa on the lakes shore.19. I (not./mean) to upset you John said. 20. She (be) barefoot and stones (dig) into her feet. Ouch, ouch, she (cry).

    III. Complete this description using the verbs given in the past simple :Long before jogging in Central Park (1)(become) the fashion, intellectuals on the

    tropical island of Pala (2). (put in) a couple of hours hard digging every day. They (3) (not/be) obliged to. But the Palanese (4) (very/be) advanced in matters of hea lth: they(5) (not/separate) minds from bodies, venerating brains at the expense of the whole humanorganism. In economic matters too, Palanese thinking (6) (very/be) advanced. Exportcrops (7) (be) discouraged: the islanders (7) (be) fed first. Money (8) (be wasted)neither on status symbols nor on weapons. The government (9) (buy) no armaments: there(10) (be) no army.Where (11) (this utopia/be)? Only, unfortunately, between the covers of Island AldousHuxleys final novel.

    IV. Complete the conversations using the present perfect simple or the past simple of

    theverb in brackets.

    1. I know Mr. Robinson. Really? How long (you/know) him? Oh, for quite a long timenow. When (you/first/meet) him? I (meet) him at Christies eight years ago.

    2. (Its 10 oclock in the morning) (you/see) Mrs. Carter this morning? Yes, I (see) herwhen I (arrive) in the office, but she (go) out soon afterwards.

    3. (you /ever/visit) Switzerland? Yes, I (visit) it twice. I (visit) it two years ago, and oncewhen I (be) a child.

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    4. (Its the middle of the afternoon) Im really hungry. I (not/have) any breakfast thismorning and I (not/have) time to go out for anything to eat this afternoon.

    V. Choose the correct form of the verbs .1. My sister has been/was interested in medicine ever since she has been/was a child.2. Its nearly twenty years since I have seen / saw him.3. Of the 59 committee members, 40 have been / were against the legislation, 13 have been /

    were in favour and the remainder have been / were undecided.4. We havent been / werent to a conference for over a year.5. The last time I have been / went swimming was when we were in Spain.6. You havent tidied / didnt tidy this room for weeks.7. After the meeting, the ministers have issued / issued a robust affirmation of their faith in

    the European Monetary System.8. James has been / was to Scotland last Friday.9. Last year the Government have mishandled / mishandled the whole affair.10.Ages ago, there have been / were deserts where there is now fertile land.

    VI.Continue the following sentences. Use the past progressive.1. My next door neighbour burnt his hand while he 2. The television was on but nobody 3. Her parents helped with child care while she 4. We saw an accident while we 5. For a ruin it was in good condition, as though the place 6. When the rain began they 7. Marianne was tempted to turn the large rooms into traditional French style salons, while

    she 8. The doorbell rang while I 9. Dave fell asleep while he 10.Somebody followed her while she

    VII. Complete the following paragraph with suitable verbs. Use either the past simple

    or past progressive tense.

    I had a terrible time last Sunday. It was rather cold, but quite sunny, so after lunch I (1) into town. I (2) to buy a pullover. I (3) in the window of a clothes shop when someone(4) my wallet. While I (5) home, it (6) to rain and I arrived home cold andmiserable. I (7) to have a bath. I (8) ready to have my bath when the doorbell (9) . Itwas a salesman and it took me several minutes to get rid of him. Unfortunately, all the timehe (10) to me the water (11) . You can imagine the state of the bathroom!

    VIII. These paragraphs begin three stories: a love story, a western and a horror story.Complete the paragraphs using the past progressive or the past simple of the verbs in


    It was midnight and I was alone in the house. Outside it (rain) very hard. I (get) readyto go to bed when I suddenly heard a strange noise outside my room in the corridor. Then,when I looked at the door, I noticed that someone (turn) the handle! I (rush) over to the doorand quickly (turn) the key in the lock. Then I (ask) in a trembling voice, Who is it?

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    It was early evening and it (begin) to get dark in the surgery of Doctor Nigel Harris.The young, handsome doctor (stand) looking sadly out of the window when there was a quietknock at the surgery door. The door (open) and Dr Harris (turn) round to see the young girlwho had just entered the room. She was very beautiful. With a sad smile the doctor (ask),Are you the new nurse?

    I (sit) in the big chair in Henrys barbers shop at the time. Henry (cut) my hair withhis big pair of scissors when we heard the sound of horses outside. The noise was so loud thatwe (go) over to the window to look. Through the window we could see at least twentygunmen riding into town. Henry immediately (go) over to his desk and (put) on his gun andSheriffs badge.

    IX. Correct the possible mistakes in the following sentences.1. What did you when you left school?2. Last year we visited the States.3. Martin looked forward to a peaceful weekend, when his brother arrived with all his friends

    from the football club.4. Optimism gradually took the place of pessimism while she was talking to the Production

    Director.5. When the reasons behind the decision were explained, of course, it was all becoming

    clearer.6. Dan folded it in his handkerchief and placed it in the inside pocket of his jacket.7. Her use of the word hate was sounding strange and out of place.8. He was spending a year studying Japanese in Tokyo, followed by a six-month work

    placement with the Japanese government.9. Last week they had placed an advertisement in the local paper for a secretary.10.What was going on here was an abuse of power.X. Translate into English:

    1. Anul trecut firma noastr i-a deschis alte trei sucursale n Asia de sud-est, cererea dearticole sportive fiind n cretere n ultimii cinci ani.

    2. Nu am participat la trgul internaional de mobil de anul trecut de la Paris, deoarecetaxele de participare au fost mult mai mari dect ne-am ateptat.

    3. Am devenit director de marketing n urm cu cinci ani. 4. Ieri am lucrat de la opt dimineaa pn la nou seara.5. Lee Iacocca, eful firmei Chrysler, a analizat posibilitatea prelurii firmei General

    Motors, ns a renunat la idee dup ce a ajuns la concluzia c: ar fi mai uor scumpr Grecia .

    6. A fost dificil pentru cei de la British Leyland: directori, funcionari, muncitori, saccepte schimbarea.

    7. Roboii de la firma Buick, fie nu s-au ridicat la nivelul ateptrilor, fie s-au defectat.La fel s-a ntmplat i cu relaiile dintre administraie i angajai.

    8. Anul trecut aproximativ 5600 de firme japoneze au dat faliment n primele apte luniale anului.

    9. Penuria de materii prime i componente i-a forat pe muli industriai s-i nchidfabricile la nceputul anului trecut.

    10.Multe dintre prediciile lui Asimov, inclusiv roboii liniilor de asamblare icomputerele de buzunar, au devenit realitate.

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    I. Rewrite each sentence, beginning as shown, so that the meaning stays thesame.1. Its a long time since I last met our German partners.

    I havent.

    2. This is my second visit to our subsidiary in New York.This is the second time

    .. 3. I paid this bill earlier, actually.

    Actually Ive..


    We havent been driving for ages.Its ages..

    5. Our PR manager started learning Spanish three years ago.Our PR manager has

    ..6. I am on the second page of the letter I am writing.

    So far I

    7. After I arrived here, I started to feel better.

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    Since arriving here,

    8. Its over ten years since I started working in this company. I have

    ..9. The last time I saw the company chairman was before Christmas.

    I havent.

    10.There is a definite improvement in your work.Lately your work

    II. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the word in capitals, and so thatthe meaning stays the same.

    1. You have missed the beginning of the negotiations. HAS

    2. Our boss is different from what he used to be. HAS

    ... 3. This has been my home for twenty years. HAVE

    ... 4. I dont know where my documents are. HAVE

    5. My father bought his company in 1950 and hes still running it. BEEN

    . III. Choose the most appropriate word or phrase for each situation.

    1. The price of petrol has risen/has been rising by 20% over the past year.2. Ive read/Ive been reading the terms of our contract with the French firm for anhour.

    3. Ive worked extra hours quite often lately/from time to time.4. Sorry, but I havent got that project finished already/yet.5. Dont disappoint me! Ive counted on you/Ive been counting on you.6. Our boss has finished translating our contract with the Chinese partner at last/this

    evening.7. Ive been phoning/Ive phonedour branch in Sophia all morning, but theres no

    reply.8. Nothing much has been happening by now/so far.


    Theyve been working at that Swiss firm for years/for ever.10.Ann has asked /has been asking for a pay-rise three times this year.

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    PAST PERFECTExercises

    I. Identify the Past Perfect tenses in the following sentences and comment upon theiruse:1. As soon as the boss entered the office, he realised that the relations between his two

    subordinates had improved.2. By the time they got to the party, most guests had left.3. He had established his company before the threat of recession loomed over some of the

    democracies of Eastern Europe.4. When he had established his company the threat of recession didnt loom over some of

    the democracies of Eastern Europe.5. When I reached Mr. Wood's place he had already heard the news.6. He met her in 1990 and again ten years later. Her hair, which had been grey at their first

    meeting, was now white.7. He met her first in 1990 when her hair was grey. He met her again in 2000 (or didnt meet

    her again till 2000). Her hair was now white.8. At last the bus came. Id been waiting for 20 minutes.9. Hes out of breath. He has been running.

    He was out of breath. He had been running.10. Im very tired. Ive been working hard all day.

    I was very tired when I arrived home. Id been working hard all day.

    II. Put the verbs in brackets into a suitable past tense (Past Tense or Past Perfect):1. Police (say) they (arrest) Olivia because her statements (not/add up).

    2. We (try) to find new services which (be) sophisticated and (have) added value.3. When (you/meet) the company accountant?4. It was hard work carrying the bags. They (be) very heavy.5. The bank recently (open) a branch in Germany.6. She (have) a stressful job as a sales representative.7. He (not/accept) this reply as valid.8. When (you/be) in this house last?9. The company (not/disclose) how much it expects to gain from the two deals.10.My friend (be) hungry, so we (drive) to a shopping mall to get some food.11.How long ago (you/return) from your trip to Egypt?12.I (look) everywhere for ideas.

    13.They recently (fail) to negotiate a mutually acceptable new contract.14.He (go) to the small stable where his horse (be), (harness) it, (mount), and (ride) out to the

    beach.15.They (not/want) to go against the wishes of their government.16.He (feel) out of place in your suit and t ie.17.She (walk) back to the table and (sit) at the nearest of two empty places.18.The discussion (take place) in a famous villa on the lakes shore.19.I (not to mean) to upset you, John said. 20.She (be) barefooted and stones (dig) into her feet. Ouch, ouch, she (cry).21.John (react) with the same affronted horror Ann (feel).

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    22.He (always / look) so young, but he (seem) to have aged in the last weeks.23.A spokesman (say), however, that the two men (not / reach) agreement on the issues

    discussed.24.I (mention) that I (really/not/like) contemporary music.25.The head of the state (say) his country (always/attach) great importance to good

    neighbourliness.26.He (claim) that his parents (abandon) him.27.I (go up) to the policeman and (complain) that this man (accost) me in the street.28.Mary (discover) an addiction to housework which she (never/feel) before.29.The women who (work) in these mills (begin) to agitate for better conditions.30.They (have) no money because they (spend) everything on duty free whisky.31.When we (arrive) at the stadium, the match (already/start).32.We (get) everything ready for them long before they (arrive).33.That (be) something I (not/expect)34.As soon as they (finish) breakfast, they (leave) for the University.35.When Dimitri (come) to England in 1995, he (already/learn) to speak English well.36.Consumer advocates (claim) that some oil companies (exploit) the Persian Gulf crisis.37.Although the child (only/miss) for eight hours the parents (decide) to call the police.38.No wonder the engine (break) down yesterday; it (run) for 24 hours.39.I (realise) someone (use) my camera because there were finger marks on the lens.40.She (fail) the exam though she (study) German for two years.41.When Jane (come) to the college in 1990, Mr. Robinson (already / teach) there for five

    years.42.Catherine (say) that the President (try) hard to hang onto power.43.The prisoner (saw) the bars for three nights before he finally (make) his escape.44.She (say) she (take) a big liberty in developing Mikes photos without his knowledge.45.When we (enter) the room they (negotiate) for three hours.46.It (be) only last year that Mr. Blake (finish) the book he (write) since 1999.47.They (say) heavy industry (pollute) our rivers with noxious chemicals for ages.48.Many modern medicines (not/be) invented by western scientists but by tribal people

    who (use) them for generations before the Europeans (arrive).49.At last the bus (come). I (wait) for 20 minutes.50.We (play) tennis for about half an hour when it (start) to rain very heavily.

    III. Starting from the information given, complete each sentence with a suitable verb in

    the past perfect simple or progressive.

    1. Maggie worked in the garden all afternoon. Then she took a hot bath.Maggie took a hot bath because .. in the garden all afternoon.

    2. Mary came top in the final examination. Her father bought her a car as a reward.Marys father bought her a car because she . top in the final exam.

    3. Henry came home from work early. He cooked lunch. His family were very impressed.Henrys family were very impressed to discover that he . lunch when he camehome from work early.

    4. I lost my watch. We had looked for it for hours. I was very pleased when my son found it.I was very pleased when my son found my watch because we . for it for hours.

    5. Ann worked very hard all morning. Her boss gave her an extra half hour for lunch. Sheboasted about it.Ann boasted that her boss . her an extra half hour for lunch because she .very hard all morning.

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    6. Patrick went to the disco. He came home very late. His mother was worried and she toldhim off when he got in.Patricks mother told him off when he came home late because she . about himall evening.

    7. Rebecca attended a marketing course. She made some new friends. She sent postcards tothem.Rebecca sent postcards to the new friends she . while she was attending amarketing course.

    IV. Choose the most appropriate time expression:

    1. The parcel still hadn't arrived by/until the end of the month.2. We bought our tickets and ten minutes later/after the fast train arrived.3. It was more than a weekbefore/until he realised what had happened.4. Once/afterwards I read the instructions I found I could use the hair-dryer quite well.5. When/after I got to the cinema Harry had been waiting for me. 6. Brenda had left before/until I had time to talk to her.7. Only after/only when posting the letter did I remember that I had forgotten to put on a

    stamp.8. No sooner/scarcely had I got into the bath than someone knocked at the door.9. We had only just/ only after arrived home when the police called.10.Mary had learned French before/until she came to France.

    V. Read the situations and complete the sentences using by the time:1. Mrs. Woods was invited to a party but she got there much later than she intended.

    .., most of the other guests had gone.2. I had to catch a train but it took me longer than expected to get to the station.

    .., my train had already gone.3. I saw two men who looked as if they were trying to steel a car. I called the police but itwas some time before they arrived.

    .., the two men had disappeared.4. A man escaped from prison last night. It was a long time before the guards discovered

    what had happened..., the escaped prisoner was miles away.

    5. I intended to go shopping after finishing my work. But I finished my work much later thanexpected.

    .., it was too late to go shopping.

    VI. Read the situations and write sentences ending with BEFORE. Use the verb given in

    brackets.1. The man sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous. It was his first flight.

    (fly) He 2. A woman walked into the room. She was a complete stranger to me.

    (see) I ..3. Simon played tennis yesterday. He wasnt very good at it because it was his first game.

    (play) He 4. Last year we went to Denmark. It was our first time there.

    (be) We 5. They concluded a contract two weeks ago. It was their first contract.

    (sign) They ............

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    VII. Use the sentences given below to complete the paragraphs. Make all the necessary

    changes in order to have meaningful structures:1. Somebody broke into the office during the night.

    We arrived at work in the morning.We called the police.We arrived at work in the morning and found that somebody . into the officeduring the night. So we ..

    2. Mr. Richard went out.I tried to phone him this morningThere was no answer.I tried to phone Mr. Richards this morning but . no answer. He . out.

    3. Jim came back from the holiday in Paris a few days ago.I met him the same day.He looked very well.I met Jim a few days ago. He . just .. He ..

    4. Kevin wrote to the local newspaper many times.They never replied to his letters.Yesterday he had a phone call from them.He was very surprised.

    Yesterday Kevin .. He . very surprised. He . many times but they..

    5. I applied for the assistant marketing manager last month.I arrived at the company for an interview at 12.30I found my husband in there, too.He was waiting for the interview for four hours.I arrived at the company for an interview at 12.30 as I .. the assistant marketingmanager the previous month. To my surprise I .. my husband in there who ..

    VIII. Translate into English:

    1. Mi s-a spus c acel contract fusese semnat naintea sosirii mele la firm. 2. Dei fusese concediat, John nc a mai pstrat legtura cu fotii si subordonai.3. Cnd n cele din urm a ajuns la aeroport, Bill a aflat c avionul su decolase de un sfert

    de or.4. Negociam noul contract cu partenerii austrieci de mai bine de trei ore, cnd i-a fcut

    apariia i noul preedinte al firmei.5. Aciunile firmei britanice ICI au nregistrat o cretere de 17.9% n primele opt luni ale

    anului trecut, n consecin agentul nostru de burs ne-a sftuit s cumprm mai multeaciuni. Bursa londonez este n prezent n scdere astfel nct ne-am hotrt s vindem.

    IX. Put the verbs in brackets into past simple or past perfect simple.

    1. John (react) with the same affronted horror Ann (feel).2. He (always / look) so young, but he (seem) to have aged in the last weeks.3. A spokesman (say), however, that the two men (not / reach) agreement on the issues

    discussed.4. I (mention) that I (really/not/like) contemporary music.5. The head of the state (say) his country (always/attach) great importance to good

    neighbourliness.6. He (claim) that his parents (abandon) him.7. I (go up) to the policeman and (complain) that this man (accost) me in the street.8. Mary (discover) an addiction to housework which she (never/feel) before.9. The women who (work) in these mills (begin) to agitate for better conditions.

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    10.They (have) no money because they (spend) everything on duty free whisky.11.When we (arrive) at the stadium, the match (already/start).12.We (get) everything ready for them long before they (arrive).13.That (be) something I (not/expect)14.As soon as they (finish) breakfast, they (leave) for University.15.When Paul (come) to England in 2001, he (already/learn) to speak English well.


    I. Put the verb in brackets at the tense required and make all the necessary changes:

    a. The carpenter (feel) the cupboard to see how polished it (be).b. Your friend from Canada (wait) for you in front of the airport.c. I (see) what you (mean).d. Keep quiet! What you (think) about that?e. You dont have to stay with me if you (be busy). f. The student did not know what temperature ice (melt) at.

    g. The plane (take off) at seven.h. I wont go out as it (snow) and I (not have) a thick fur coat. i. Never he (speak) to me nicely in weekends.j. This handbag (belong) to her.k. I (bet) you (not know) the news!l. Unless she (invite) us, we wont go there.m. Come quickly! I (smell) something burning in the kitchen.

    II. Comment on the use of the tenses in the following sentences:

    a. It rained heavily this morning.

    b.Today it has been a fine day.c. Weve never seen or heard of her since she moved to Paris.d.Sorry about all this mess. Ive been whitewashing the kitchen.e. Ive painted two walls since lunchtime. f. Shes been lying in bed all day.g. Wheres Mary? Shes lying on a rug under that lime tree. h.A lot of lovely houses have been built in our village.i. How many buttons has she sewn?

    j. How many buttons did you sew yesterday?k. I have mown the lawn.l. Who mowed the lawn? I did.m.The President has been assassinated.

    n.The President was assassinated last night/ two hours ago.o. I cant go on holiday because Ivebroken my arm.

    III. Continue the following sentences with the most suitable words or phrases:

    a)You look tired. Yes, Ive been working ... b)You look tired. Yes, I was working ... c)He had his hair cut three times ...d) He has had his hair cut twice ...e) Dont bet on that horse! But I have ...f) He took her out last Sunday, but he hasnt taken her ...

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    g)Has he bought the groceries ... ?h)Shes been in the shop ... but she ... hasnt bought anything. i) Have you travelled by bus ...?j) ... did you travel by tube?k)The last time I had a glass of champagne was ...l) The heating was put on ...m)The heating has been put on ...n)They havent greeted each other ... they parted.o)They havent given a party ... months.

    IV. Put the verb in brackets into a suitable tense:1. It takes only one day. I (come) back in time to sit for the exam.2. This device is cheap and useful. I think I (buy) it.3. What (you do) this weekend? I was thinking of visiting the international exhibition of

    furniture?4. All right. Ive put the spare part where you told me. Now what I (do) next?5. As far as I know, youve talked about his plans. He (leave) tonight?6. What (offer) your daughter for her graduation?7. Is that so? Then, neither me nor my stepbrother (give) her a hand.8. In three days time I (fly) over the Atlantic Ocean. 9. Theres someone at the door. That (be) Mr. Brown, the governor.10.By the time the manager comes to terms with the strikers, we (get) the money.

    V.Correct the mistakes in the following sentences. (Remember not to use a Future tense

    in a 'time' or 'if' clause, or after 'in case'.1.I'll go to the hairdresser's after it will cease raining.2.Will you be going to the greengrocer's later? If you will go, could you get me somepotatoes and onions?3.He said he wouldn't bother to fix a time to see me, because he'll call into the office anywayseveral times the next week.4.She had working as a secretary for a Manchester-based orchestra when Raphael has begunmaking regular appearances with them as guest conductor.(Ch. Lamb)5.That olive tree will still stand there five hundred years from now.6.What will they do on top of the mountain in case it will be a downpour?7.I will give the car a push if you will get in.8.She promised she would stop crying after her parents will have listened to her.9.He hopes they will repair this road by the time he will come back next summer.10.He asked us to heat the oil till it will begin to bubble.

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    UNIT V


    ExercisesI. Recognise the Future tenses (or ways of expressing futurity) in the following

    sentences and comment upon their use:1. I shall be flying to Canada this time tomorrow.

    2. He'll buy you a ring if you ask him.3. He's going to buy a ring for you.4. He won't buy it unless it's cheap.5. He's not going to buy it unless it's cheap.

    6. Will you leave without paying?7. You'll always find a welcome here whenever you call.8. She will go to the hairdresser's after she has washed her hair.9. She said the house at the back of their garden would be pulled down the next week.10.Will you be visiting aunt Cynthia tomorrow?

    II. Put the verbs in brackets at the tense required:1. How you (get) to the party tomorrow?2. My friend (sit) for an exam on Monday.3. He (sing) in Paris next week.4. I (take) my parents to the ballet tomorrow.

    5. They (play) some Beethoven next.6. Peter (call) for you at nine.7. We (meet) him at the airport at five.8. Hurry up! The train (leave) in a minute.9. We (leave) as soon as it (cease) raining.10.She told me she (see) the doctor at five p.m. the day after tomorrow.

    III. Put the verbs in brackets into the going to form and make a context for each


    1. When the gardener (water) the flowers?2. Ann (miss) her bus.

    3. This airplane (crash)4. The petrol tank (explode).5. What your teacher (do) with that big dictionary?6. It (snow). Look at the sky.7. I (plant) an oak tree here.8. You (tell) me the whole story?9. I (give) you one of these pills.10.How much you (give) me for this book?

    IV. Replace be going to by the future continuous and show the differences in

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    meaning (mention whether they are interchangeable):1. Are you going to sleep in the armchair?2. Are you going to take it with you?3. Are you going to spend your money in a hotel?4. Are you going to tell him the truth?5. Are you going to make all the arrangements?6. Are you going to discuss the matter with your mates?7. Are you going to sing at the concert tonight?8. Are going to come by air?9. Are you going to creep up the stairs?10.Are you going to take your medicine?

    V. Put the verbs in brackets in the appropriate form: 1. Ive noticed you have bought yourself a new bike. You (sell) the old one?2. You (turn off) the radio, please?3. He (do) the washing up today? No, I think it can wait till tomorrow.4. Im going fishing on Saturday. You (join) me?5. You (have) some more wine? No, thank you.6. Why did you make such an effort? You (take part) in the elections this year?7. You (buy) a bar of soap for me, please. Ive heard its cheaper this week. 8. You (have) some more wine? No, thank you.9. You (listen to) me, please. I (tell) you some unusual story.10.Why are you wearing this uniform? You (participate) in the parade?

    VI. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense (present, present perfect, future): 1. You (forget) your head next, you absent-minded old thing! .2. Ill wait for her in the restaurant till the clock (strike) four.3. When you (get) the results we all expect youll participate in the competition. 4. When he (admit) he was rude Ill forgive him.5. If I quit I (let) you know first.6. If you accept the bargain you (have) to pay for it.7. When he (bring) what he owes to me Ill set him free.8. When we (provide) all the facilities well speak about leaving the country. 9. When we (get) there well play hide-and-seek.10.If this terrible heat (not come) to an end well suffer from hunger the next year.

    VII. Identify the mistakes and correct them:1. I have discussed with Allan; we will meet our guests at the airport at ten a.m.

    tomorrow.2. What will you do this evening?3. My father is very determined. He isnt going to accept their resolution. 4. Your schoolmaster told me everything. As far as I understand you will attend the

    Russian course next term.5. I really dont know what to do. Are we going to a movie?6. By the time her father discovers her absence we will be reaching the Mediterranean

    Coast.7. What do you suppose you will have done when he will see you tomorrow?8. You cant disturb him now. He is about of falling asleep. 9. You arrived a little bit too late. She is on the point to get on the plane

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    10.Look how pale he is! He will faint.

    VIII. Rephrase each sentence so that it contains the word in capitals. Do not change

    the word in any way:1. What time is the train for Iai? leave

    What time does the train for Iai leave?2. What does your boy friend intend to do? going3. If he isnt ill youll find him playing tennis in the court. unless4. The members of the crew have planned to leave the ship tomorrow. leave5. The aircraft is on the point of landing. about6. His wife is pregnant again. have7.Im bound to work here till the end of my life. wont8. You can be sure that at the end of the school the car will be in

    front of the house. have9. His fate is to become a great singer. be

    10.The show will start in half an hour. start

    IX. Use the correct form of the verbs in brackets:1. It's midnight. He (to have a bath) now.2. By the end of the month we (to save) $ 300.3. He (to hear) the bad news by now.4. Your car looks filthy. I (to clean) it tomorrow.5. She has moved to Scotland, so I (to visit) her soon.6. They are playing a Beethoven overture, and then they (to play) a Mozart symphony.7. He's studying Biology first, and later he (to take up) Anatomy.8. I'm afraid Mr. Jarvis is out. I (to call back) tomorrow.9. The red carpet (to go) with the curtains in the sitting-room.10.The sun's getting in my eyes. I (to pull) the curtains.

    X. Choose the correct form of the verb: 1. Pour boiling water on the coffee grounds, wait till the grounds , then strain it into a

    clean jug.a. will settle; b. settle; c. are settling; d.have settled.

    2.. John said he would give me a ring as soon as he Paris.a. reaches; b. reached; c. will reach; d. will be reaching.

    He visits a new country every year. By the time he fifty he all the countries inthe world.

    a. is - will have visited; b. will be - has visited.4. By the end of the year all our debts .

    a. will have been paid off; b. will be paid off;5. It's no use phoning Irene at the office, she

    a. will be leaving; b. is leaving; c. will have left.6. Couldn't they stay in your spare room at Easter?

    Yes, I it by then. a. will have decorated; b. will be decorating.

    7. Your hair is getting terribly long.

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    Don't worry, I it cut on Wednesday. a. will be getting; b. get.

    8. She can't come to the beach with us because she an exam on Sunday. a. will be taking; b. will take; c. will have taken.

    9. He her at once when he her.a. will recognise - sees; b.will be recognising - will see.

    10. According to the latest forecast, the tunnel next year.a. will be finished; b. will have been finished; c. is finishing.

    XI. Choose the most appropriate word or phrase in italics:1. She can't leave on Sunday. She won't be ready until then/by then.2. John's father will be retiringsoon/already.3. By twenty four hours /this time tomorrow I'll be in the Netherlands.4. Please call Ann exactly when/the momentyou get any news.5. I'm sure everything will be all right at the end/in the end.6. Wait for him. He'll be backafter a few minutes/in a few minutes.7. There will be no official announcementsfrom now on/forthwith.8. The company will make a profit next year/by this time next year.9. I'll have a three weeks' holiday this year/just.10.I'll kiss him 'good night' when/afterhe goes to bed.

    XII. Give alternatives beginning as shown or containing the words on the margin:

    1. The arrival of the coach has been delayed, I'm afraid.The coach will

    2. This play will take him two months to write.In two months' time .

    3. Let's leave at the end of the next lecture.As soon as

    4. We'll have to leave immediately at the end of the film.

    The moment ..5. Paul will get over his illness. Then his work will improve.

    Once .6. She'll find him waiting outside the station. BE7. This will be the band's first concert in the US. TIME8. You will eventually appreciate what I'm getting at. IN9. They'll arrive soon. IT10.I won't spend a penny more. HE

    XIII. Translate into Romanian:1. I tried to explain to him that I certainly wouldn't have a breakdown anyway.

    ( Drabble)2. I'll make a deal with you. I know you' ve had a rough time lately, so I'll pay for you to

    have a holiday in a good hotel for a week, and then I'll pay your fare home, firstclass.(Ch. Lamb)

    3. We are having lunch in half an hour's time.4. Our company is going to open a second office.5. Will they be listening to a record this time tomorrow?6. He was sure that mother would be delighted when she heard that.7. Cynthia has just paid for the holiday she is taking in July.

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    8. I am going to keep my luggage in the spare room.9. She said auntie would have cooked dinner by the time my brother came back home.10.Have they repaired the roof yet?

    Not yet, but they' ll have repaired it by next Wednesday.

    XIV. Translate into English:

    1. Vom pleca dup ce mi va spune cum s-au petrecut lucrurile.2. Nu te culca nainte de a-i lua medicamentul.3. Dac Irina va gsi cartea, o va cumpra.4. Orchestra va fi repetat de dou ore cnd solistul va ajunge la oper.5. Nu credeam c la ora aceea tu vei mai cnta la pian.6. Unde mncm n seara asta? La bunica?7. i voi comunica hotrrea mea dup ce voi consulta avocatul.8. I-am explicat secretarei c va putea merge acas numai dup ce va bate la main toate

    scrisorile.9. Voi trece pe la teatru s cumpr dou bilete pentru premiera de mine sear dup ce m

    voi coafa.10.Este ngrozitor de cald n camer. Vom leina cu toii.

    XV. Use will or shall to fill the spaces in the following sentences:

    1. By this time next month he ........be teaching mathematics at Howard University.2. Wholl help me ? I.....3. What ......we do now? Wait.4. Youve behaved according to my expectations so, when we reach the final point of our

    trip you.......have a reward.5. I really dont know what to do this evening. .....we go for a ride? Yes, lets. 6. Now were here studying English. Where .....we be in twenty years time, what do you

    think?7. ..... have a cigarette?8. Who.........do this dirty job for me? I.......9. When.......I call on him?10.When you come to pay your debts, I.......lie on the beach.

    XVI. Put the verbs in brackets into the future perfect tense:1. I (find) out the results by this time tomorrow.2. By Monday he (work) it out.3. In 2020 I (be) here for thirty years.4. Ill still be here next year but John (leave).5. The dean (make) a decision before we reach the end of the semester.6. In two months time we (solve) this misunderstanding. 7. By June my father (work) in this company for twenty years.8. He (dig) the garden by nightfall.9. They (sort out) all the Valentine cards by 7 p.m.10.Within two weeks' time they (get married) and (leave) for their honeymoon in Venice.

    XVII. Put the verbs in brackets into the most suitable future form (future simple,

    future continuous, future perfect, or future perfect continuous):

    1. I cant lend you the car now. It is out of order. Call me in the evening. I (fix) it by

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    then.2. Call me on Monday. By then I (finish) to check your test and you (know) the mark

    youve got.3. By May I (work) in this office for ten years. I feel like making a change.4. Shirley (take) some guitar lessons next term. I hope she (learn) some pieces before the

    contest takes place.5. My pupils have already gathered about 1,000 bottles. By the end of the month they

    (collect) more than 2,000 if people keep on drinking at this rate.6. The band (give) a lot of air-open concerts by the end of the autumn.7. He has wasted his youth on the tennis court. Next week he (practice) it for five years

    and hope he (do) his best in the ATP Tour in Hamburg.8. According to the scientists opinion cancer (continue) to make lots of victims. It (kill)

    probably about 500,000 people by the year 2010.9. It started raining three hours ago. I hope that it (stop) by five ocloc k when we go to

    the party.10.They both are very good players. They (play) together for two years in April.

    XVIII. Choose the most appropriate words underlined:1. Will your brother be working / work on the first day after Easter? I was thinking of

    inviting him on a trip.2. John and Helen are due to divorce / are on the point of divorcing.3. Mary is / is going to earn a large amount of money so she retires / will be retiring.4. Here comes a policeman! What will you tell / are you going to tell him about the

    robbery?5. Dont be so anxious! Ill just come / Im just coming.6. What do you think youll be doing / youll doin five years time?7. Come on, hurry up, orwell miss / well have missed the train8. This time next week he'll be driving/he'll drive his own car.9. He said he would be leaving/will be leaving by the three o'clock fast train.10.He will have read/will read seven of Shakespeare's plays by the end of the month.



    3M is the epitome of all that is best incorporate America. To stay top the company must export its virtues to Europe.

    Whenever lists of Americas brightest and best are compiled 3M is guaranteed tofeature.

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    3M was born early in the 20th century as Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing. Themining soon ceased when the companys founders failed to dig up the corundum they hadhoped to discover. So they turned to trading in sandpaper, a product that uses the abrasivecorundum. From the beginning the company was forced to innovate or die.

    Today 3Ms headquarters and many of its laboratories are in St Paul, Minnesota. Mostof its customers are other industrial concerns. Its 60,000 products range from medical-imaging equipment to Scotch tape to abrasives for the car industry. With that unpromisingbackground, how has the company been so successful?

    Perpetual innovationWhen asked to explain its own success, 3M begins with technological innovation.3M is among the 25 companies with the most patents in the world 11 of the 25 are

    Japanese, 10 are American and only four are European. The company spends some 6.5% ofits total sales on research and development, almost twice the American average. And that hasincreased from about 4.5% at the beginning of the 1980s. The increase part of the responseto the less sparkling performance in the mid-1980s adds a not-insignificant $200 million ayear to the research budget.

    European action

    3M sees its future as lying increasingly outside the United States. Europe accounts forsome 30% of the companys worldwide sales and one-quarter of its employees. That puts 3Mamong the largest companies in Europe.

    The company has had subsidiaries in the region for almost 40 years and now has 17different companies on the continent and 14 major R&D centres. Since 1984 a number ofEuropean Management Action Teams (EMATs) have been set up under the direction of JoeWarren, 3Ms Brussels-based vice-president in charge of Europe.

    Briefly, 3M worldwide is divided into four sectors: industrial and electronics (36% ofsales); information and imaging technologies (28%); life sciences (22%); and commercialand consumer (14%). These four sectors are divided into 15 strategic business centres(SBCs)for audio-visual products, abrasives, etc. and each centre is responsible for threeor four of the companys 50 operating divisions. The operating divisions are run like smallbusinesses and 3M staff say that each has its own culture.

    Global strategy is determined by the business centres in St Paul. European input comesvia group directors (one for each business centre) based at 3Ms European headquarters inBrussels. In addition, the European organization has a number of product managers (most ofthem in Brussels) plus managing directors in charge of each of the 17 European subsidiaries.These subsidiaries are run nationally, with a few exceptionfor example, the MD of Spain isalso the MD of Portugal, and the MD of the UK is also the MD of Ireland.

    Each of the 40-plus EMATs corresponds roughly to an operating division and hasbetween eight and ten members drawn from different functions and different countries.Typically they meet every four to six weeks. In theory they have collective responsibility for

    achieving the companys European goals; in practice they spend much of their timediscussing the launch of new products.

    Although 3M has only 150 Americans working for the company outside the UnitedStates (even in the UK there are only six American employees), the language of the EMATsis English. Since these were the first formal means for more junior employees of differentnationalities to get together, the early discussions tended to be dominated by the fluentEnglish-speakers: the British, the Dutch and the Irish. Now the company insists that a certainlevel of proficiency in English is a prerequisite for joining an EMAT, and team members arebeing trained to learn how to accommodate different cultures.

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    The future depends on how well the company has learnt to adapt to change. One ofthe greatest changes in its markets is occurring in Europe, and much hangs on the ability ofthe EMATs to come up with products that will meet the fast-shifting demands of 3MsEuropean customers.


    Vocabulary Exercises

    I. Read the text and answer these questions in your own words:1. Make a short profile of 3M.2. Why the term innovation is so closely connected to the American company?3. Where are 3Ms European headquarters located?4. What is the language of the EMATs? Can you give reasons for that?

    II. Match the words listed with the dictionary definitions: subsidy, census, recovery,

    stability, budget, Treasury, privatization, deficit, sterling, conciliation

    1. To take a count of something, such as population, production or distribution. Agovernment device to monitor economic developments.

    2. When nationalized industries are being returned to shareholders.3. One of a governments principal aims both in terms of currency and employment.4. A payment by the State to producers in order to reduce prices.5. The attempt to bring the two sides together in an industrial dispute which is damaging

    the national economy.6. A time when businessmen are beginning to regain confidence. Order books are

    beginning to fill up and more jobs are being created.7. The currency for the UK.8. The budgetary situation when the Chancellor of the Exchequer raises less in taxes

    than he spends.9. The government department concerned primarily with finance.10.The national income and expenditure plans.III.Some of the words in the following sentences are in bold. Look through the text

    and identify the words that were actually used to express the same ideas.1. 3M has had its own local companies in Europe for 40 years.2. Joe Warren is responsible for European business. He has helped establish several

    EMATs since 1984.3. There are four main divisions in which 3M does business worldwide.4. The operating divisions are managed like small businesses and, according to

    employees, each division has its own culture.

    5. The companys plan of action is determined in St Paul.6. The central offices of 3M Europe are located in Brussels.7. The EMATs often discuss the introduction of new products onto the market.8. The EMATs are responsible forreachingthe companys European objectives.9. In the future, the EMATs will have to think ofproducts that will meet the demands of

    European customers.

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    Our society is made up of all kinds of organizations, such as companies, governmentdepartments, unions, hospitals, schools, libraries, and the like. They are essential to ourexistence, helping to create our standard of living and our quality of life. In all theseorganizations, there are people carrying out the work of a manager although they do not havethat title. The vice-chancellor of a university, the president of a students union or a chieflibrarian are all managers. They have a responsibility to use the resources of theirorganization effectively and economically to achieve its objectives.

    Are there certain activities common to all managers? Can we define the task of amanager? A French industrialist, Henri Fayol, wrote in 1916 a classic definition of themanagers role. He said that to manage is to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, tocoordinate and to control. This definition is still accepted by many people today, thoughsome writers on management have modified Fayols description. Instead of talking aboutcommand, they say a manager must motivate ordirect and leadother workers.

    Henri Fayols definition of a managers functions is useful. However, in mostcompanies, the activities of a manager depend on the level at which he/she is working. Topmanagers, such as the chairman and directors, will be more involved in long range planning,policy making, and the relations of the company with the outside world. They will be makingdecisions on the future of the company, the sort of product lines it should develop, how itshould face up to the competition, whether it should diversify etc. These strategic decisionsare part of the planning function mentioned by Fayol.

    On the other hand, middle management and supervisors are generally making the day-to-day decisions which help an organization to run efficiently and smoothly. They mustrespond to the pressures of the job, which may mean dealing with an unhappy customer,chasing up supplies, meeting an urgent order or sorting out a technical problem. Managers atthis level spend a great deal of time communicating, coordinating and making decisionsaffecting the daily operation of their organization.

    An interesting modern view on managers is supplied by an American writer, Mr.Peter Drucker. He has spelled out what managers do. In his opinion, managers perform fivebasic operations. Firstly, managers set objectives. They decide what these should be and howthe organization can achieve them. For this task, they need analytical ability. Secondly,managers organize. They must decide how the resources of the company are to be used, howthe work is to be classified and divided. Furthermore, they must select people for the jobs tobe done. For this, they not only need analytical ability but also understanding of humanbeings. Their third task is to motivate and communicate effectively. They must be able to get

    people to work as a team, and to be as productive as possible. To do this, they will becommunicating effectively with all levels of the organization their superiors, colleagues,and subordinates. To succeed in this task, managers need social skills. The fourth activity ismeasurement. Having set targets and standards, managers have to measure the performanceof the organization, and of its staff, in relation to those targets. Measuring requires analyticalability. Finally, Peter Drucker says that managers develop people, including themselves.They help to make people more productive, and to grow as human beings. They make thembigger and richer persons.

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    In Peter Druckers view, successful managers are not necessarily people who areliked or who get on well with others. They are people who command the respect of workers,and who set high standards. Good managers need not be geniuses but must bring charactertothe job. They are people of integrity, who will look for that quality in others.

    Vocabulary Exercises

    I. Complete the following sentences using suitable words from below.

    managing director junior executive colleaguedirector supervisor staffsenior executive superior employeemiddle manager subordinate work-force

    1. The group of executives working below the top managers are generally called .2. Valerie is an important person in our company. She is a member of the Board of 3. Peter, a recent university graduate, has been with the firm for a year. He is at present

    a and is being trained for a managerial position.

    4. Their . is expending rapidly. They now have over 5,000 employees.5. At least 50% of our . have been with the company for over tenyears.

    6. in an organization generally have more fringe benefits than lower-levelmanagers.

    7. We are a small group in the Research and Development Department. Fortunately, Iget on well with all my . .

    8. Our telephone operators work under the direction of a . I work under Mr. Brown.Hes my .

    9. Sheila and Tom work under my authority. I am their boss and they are my .

    10.I am responsible for . training and development.11.A is a person of high rank in an organization, usually next inimportance to the Chairman.

    II. Word building

    Complete the following sentences with correct form of the words in italics.

    1. producea Our of washing-machines increased by 5% last year.b We have recently put on the market two new .c per worker will increase with the introduction of the new machines. d Word processors have helped to make office workers more .e The company is well known in the agricultural industry. It sells mainly farm -

    eggs, butter, milk, etc.

    2. competea Coca Colas main is the Pepsi-Cola company.

    b We try to stay by investing heavily in advertising and promotion.c Our companys main objective is to keep ahead of the . .

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    1. plana The meeting did not go as .. .b Some projects take years of .. .c Before asking a bank manager for money, it is wise to show him a business .. .

    2. analysea Managers need to have an . mind.b Our .. showed that we needed to put more emphasis on marketing. c We must look at the problem .

    III.Complete the following sentences with the correct word or phrase (a,b,c or d).

    1. Nowadays, I eat out at restaurants regularly and often go abroad for holidays. My is much higher than it used to be. a standard of living b cost of living c lifestyle d way of life

    2. Writing reports is not a that everyone enjoys.a duty b work c job d function

    3. This machine uses much less fuel than the previous one. It is far more .a sparing b economic c effective d economical

    4. The management has worked out a . to improve our market share. a strategy b policy c target d planning

    5. Many of the .. in the Personnel Department are part-time workers.a staff b staffs c employers d personal

    6. One of the companys main is to increase sales by 10% per year. a designs b plans c purposes d objectives

    7. Several machines have broken down. We wont be able to an importantorder.a fill b meet c make d do

    IV. Complete the following sentences, using suitable forms of the verbs below.

    sort out make out bring out pull outspell out buy out carry out

    sell out sound out turn out

    1. The firm about five hundred sports cars a year. 2. We hope to our production problems soon.3. If the firm doesnt make a profit, the owners will probably .

    4. Im willing to consider introducing flexitime, but would you first the advantagesof the system, please?

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    5. Givenchy have an exciting new perfume.6. Would you the cheque to David Cotton, please?7. In order to develop new products, pharmaceutical companies have to . a lot of

    research.8. Several leading banks such as Barclays have of South Africa. 9. A group of senior managers want to take over the firm by it . 10.Were looking for a new chief executive. I understand one or two candidates have

    already been .


    Sales and negotiation

    Selling and Negotiating Background information


    You dont have to be a very special kind of aperson to sell a product. But although

    successful salespeople often have specialtalents and an outgoing personality, the skillsthey employ are used by us all: we build andmaintain relationships with different kind ofpeople, we listen to and take note of what theytell us and dont just enjoy the sound of ourown voices, and we explain things to them ordiscuss idea with them.

    A firm may depend on their own sales teamand/or on the salesmanship of their

    distributors, wholesalers or retailers. But anycompany needs to establish a personalrelationship with its major clients (keyaccounts) and potential customers(prospects). It is often said that people dobusiness with people: a firm doesnt just dealimpersonally with another firm, but a person inthe buying department receives personal visitsfrom people representing firms suppliers on a

    regular basis - or in the case of departmentstores or chain stores, a team of buyers maytravel around visiting suppliers.

    Keeping salespeople on the road is muchmore expensive than employing them to workin the office because much of their time is

    spent unproductively travelling. Telephoneselling may use this time more productively(though in some country this is illegal), but aface-to-face meeting and discussion is muchmore effective. Companies involved in theexport trade often have a separate export salesforce, whose travel and accommodationexpenses may be very high. So servicingoverseas customers may often be done byphone, fax or letter with not so many personalvisits. Many firms appoint an overseas agent

    or distributor whose own sales force takes overresponsibility for selling their products inanother country.

    A sales department consists of many peoplewho are based in different parts of the countryor the world, who dont have the day-to-daycontract and opportunities for communicatingwith each other that office-based staff have.

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    For this reason, firms hold regular salesconferences where their entire sales force canmeet, receive information and ask questionsabout new products and receive training.


    Diplomacy, friendliness and co-operation are important in selling.Theres a widespread belief, which is

    probably true, that buyers buy fromthose they like and that sellers give a

    better deal to those they like. Allsalespeople have a certain fear, orreverence, for buyers because they have

    the power to give or to withhold an

    order. Negotiation is the part of thesales conversation where bargainingabout the conditions of an order takes

    place. It comes at the end of the salestalk at the point when the buyer iddefinitely interested. Because additional

    persuasion may be required, itsimportant not to give away concessionswhile making the sales presentation.

    In international business there are differenttypes of business negotiations, negotiationstyles and negotiation situations. A simplifiedmodel of what goes and shows four mainphases of negotiation:1. The preparation phase: this is where you

    work out what you want and what yourmain priorities are.

    2. The debating phase: this is where you tryto find out what the other side or thecustomers wants. You say what you want

    but you dont say yet what the finalconditions are. You use open questions andlisten to the customer to try t find out inwhat areas they may be prepared to move.

    3. The proposal phase: this is the point atwhich you suggest some of the things youcould trade or which you mighttheoretically be prepared to trade, offer orconcede. Formulate your proposals in the

    form ofifthen Be patient and listen tothe other sides proposals.

    4. The bargainingphase: this is when youindicate what it is you will actually trade,offer or perhaps concede. In turn youconditionally exchange individual points,along the lines of: If you are prepare to

    pay swiftly, then we are prepared tochange our delivery schedules. Rememberto write down the agreement.

    Not all business negotiations take place face-to-face. Sometimes you may have to exercisenegotiating skills on the telephone. Clearly,too , not all business bargaining ends in a deal.Some negotiations may begin with anexploratory session during which the clientsspecify their needs and expect you to come

    back later with a proposal of how yourcompany will meet those needs.

    People often try to postpone a decision. Theymight politely break off from the negotiationand say something like: Ill have to thinkabout itor Ill have to consult my boss or mydepartment head, etc. On the whole, however,people expect that agreement will be reachedor else youll do business with anothercompany. Normally both parties are interested

    in reaching an agreement in which both sidestake away something positive from the deal.This is called a win-win situation.

    However, conflict can occur in businessnegotiations and relationships. Naturally, weall try to avoid this because this is where onlyone side can wind and the other will lose.Situations which might lead to suchnegotiations could be late delivery, poorperformance of a product, component failure

    or the need to make compensation payment. Ina situation where one side is clearly wrong, theoutcome is clear: either the conflict continuesuntil the dispute is resolved or it goes to court.

    The final important point about negotiating inthe business world is the law of contract. It isgenerally enforceable in the courts. Theposition is more complicated in international

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    business negotiations because of differences inlaws and assumed liabilities. But, nevertheless,the courts are a source for remedies if contractare broken. Suing defaulting contractors isquite common. A sound knowledge of contract

    law is therefore essential for negotiatorsdrawing up an agreement at the end of a deal.However, this is the point at which the expertswill usually have to be called in and so is notdealt with further here.

    B. Reading comprehension

    Co-operation and competition in Negotiation

    Negotiations are complex because one is dealing with both facts and people. It isclear that negotiators must above all have a good understanding of the subject. Theymust also be aware of the general policy of the company or institution in relation to theissues and they must be familiar with the organisational structure and the decision-making process.

    However, awareness of these facts may not necessarily suffice to reach a successful outcome.

    Personal, human factors must be taken in account. The approach and strategy adopted in negotiationsare influenced by attitude as well by a cool, clear logical analysis of the facts and ones interests. Thepersonal needs of the actors in negotiating must therefore be considered, these can include a need forfriendship, goodwill, credibility, recognition of status and authority, a desire to be appreciated byones own side and to be promoted and, finally, an occasional need to get home reasonably early ona Friday evening. It is a well-known fact that meetings scheduled on a Friday evening are shorterthan those held at other times. Timing can pressure people intro reaching a decision and personalfactors can become part of the bargaining process.

    Researchers who have studied the negotiating process recommend separating the people fromthe problem. An analysis of negotiating language shows that, foe example, indirect and impersonalforms are used. This necessity to be hard on the facts and soft on the people can result in the

    sometimes complex, almost ritualistic, style of negotiating language.Language varies according to the negotiating style. In negotiating you can use either a co-

    operative style or a competitive one. In the co-operative style the basic principle is that both partiescan gain something form the negotiation without harming the interests of the other. Or in other wordsthat both parties will benefit more in the long run in friendship and co-operation even if they makesome concessions. This type of negotiation is likely to take place in-house between colleagues anddepartments, or between companies when there is a longstanding relationship and common goals arebeing pursued.

    Unfortunately co-operative style negotiations without a trace of competition are rare. In mostnegotiating situations there is something to be gained or lost. There can be a danger in adopting a co-operative mode, as unscrupulous people may take advantage of co-operative people.

    The opposite mode to co-operative negotiating is competitive negotiating. Negotiators seeeach otheras opponents. Knowledge of the other partys needs is used to develop strategies to exploitweaknesses rather than to seek a solution satisfactory to both sides. This type of negotiating may beappropriate in the case of one-off contract where the aim is to get the best result possible withoutconsidering future relationships or the risk of a breakdown in negotiations. Needless to say, thelanguage in this type of discussion may become hostile and threatening even it remains formal.

    In reality, most negotiations are a complex blend of co-operative and competitive mode.Negotiating successfully implies dealing appropriately with the four main components of anynegotiation: facts, people, competition, and co-operation.

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    Skilled negotiators are sensitive to the linguistic signals, as well as the non-verbal ones offacial expressions, gesture and behaviour, which show the type of negotiating mode they are in.

    Language reflects tactics and therefore a study of the language use in negotiating brings agreater awareness of the negotiating process.

    (Adapted fromNegotiate in French and English by Pamela Shepard and Bndicte Lapeyere)

    C. Exercises

    I. Read the above article and then fill each gap below with one word.

    1. Good negotiators must know their well and they must know theircompanys . But they must also consider factors because they aredealing with

    2. Negotiations are affected by the participants , as well as logic.3. Research has shown that it can help to separate the from the . This can be done

    by using special negotiating 4. In a style of negotiation, the participants try not to harm each others . In order to

    maintain a good long-term they both make 5. In a style of negotiation the parties are . This style may be suitable for a

    contract. The language here become and .6. Most negotiations are a of the two styles. A good negotiator must be aware of the

    and signals which show the style being used.7. The four main factors involved in a negotiation are , , and .II. Fill the gaps in these sentences with a suitable noun or prepositional phrase.

    of inferior quality of minor importance of short duration out of date out of order out ofstock out of work to a certain extent under separate cover with reference to

    1. We are sending you our Spring catalogue 2. Because the other items on the agenda were the meeting was adjourned.3.

    It is at this stage of the process that any products are removed from the assembly line.

    4. Even if the machine are , they should not be touched unless the power supply is off.5. At a time when so many skilled workers are , it will be easy to fill the vacancy.6. The old machinery was completely 7. your letter of 15 March, we are unable to offer you an alternative delivery date.8. The strike was so the production last was minimal.9. Well have to reduce the workforce , perhaps by a process of voluntary redundancies.10.We regret that we are unable to supply the items you ordered, as we are completely .

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    III. Decide which of the expressions below can be used for these functions. Mark the

    expressions a, b, c, etc.

    a. asking for advice from a friendb.

    asking for advice from someone youdont know well

    c. giving advice indirectlyd. giving advice in a direct fashione. accepting advicef. rejecting advi

    1. Thats a good idea

    2. If I were in your position, I would 3. Good idea, lets try that

    4. Im not sure thats such a good idea

    5. I would appreciate your advice on

    6. Could I ask for some advice on

    ? 7. Have you ever thought of ?

    8. Id like your advice on

    9. Why dont you ?

    10.Do you think I should ?

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    IV. Write the missing words in these sentences in the spaces in the puzzle

    1. Well send you a of our product2. How can we sales without taking on more sales staff?3. Ive noticed that there has been a towards ordering later.4. There is an enormous market for this product 5. ACME plc is our major 6. What of sales do you anticipate in your region?7. We have built up a great deal of among our regular customers.8. After that report on TV, we have had a lot of good 9. Even a company that has a invests in marketing and sale.

    UNIT IXMarketing

    A. What is marketing? Background information

    Nowadays, marketing influences, and oftenactually controls, almost every part of acompanys activities.Underlying all marketing strategy is TheMarketing Concept, explained here:


    (We must produce what customers want, not

    what we want to produce)

    This means that we PUT THE


    (We organize the company so that this




    (We carry out market research)

    We must SUPPLY exactly what the

    customer wants

    We can do this by offering the right

    MARKETING MIX: The Four Ps = the

    right PRODUCT at the right PRICEavailable through the right channels of

    distribution PLACE presented in the right

    way: PROMOTION

    The Four Ps

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    PRODUCT =the goods or service that youare marketing

    A product is not just a collection ofcomponents. A total product includes the

    image of the product, its design, quality andreliability as well as its features andbenefits. In marketing terms, politicalcandidates and non-profit-making publicservices are also products that people mustbe persuaded to buy and which have to bepresented and packaged attractively.Products have a life cycle, and companies arecontinually developing new products toreplace products whose sales are decliningand coming to the end of their lives.

    PRICE = making it easy for the customer tobuy the product.

    Pricing takes account of the value of a productand its quality, the ability of the customer topay, the volume of sales required, and theprices charged by the competition. Too low aprice can reduce the number of sales just assignificantly as too high a price. A low pricemay increase sales but not as profitably asfixing a high, yet still popular, price.

    As fixed costs stay fixed whatever thevolume of sales, there is usually no such thingas a profit margin on any single product.

    PLACE = getting the product to the customer

    Decisions have to be made about the channelsof distribution and delivery arrangements.Retail products may go through variouschannels of distribution:

    1. Producer end-users (the product is solddirectly to the end-user by the companyssales force, direct response advertising ordirect mail (mail order))

    2. Producer retailers end-users.3. Producer wholesalers/agents

    retailers end-users

    4. Producer wholesalers directly toend-users.

    5. Producer multiple store groups /department stores / mail order houses end-users.

    6. Producer market wholesalers retailers end-users.

    Each stage must add value to the product tojustify the costs: the person in the middle isnot normally someone who just takes theircut but someone whose own sales force anddelivery system can make the productavailable to the largest number of customersmore easily and cost-effectively. Oneprinciple behind this is breaking down thebulk: the producer may sell in minimumquantities of, say, 10,000 to the wholesaler,

    who sells in minimum quantities of 100 to theretailer, who sells in minimum quantities of 1to the end-user. A confectionery manufacturerdoesnt deliver individual bars of chocolate toconsumers: distribution is done throughwholesalers and the retailers who each addvalue to the product by providing a goodservice to their customers and stocking aswide range of similar products.PROMOTION = presenting the product tothe customer

    Promotion involves the packaging andpresentation of the product, its image, theproducts brand name, advertising andslogans, brochures, literature, price lists, after-sales service and training, trade exhibitions orfairs, public relations, publicity and personalselling.Every product must posses a unique sellingproposition (USP) the features andbenefits that make unlikely any other productin its market.

    Thinking marketing

    Marketing affects every aspect of a

    companys operations, as shown


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    Everyone who works for the company must

    think marketing

    To think marketing we must have a clear idea


    What the customers need

    What the customers wantWhat causes them to buy

    What the product is to the customer: itsfunctional, technical; and economic aspects as

    well as the aesthetic, emotional andpsychological aspects

    FEATURES (what the product is) +BENEFITS (which means that )

    We must be aware of our firms strengths andweaknesses as well as the opportunities andthreats we face in the market. (S.W.O.T.)

    B. Reading Comprehension

    Are brand names being pushed off the shelf ?

    According to theWall Street

    Journal: More

    and more

    shoppers are


    household names

    for the cheaper,


    products one

    shelf over. This

    shows that even

    the biggest and

    strongest brands

    in the world are

    vulnerable.It has been clear

    for some time principally sincerecession began to befelt in the majoreconomies of theworld that thestrength of brandshas been under fire.During the secondhalf of the eighties,the Japanese, forexample, showed

    themselves willing topay a huge premiumto buy goods with asmart label andimage to match: theywere fashion victimspar excellence, be itin choosing theirluggage (LouisVuitton was muchfavoured) or in buy

    in their booze, wherea 20-year-old versionof a good maltwhisky could fetchthe equivalent of 60or more. Over thepast year or two, thatenthusiasm to spendbig money on aclassy label haswaned markedly.

    But wemay be witnessingthe death of thebrand.

    First, every storythat now appearsabout the troublesbeing experienced bymakers of luxurygoods triggers wise

    nods and told-you-sofrowns.

    Two days ago,LVHM in France,which owns Moetet Chandonchampagne, LouisVuitton and theChristian Lacroixfashion house,reported lower

    earnings for thefirst half of 1993that it did a yearago. As DavidJarvis, in chargeof the Europeanoperations ofdrinkscompanyHiramWalker,puts it: A fewyears ago, it might

    have beenconsidered smartto wear a shirtwith a designerslogo embroideredon the pocket;frankly, it nowseems a bit naff.

    This conclusionfits with ones

    instincts. In thestraitened nineties,with nearly 3millions out of workand 425,000 peopleofficially classed ashomeless in Englandalone, conspicuousconsumption nowseems vulgar ratherthan chic.

    But just becauseflashy, up-marketbrands have lostsome of their appeal,I does not follow thatall brands have doneso. Cadburys DairyMilk is just as mucha brand as Cartierwatches. Tastes mayhave shifted

    downmarket but thatdoes not mean thatthey have shiftedfrom flash-brand tono brand.

    The secondstrand of the brandargument Is tiedintimately with theeffects of recession.

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    No one yet knows towhat extent theapparent lack ofsome brands appealis merely a temporary

    phenomenon. It maywell be that, deepdown, we would stilllove to own a LoiusVuitton suitcaserather than one fromWoolworths butwhile we are out ofwork or fearing thatour job is at risk, weare not prepared to

    express thatpreference byactually spending thecash.

    Third, theexample of Marlborois an extreme one.The difference inprice betweenpremium brandcigarettes and budgetrivals in the US hadbecome huge duringthe 1980s: a packetof Marlboro orCamel might cost 80per cent more than abudget variety fewbrands in any area ofconsumer goodscould hope tomaintain so great apremium indefinitely.

    And fourth, inlooking at the brandsargument globally itis too easy to becomemisled by what ishappening in anindividual market. Inthe UK as a whole,about one third of

    groceries are undersupermarkets ownlabels. In the USAthe proportion is only20 per cent. But it

    does seem that thegradual shift frommanufacture-brandedto retailer-brandedgoods is worldwide.

    As David Jarvisof Hiram Walkersays: We believethat brands will retaintheir halo, but peopleare less inclined to

    pay for somethingjust because its afashion accessory.They need to bereassured that theproduct isintrinsically better.

    Reports of thedeath of the brandhave beenexaggerated. Reportsof the death of theluxe brand may bepremature, but soundmuch more plausible.

    (from the Guardian)

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    C. Exercises

    I. Read the above article and the fill each gap below with one word.

    1. Consumers often prefer to buy unbranded products rather than more branded goods. The reason for this seems to be the worldwide in major economies.

    2.In Japan consumers are less likely to buy goods with a fashionable 3.In the present economic climate it seems to spend money on expensive

    designer products.4. brands are less popular, but brands are still important5.Maybe, when the recession is over, designer brands will regain their 6.

    In the 80s, famous-brand cigarettes cost per cent more than cheapbrands. This difference is no longer so

    7.In the USAproportionally own-label brands are sold than in Britain.8.The consumer wont buy branded goods unless they are II. Add the missing words to the puzzle

    1. Please take one of these describing our new product. 2. Theres a full description of the product on the 3. We are about to a new product.4. You can see the trend that these figures show by looking at this 5. The average is unaware of marketing.6. This shows that our sales are rising.7. I think youll like our new on the wall outside.8. Retail outlets are being encouraged to use this window 9. Coca-Cola and Pepsi are both famous 10.I think youll agree that this new budget-price products is a real 11.Which of the should we place our advertisements in?12.Our product compares very well with nationally advertised 13.According to a recent , 45.9% of consumers prefer not to by imported

    goods.14.The motor is exactly the same, but the case is a completely new 15.Which do our products sell best in?16.Demand formany products may according to the season.17.Its important that our dont find about our new process.

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    18.I saw the product in a magazine.19.You can buy this product in any supermarket or

    20.Consumers must be fully aware of the of a product.

    III. Fill the gaps in the sentences below with words from this list:

    commercials competes design distri bution end-users hire purchase image

    labels mail order mater ials newspaper advertisement oppor tunities outlets

    place posters pr ice product promotion public relations radio spots r ival

    satisfy strengths threats weaknesses

    1. What is the marketing mix?The marketing mix consists of four Ps: providing the customer with the right p at the right p , presented in the most attractive way (p )and available in the easiest way (p ).

    2. What is a product ?

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    A product is not just an assembled set of components: it is something customersbuy to s a need they feel they have. They i and the d ofthe product are as important as its specification.

    3. What is price?The product must be priced so that it c effectively with r

    products in the same market.4. What is promotion?

    The product is presented to customers through advertising (e.g. TV c,r, n, p), packaging (e.g. design, l,m), publicity, P.R. (..) and personal selling.

    5. What is place?Your product must be available to customers through the most-effectivechannels of d A consumer product must be offered to e.. insuitable retail o.., or available on h.. or by m

    6. What is meant by S.W.O.T?A firma must be aware of its s.. and w.. and the o.. andt.. it faces in the market.

    IV. Match the words listed below with the dictionary definitions which follow.

    market research customer l ist price money spinner monopoly

    competitor cash cow brand ni che market share key player market

    economy sales force marketplace market segment

    1. Individuals or organizations who buy things from shops or other organizations.2. A product or investment that steadily continues to be profitable.3. A company which is the only provider of a particular product and service and

    which therefore has complete control over an industry, so that it is impossiblefor other companies to compete with it.

    4. A specific area of a market which has its own special customers andrequirements

    5. Companies who are trying to sell similar goods or services in the same market.6. The version of a product that is made by one particular manufacturer.7. The price which the manufacturer suggests that a shopkeeper should charge for

    it.8. The most important competitors in a market.9. All the people that work for a company selling its products.10.The activity of buying and selling products.11.The activity of collecting and studying information about people want, need and


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    12.A part of a larger market, for example the market for trucks seen as a part of theoverall market for vehicles.

    13.The proportion of sales that a company or a product has in particular market.14.The activity in the market where things are bought and sold freely and not

    under government control.15.A product or business generating a lot of profit.