Gramatica Limbii Engleze(Super Buna)

  • View
    1.790

  • Download
    100

Embed Size (px)

Text of Gramatica Limbii Engleze(Super Buna)

I.

MORFOLOGIA (THE MORPHOLOGY)

(gr. morphe - form, logos - studiu) Morfologia este partea gramaticii care cuprinde regulile de modificare a cuvintelor n procesul comunicrii. Ea studiaz prile de vorbire sub aspect formal, semantic i funcional.

Prile de vorbire sunt: 1. Articolul (The Article) 2. Substantivul (The Noun) 3. Adjectivul (The Adjective) 4. Pronumele (The Pronoun) 5. Numeralul (The Numeral) 6. Verbul (The Verb) 7. Adverbul (The Adverb) 8. Prepoziia (The Preposition) 9. Conjuncia (The Conjunction) 10. Interjecia (The interjection)

1

1. ARTICOLUL (THE ARTICLE)Este un instrument gramatical care individualizeaz sau determin un substantiv. Prezena lui dovedete c substantivul pe care-l nsoete este deja cunoscut de interlocutor. Clasificare: 1. Articolul Hotrt (The Definite Article) 2. Articolul Nehotrt (The Indefinite Article) 3. Articolul Zero (The Zero Article)

1. este the

ARTICOLUL HOTRT (THE DEFINITE ARTICLE)

- pronunat [z] - naintea cuvintelor care ncep cu o consoan sau semi-consoan the ball [ z bO-l] the window [z `wind\u ] - pronunat [zi] - n faa cuvintelor care ncep cu o vocal the eye [zi ai] the apple [zi `Epl] singular: the girl [z g|l] - fata the boy [z Boi] - biatul the tree [z trI] - copacul the cat [z kEt] - pisica plural: the girls [z g|lz] - fetele the boys [z Boiz] - bieii the trees [z trIz] - copacii the cats [z kEts] - pisicile

Articolul hotrt apare ntr-un mare numr de expresii: on the one side/hand - pe de o parte on the other side/hand - pe de alt parte at the same time - n acelai timp etc Articolul hotrt plasat n faa unor adjective d acestora sensul unor substantive la numrul plural: adj. rich - bogat-bogat, bogai-bogate the rich - cei bogai - cele bogate adj. poor - srac-srac, sraci-srace the poor - cei sraci - cele srace Articolul hotrt apare la gradul superlativ relativ al adjectivelor: the best - cel mai bun, cea mai bun, cei mai buni, cele mai bune the least - cel mai puin, cea mai puin, cei mai puini, cele mai puine the biggest - cel mai mare, cea mai mare, cei mai mari, cele mai mari the most interesting - cel mai interesant, cea mai interesant, cei mai interesani, cele mai interesante etc Articolul hotrt apare i n structura the..., the... - cu ct..., cu att... (dou comparative juxtapuse) The earlier you come, the better it is. - Cu ct vii/venii mai devreme cu att e mai bine. The more we are, the easier it is.- Cu ct suntem mai muli, cu att este mai uor. The more interesting the book is, the more I like it. - Cu ct cartea este mai interesant, cu att mi place mai mult. Articolul hotrt se intercaleaz de regul ntre un substantiv precedat de o prepoziie i prepoziia respectiv. a house in the forest - o cas n pdure a boat on the lake - o barc pe lac across the road - peste drum at the end - la sfrit

2

at the door - la u in the end - n final in the morning - dimineaa in the village - n sat in the shade - la umbr Articolul hotrt poate fi ntlnit n unele denumiri geografice: The Black Sea, The Danube, The Carpathians, The Alps, The Himalaya Mountains, The Thames, The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, The Commonwealth of Australia States and Territories, The United States of America, The Sahara Desert, The Atlantic Ocean, The Indian Ocean, The Pacific Ocean etc. Articolul hotrt nsoete, de obicei, substantivele cnd acestea sunt acompaniate/precedate de adjective. in the first/second/third/etc. sentence - n prima/a doua/a treia/etc. propoziie in the course of time - n decursul timpului, de-a lungul timpului in the second half - n a doua jumtate in the days/months that followed - n zilele/lunile care au urmat Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world. - Muntele Everest este cel mai nalt munte din lume. Articolul hotrt the se mai traduce n limba romn prin articolele adjectivale cel, cea, cei, cele sau articolele posesive al, a, ai, ale. Alfred the Great - Alfred cel Mare Stephen the Great - tefan cel Mare The Second World War - Cel de al doilea rzboi mondial.

2.

ARTICOLUL

NEHOTRT

(THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE)

este : - a pronunat [] - naintea cuvintelor care ncep cu consoan sau semiconsoan: a dog [ `dog]- un cine a wall [ `wOl]- un zid/perete a flower [ `flau\]- o floare a year [\ `ji\] - un an - an pronunat [n] - naintea cuvintelor care ncep cu vocal: an apple [n `Epl]- un mr an eye [n `ai] - un ochi an ear [n `i\]- o ureche an idea [n ai`dia]- o idee Articolul nehotrt introduce de obicei un element nou. El poate fi ntlnit : - n faa substantivelor nsoite/precedate de adjective : a good teacher - un profesor bun a big house - o cas mare a book of proverbs - o carte de proverbe a house on fire - o cas n flcri a little tea - puin/destul ceai - n unele structuri : a tobacconist's - o tutungerie a baker's - o brutrie a greengrocer's - un aprozar a blue - eyed girl - o fat cu ochi albatri a confectioner's - o cofetrie a jeweller's - un magazin de bijuterii Articolul nehotrt are n unele cazuri funcie numeric: a hundred - o sut a thousand - o mie two saucers and an ash-tray - dou farfurioare i o scrumier a chemist 's - o farmacie a stationer's - o papetrie once upon a time - a fost odat a grocer' s - o bcnie two/three at a time - cte doi/trei o dat

3

3.

ARTICOLUL

ZERO

(THE ZERO ARTICLE)

Articolul zero apare: a) n nume de continente, ri, persoane, zilele sptmnii etc. Exemple: Africa, Asia, America, Europe, England, France, Italy, Romania, Sunday, Alice, Bob, George, John, Mary, Peter, Richard, William etc. b) n faa subsantivelor folosite n sens general: Children like sweets. - Copiilor le plac dulciurile. Knowledge is power. - tiina nseamn putere. Oil is lighter than water. - Uleiul este mai uor dect apa. Boys like toys and lots of noise.- Bieilor le plac jucriile i mult zgomot. c) n faa subsantivelor nenumrabile (uncountables): Gold is yellow.- Aurul este galben. This house is made of wood.- Aceast cas este fcut din lemn. d) naintea substantivelor abstracte sau nume de materie: care, death, hatred, honesty, hunger, love, sand, salt, tea, water etc. Salt seasons all things. (prov.) - Sarea d gust tuturor lucrurilor. Multe substantive abstracte apar n proverbe. Hunger is the best sauce. - Foamea este cel mai bun buctar. e) nume de: culori (white, black, yellow, red, green, brown, pink, violet, orange, blue, black), sporturi i jocuri sportive (football, volleyball, basketball, hockey, tennis etc.), limbi (English, Romanian, German, French etc.), mese (breakfast, snack, lunch, tea, dinner, supper). f) n unele expresii / structuri fixe, care trebuie memorate pentru evitarea greelilor. after dark - dup lsarea ntunericului after three o'clock - dup ora trei after dinner - dup cin day by day - zi de zi drop by drop - strop cu strop day after day - zi dup zi, zi de zi from end to end - de la cap la cap from first to last - de la primul la ultimul from place to place - din loc n loc from time to time - din cnd n cnd good for food - comestibil goods on sale - mrfuri/bunuri de vnzare in general - n general to learn by heart - a nva pe de rost piece by piece - bucat cu bucat Just in time - chiar la timp/moment to leave for school - a pleca la coal to keep in mind - a ine minte to be on duty - a fi de serviciu to go on foot - a merge pe jos to put in order - a pune n ordine to be in parliament - a fi n parlament to go to bed - a merge la culcare from London - de la Londra to look for help/aid - a cuta ajutor to pay on demand - a plti la cerere from morning to night - de dimineaa pn seara from beginning to end - de la nceput la sfrit on certain conditions - cu anumite condiii

4

2. SUBSTANTIVUL (THE NOUN)Substantivul (lat.: substantivus; substans - substan; sub - sub/dedesubt, stans - aezat) este partea de vorbire care denumete fiine, obiecte, stri, noiuni, nsuiri etc. Clasificare: - comune (Common Nouns) dog (cine), cat (pisic), bird (pasre), house (cas), apple (mr), girl (fat), boy (biat), water (ap). - proprii (Proper Nouns) John, Alice, Romania, London, Europe, Asia, July, Sunday, Great Britain etc. - abstracte (Abstract Nouns) friendship (prietenie), joy (bucurie), wisdom (nelepciune), safety ( siguran), theory (teorie), gratitude (recunotin) etc. - inidividuale (Individual Nouns) man (brbat), house (cas), stone (piatr), tree (copac) etc. - colective (Collective Nouns) team (echip), army (armat), family (familie), fleet (flot), crowd (mulime), flock (stol), swarm (roi), group (grup) etc. - nume de materie (Names of Matter) water (ap), air (aer), fire (foc), beer (bere), milk (lapte), steel (oel), silver (argint), gold (aur), snow (zpad), wine (vin), tea (ceai), salt (sare) etc. - masculin - feminine - neutru

- Gen Substantivul are : - Numar

- singular - plural

- Caz - Nominstiv - Genitiv - Dativ - Acuzativ - Vocativ

GENUL SUBSTANTIVELOR (THE GENDER OF THE NOUNS)masculin (masculine) (he - el) actor - actor bachelor - celibatar barman - barman boy - biat bridegroom - ginere brother - frate dad/daddy - tati/tticu feminin (feminine) (she - ea) actress - actri spinster - celibatar barmaid - barmani girl - fat bride - mireas sister - sor mam/mammy - mami

5

earl - conte father - tat gentleman - domn god - zeu grandfather - grandpa - bunic hero - erou husband - so king - rege lad - flcu landlord - proprietar man - brbat master - stpn monk - clugr nephew - nepot papa/daddy - tata policeman - poliist prince - prin salesman - vnztor sir - domn son - fiu tutor - tutore uncle - unchi neutru (neuter) (it - el/ea) air - aer ball - minge book - carte box - cutie bread - pine building - cldire bus - autobuz crocodile - crocodil error - greeal fish - pete flag - drapel flute - flaut fork - furculi glory - glorie helicopter - elicopter honour - onoare house - cas impression - impresie indifference - indiferen kangaroo - cangur land - pmnt legend - legend light - lumi