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  • 8/12/2019 Alice Badescu-gramatica Limbii Engleze

    1/609

    ALICE

    L. BADESCU

    GRAMATICA

    LIMBII E,NGLEZE

    nh

    l'l

    i6fiGil---oe"fnur{

    I

    surtt'or

    I

    I l r : l r t I

    .

    I

    t'tt'ot-^

    '

    v

    /t\

    u/

    EDITURA

    9TIINTIFIc.I.

    $I

    ENcIcLoPEDIci

    BUCURE$TI,

    984

  • 8/12/2019 Alice Badescu-gramatica Limbii Engleze

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    c Dv ti T c lTREc 'r' 'r F

    "The

    tettitoty of En|lisll teachin{ hd,s

    onE

    beensamething f a baxlefield,.

    Anon; t l , r mdnu

    :ut"

    na,ob. inp

    oryht

    oL' t ' thot b.t , \" .n

    tr ts"f i t | | \e

    and

    d?s.. tpl i re

    F

    rir

    udes

    1o

    ,r.age. ' r

    Cu aceste urinte incepe

    utn

    d,inte numeroatele

    nclrcte

    fecluaten altima

    treme asupra limbii engleze ctudle n Anglia.

    Prima. atitudine,aceea,,prscriptil'n", steautori.tail, natmotird., ngrddird

    ile numeroase eguli,

    stibuind, ncd tn idealuriLe

    amaticii

    ld,tine

    ale

    secolnla;

    al XVIIIlea,

    $i

    aparlinind azi unc;

    i.naifili erwl,{te

    i

    rctragrade;

    .ea

    d,ea

    doud,

    tttitudinea

    ,,descr'ip1irn".

    etle modernd,evoluaLi, dirumici, VIE.

    Limba ln1ti popor eroluedtii fovtE tupid ti &ntrudictariu dacd.na este

    cantolatd.

    In Anglia nn a edstat niciodatd o Aeademieasendndtoarc

    celor

    d.e

    e

    cantinent,

    The

    Royal Aca.lemf"

    fiind fonddtd

    n 1f68

    d,e

    cpeLe

    Gearye

    11

    II-lea

    &l At|glici

    caclusir

    p.trtu

    lncurujareaartelor

    pldsticc

    prin

    infiinlerca

    unei

    scali de,:L6en

    i

    (rearca

    un.i

    exla:ilii anuale cu lucrdrile

    (ilitlilar

    |lesti-

    tieni in oiatd.

    Incurajarea scriitoritor ilrrdsese,

    ,in

    rctinri stribcchi, n seamu

    ueeranilor

    Si

    a

    nobiLilor

    atc

    garitau

    in

    juruL

    (

    rlii. reg(rle

    i

    arlulaa

    "lhej,|r

    ^Irons".

    Lituba

    d, 'st^td o

    d^,n:t .

    t ;n,t , .

    F,od.r, ' l

    ; rn,t

    : i sst lplnunpl,

    , tp

    -r( ipgs

    l:netts l , '

    rat |Qa,,r 's

    I :n4ts l". . inJ

    ' to

    ,o.ut2.

    o , jun* sd

    tnan'rp.

    l intp t l "

    s".otc.

    ,,limba e Ek;d, indusirt reguliLeE naticd.lenrecte abliga.tarii".

    Od,atdnsd cu descoperirea d,iotel.egrufci.

    i

    a tcleriziunii

    ti

    eu

    ftspindiree

    culturii in mose

    rin

    intenled,iulacestar

    ubiteti.

    prestiliaasc

    massmediA.

    bah.nlo,

    putctii

    s-a tn(lindt sprc an

    nou

    nume

    coresii a|linrleosd nai

    a

    noile et'eni-

    mente,

    i

    nstfelEnglc.a

    IIodeL

    a

    fast

    nnnitd

    "BBC

    Englisll''.

    FoI e curindinsd,

    faplul

    cd ]a BBC rorbeau, n direrft d.ialecte nglezc,

    tsoane

    renite

    d,in

    lo(tte

    coLlwile

    umii.

    LimbaengLetd

    .lfu.atil a BBC

    d tncetat

    de

    a

    mai

    p

    ea

    i

    consi-

    deratd .,madelul

    unic"

    ti

    s-a

    dd.optdt ermenul

    de

    "SlandaftI

    EULish" pentru

    saianta li

    )Lii

    en1leze

    ocatildca

    rodel. llcest nume

    are

    sd aibi n1o.i rulle

    Sanse

    lc suprarieluirc, deaarecee

    preteazd

    a conslrut:lii eare

    at

    reda nusnle

    muhiple.atitfaartesubtile.citFi faarteutiLe.Asttcl., tumatir&poatefi dascripli\A

    snrr

    p

    rfr cri

    t

    irar.

    /on,?nla,

    ra

    r.ccivcd pronunciation

    f,4.P.r,

    un tomcn

    paate

    ft

    stard.rd sou subslandard. (cptal0le,

    accepled. rchaic aa a

    re, l .urac-

    cepled.

    r lnrcfe rhle.

    pfe{eraLle

    d

    l,r t fcnd,

    |bdcscert. obsolele, nl , i -

    quuted.

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    ld-fashioned, utwoln sdu

    "i t

    r{ 1es

    ["1'oulhcr]4.

    l

    js

    out

    cf daic";r lc. nd i , f i r i lum.

    Lx inrcputul tedului 0l Xx-lea. Dani.L

    Jon.:.\1.\..

    hoflssol. Erncritus

    in Phonotics l tha Ufivorsity ol London, r.s;

    ncqte

    s.ria

    dN

    anrirci,"i

    dic

    lionare tonetice

    enlle.etti carc arcau

    si reroLulione.e tudiul littlbii

    cngleze.

    ' l l l . t l t lnt ihs .1 dl ia.

    :

    L'

    -{nglii,,

    lronul

    lilrii

    \:i,7i Ililliogalia. p 6 6.

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    rveni ailt lr.trl,a ')or. .ii

    li

    J, mrilor. ln orilinea sur(t-

    r IBC,

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    runicln i rndtudi iuzi 'Di i h i tann'e:

    'D

    t ish Bridcastt lS

    .

    /?d,pler

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    i l i

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  • 8/12/2019 Alice Badescu-gramatica Limbii Engleze

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    i ic

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  • 8/12/2019 Alice Badescu-gramatica Limbii Engleze

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    CUIi'NT CATU CEITOR

    ulrfotrne at

    t& 4 efa.anstd,efatnqral. dtical

    fu

    inccputltLa.est.lti.

    eeol

    (inlo-

    I

    u r

    t

    a

    notni

    aLi.rului tt

    (rcu.st

    aul 1

    p

    r onu t

    cl

    c

    p

    eNnnal

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    i

    .

    loc

    (1,e

    \h.)m

    i

    hf

    t's

    ne

    lcnlrtr

    it i l. locu

    prcpo.ili

    ei

    d

    tt n \

    eth si

    u

    inaintea cwittLt

    ui ta

    N.rc se refeft

    (rvlo

    is it for? I|'herc ure

    11ou

    ani

    g

    holl l) etc.. ctt.,

    ctt:.)este

    nnsiderat core(l acum. (Yczi

    fipitalele @rcs?un.ito\lc /d Indiee.)

    t inrclis. tot (e(a G tste &ctlm eore(tgranntlcd .rtl conrldl4t sloppy.

    Gaanad,updsinplifftdre, darinla le u tittiga lintp.

    t:it.mai mu.U imp. a a(lus

    i

    ertindered.

    or

    telor Nntruse. a fispunsuiior

    tnanatilabirc. a snnctelor njtrnit

    IalLIe.

    S-a a(eptat un aLL

    oiteriu: ditttlt l me.selt)r

    fi

    the man in lhe slreet,

    sintboluL :rtd ?nnului

    (

    tlc:

    obitnuit).

    Chiar

    t-i

    d. la &tcilrele niwftiture,

    ptolctotii

    ro

    aisc

    Ltrcla.ti

    intbajsurprinzdtor.

    bc

    (?

    intedbd un

    nai\'.

    -Nu

    ttiu

    ruflaticii

    ?

    -

    Pentu

    m stLtdcnlii sainu

    i. Itutr.e tirept

    'old,

    aegies"

    :bd,

    H?nt / Seeel,

    lta

    t&ri(i 1 u|,

    toia ]u sfiltlt

    L te.alulai

    pftcetlent

    (in

    Ne\ Fl rgl is lL

    rammar.

    Logical

    ard Hisror iral 1392

    si 1696), anticlptnd

    s rile d,catt utuale: " t he rul(s af |rumtudt lolie no tal ue cftept Lestate,n.nts

    of

    ftl(:I:

    whateaers in

    gen

    al us. in tl

    languafe is

    lor

    th&t et

    ftdsan

    granl

    tat [email protected] t

    eotrc(t."

    Litnba s. sthb hn

    r

    atittl r.lpiditat(.

    intit striitorii dniltr

    '50.'60

    au deja

    un

    it inte.h

    .

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    strti.ini insai. e&re sint in

    matea lor tnajoritate cititari.

    inslt,'i. )a

    lintiir n ]..e tu uiutarul unti grdmatici

    tadilional.e llr? ncapirct

    nu:csdrai

    ?entru

    a

    li

    se

    ontla

    o ha.i

    soli li si numai

    rLupd

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    i. si.nr

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    prctctie

    sdlt liitoare

    di limb& en le.d..

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    ' , , .

    ton

    Pat .

    r .1 ld

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    r l "s fe

    ner i -

    tclegtwnali.ti.i

    ui OttoJftl'5dz

    i/r

    "The

    Fis enri.rls

    l

    E glish

    Gramln

    ,',

    1938,

    ture r?d,e

    r.1nt.1tie&

    n \e.d:

    "as

    sotncthing

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    flwluaions. $omcthini hat ls founrlcnon the pastanrtpr$aris rhc$'atJ or the

    futnrc,

    sonethiw that is not eleags

    rcnsistentar

    perf.ct.

    bur

    ,lallessing

    anl,

    pe.fettible

    in onc

    pord,,

    hunlan."

  • 8/12/2019 Alice Badescu-gramatica Limbii Engleze

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    (

    L 1 ' i , \ t . l ) , 1t t .TE

    Crunatiut

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    TABLA

    DE }IATORII

    Cuvlnt

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    5

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    229

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    IIORTOLOGIA

    .

    Sul6tantivut

    . .

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    t : t

    Adiectiwl

    Numeralu1

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    hepotiiia.

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    . . . .

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    Sintara tlazei.

    524

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    626

    629

    BIBLIOGRAFIA

    INDICE

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    MORFOLOGIA

    lrroRPHoLocY)

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    SUBSTI.NTIVUi

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    T I, GENUL

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    Del in i l ie l . . . . . . . . . . .

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  • 8/12/2019 Alice Badescu-gramatica Limbii Engleze

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    Lryq

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    srrBsTAN:cl 'IJI,.SUMAR

    VI. .C.LTE CHESTIUNI

    REFERITOARE

    LA SUBSTANTIV . . .

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    SUBSTANTIVUL

    (TI IE NOUNi

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    II. CLASIFICARE,\

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    114

    {

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    COMPANATh

    ADJECTIVXI]OR

    2)

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    120

    6];

    collPAltATL\

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    610

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    2)

    Adjectirclo

    de

    aloui

    sital,c

    D8ildrfu,

    erminate

    n

    -y

    fi

    _ay:

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    t9t

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    dictate

    de eulonie,

    riLn:-

    exrres;''iiite.

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    n

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    votbiid si

    l

    preferato fornele llcrii(-

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    .

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    pn4i de vorbiro ailjedirrte

    sc conformeazi

    acelorasi

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    rl

    \ lho

    l i \ r on

    t lc rpp' . loor '

    l ldr r ' .vn"5r

    $

    6

    l f .

    . l i r lp. , LrnuLr ' .

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    tlfu

    inchdcs ihc

    proauction

    oi

    lhc cl,i.,r,

    witfs

    \1'eren't l.he

    littlc bov's

    {ords the

    4)

    Concluzie.

    In engleza

    onternporani

    au

    sparl tiparele

    in comparat:-

    rdieciivelor,

    pe

    lingi

    mon;-

    ;i

    l0isilabele

    lcxionat,

    lotme

    ca

    nlore

    lat1'

    n1't'

    .oi|t.

    n"r, obt".

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    prau ,

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    sutl

    au

    n1r"

    hat.

    n

    'lauda

    -

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    h4t

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    t

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    \111

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    6t8r '

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    et .n.

  • 8/12/2019 Alice Badescu-gramatica Limbii Engleze

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    COMPARATIA

    ..Iar

    pe

    cotorut

    cirlii Guinncss ookof Reco s 1971,

    printre

    alte superla-

    :i|e estedat

    mostestr."

    E\.ident

    ce aoeste itaie nrl constituiemodele

    de urmat. Ele alrartin

    .nui

    domFniu

    l

    lururor

    i .pnlplor dom.niul r r i i 'orulu i ,

    arc

    1na.c. t

    .az

    u

    poate

    daclLsd ne edifice,

    pe

    unii

    locindu-ne,

    e

    a4ii tnctntindu-ne.

    B.

    CO}I?AEATIA ADJECTIYXIOB I,TNGI

    {COMfAIUSO\

    OT I]ONC

    -{DJEqIIYES)

    1 0

    Urm;roarplF d. ie,

    ivp, . i

    lar l i " ip i i

    formeazr

    '

    L djurorul adrerbplnr

    norpr

    . : i

    , l?ovz

    rA

    pdind

    sradul

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    mai lrugi ds doud

    silabe:

    atiractiye

    (rcativc

    despoidcnt

    }eautifut

    cu.ious

    imporl,ant

    s

    663

    compdrativul

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    superlativul

    |

    65,1

    adjectiYele

    i

    participiile

    n

    $

    666

    S

    ri".,6

    Etemplul

    rtlr (iive

    nore atiractive nost

    attractire

    dependable

    -more

    depndnble

    -nict

    dpendanlc

    2) numoro:rse

    djective isilabice

    u aceentul

    e prima

    silabd:

    lSill.

    acid .onstant

    lrddent

    do, l .

    . ,n, , id

    , .as

    ; dd.

    -

    tdr ' , te t i \ :d

    tr . re" t t1. :o. . , . .

    . .

    rraglre

    hostilc

    advcNc

    t.opcf

    In special

    adjeclivcle

    bisilabice termir.rte

    ln

    ,t.'.

    -tsl, -tlc,

    Jcss

    Fi

    -o"s:

    r . r i r . Lr , i . ,

    Ioolish

    tnilhlcss

    .toJous.

    tc

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    r{ti*

    more fttivf

    .omic

    rnorc

    comic nrosl

    lonrn

    loolish

    -

    mor loolish

    -

    nDsl toolish

    (Vzi

    , i

    S

    611

    61,61

    3)

    parficitiile

    adjoetivate

    ,si

    adjcctivele cu

    sufi)ic

    p&ticipidle:

    skr l ted I ha.mirg

    u rt lrdncd

    .rnvnicilg. el,r.

    EremVIe:

    m.st. slrn

    skill.d

    -

    morc skilled

    -

    nost

    skiled

    charming

    -mo.e

    cliar.i.g

    -nost

    cha.ning

    L

    x c c

    p

    i i :

    crooked,

    Ei

    tritAc.l.

    care

    pot

    aiea

    lsi

    formele fleriionare.

    h

    stilul

    tatnilidr,

    pentru

    a se accentua si

    mai mutt irieea de superlaiiv,

    S

    658

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    er^dFF

    dj, , l i \F.

    tn

    .pe" iat

    c l"

    'FrmiIdre

    in

    -obt - . t . - [ , ] t . - ;J

    : i

    - ;ng.

    4.{ nu

    au

    .o^

    pdrat ivul

    n

    -rr .

    formear,J

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    uL

    ir

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    a 'dFt

    .J

    lo.ma netlolrorArn

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    -1.

    '

    o. j ,n lr i r

    .dnd

    d.s

    . ' rnn'nqpc

    bif lpn,.

    I

    f rJgLl , r

    ' impid. .r

    s inn,n i .sr

    I , r" rr 'ps,

    dnmlab,pst

    p

    ic id. .

    ss.nsinsN

    .h,

    pr ' . rp.

    .n" ib le.r

    t imidpr '

    doAs"d.l

    toyalest

    tircdest

    dninlenest. etc

    Do

    yo.Df

    damnedat

    I

    He was the .asgrd6r

    clild.

    I

    CoDptuatjvul

    adverbului

    nr.r.

    s

  • 8/12/2019 Alice Badescu-gramatica Limbii Engleze

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    659

    4) ntte

    ptuli do rorbire

    a.dieotirate:

    Thev

    dal l '^mP:

    F

    '

    bd

    r:

    Yo;d,

    -o*

    ,, i '" '

    "

    r ' ; , ,",P

    1,J1"1,',

    -.

    p,n.,

    lle

    loted

    liis

    nelheN

    so mu

    than

    uncle

    o him

    Notd

    660

    Un

    substantiv

    sau chivalentul si\r poate ti lnsolit de douir comparattle

    """

    * fo'"t""

    aii".ite.

    unul

    terminat

    tn -cr

    ;et

    ali

    cotsiruii

    cu

    adverbul

    tn're

    i; ;;;";;;i;;;

    .i.teiice

    (h

    -,.

    sau'e'r)

    prccedd

    pe

    cea

    a'alitica

    {con-

    struifi

    cu

    mo,'e

    sau mosl,):

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    looked

    ,.ot"

    a'd

    m"'

    e't"/ftsins

    llian

    erer'

    ie

    iii-lr'"

    "ia;",

    ti;

    ? tarc'

    and

    rhe

    hoft

    cteeet t

    r\e

    Lwn

    Pentru

    simpl j l icare

    ns6,

    pntru

    rpdarea

    dpi i

    de.progresje

    "ssu,pentru

    *"".t"""",

    adjdctivele

    scurte'care

    pnm'sc

    jn

    lnod,

    obj\nuit'

    trrfixul

    -l

    la

    comparal iv

    poi avea

    si forma

    on' l r r r i lS

    '

    ' r

    d Frbul

    mote:

    '

    ll"i*Ti."*;:1ff?ii''i,,:T'#iixlffJl"'

    t ; . f io; '

    " r 'am'

    f o

    r"

    'o ' r R

    o'

    om"

    dd' ' r

    rnot"

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    R;a'"i"'""ii;

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    if

    'i\i,"i"ii'^ :o

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    deld thaD

    axve

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    661

    oRroGRArIrl

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    662

    a,

    Adjccl i le le

    rPrmina'" n

    r o

    'un 'oana'zprF"pdar

    F o

    siDgurd

    o'a l ;

    "

    ""-

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    " i . . " t r r0ra

    ' ldblpa/ i

    onro"nJ

    4ainrpa

    ul i \p lor

    -pr

    $r

    -Ps/:

    t,,c

    bigg"r

    -

    biSg'

    l

    r r in - hinnFr - th nnesr

    ln

    celelalte

    cazu

    (adicd

    atunci

    ctnd

    consoana

    inale

    este

    prcedatd

    de

    doua

    vocale

    ori

    de

    o alti

    consoand,

    au

    clnd

    vocala

    precedenti

    nu est'e

    accen_

    iuatl),

    consoana

    inalE

    nu

    se dubleazi:

    130

    sweet -sweele.

    deal -

    dcate.

    sol t -sol ier

    qniet

    -quteler

    663

    ,J

    Adjectivle

    ternjnale

    jn

    'e mut

    sau in

    'ee

    pierd

    pe

    'e

    linal

    lnaintea

    sulixelor -.I sau -sl:

    nice -

    nicer

    lrue -

    t. er

    lree

    r i01 ,

    LJ adlc. l i F lc

    jerminrra

    in

    _/

    pre ' 'dsL

    dF o

    \o 'a ln neac'entust ;

    / f in- l es l ts , l , rb lsr

    n l imba

    pnglFTn

    nr

    sr in.ca

    amprrcsnaJ:

    -ra'etul]er

    -ca'elullest

    "r'-""ii"t

    -cheerlull'r

    -cheedullest

    ordcl -cruello

    o

    ellest

    666

    dJ

    ' \d j i

    t ive le

    lernrinst"

    in - i inainreasrr l ixe lor ' / :L

    drJ

    tazY

    ln

    -y

    precedat

    de

    o consoa

    i

    schinbn

    p-: l

    drie.r

    -

    dricst'r

    -

    l3zi|r

    -lazrest

    r

    Uniis.dirori

    nr|.rpreiear.

    h a|sr

    caz

    conpuati{ulnde

    0afiind

    sinonim

    o

    adsf,-

    r . le-r , t , : , r ; -" .

    n, . id

    , ' , d." i

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    r\

    d" ' i

    ra l :

    orr rnJ

    ) '

    r 'Lrroi '

    parnl , ivul l i

    '

    lJngl $r lat r r

    t rrul

    /dr lF"

    tCu

    trceptra

    onsoarPror,

    t r

    _ '

    "Uncori

    aaris

    n't

    dtyet

    dtYest.

  • 8/12/2019 Alice Badescu-gramatica Limbii Engleze

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    COMPA&TIA

    precedaL o vocali.

    el se meo.tin:

    -gaJe.

    -

    galest

    FOnlIn Dr colrPAB,\TId

    )l-0riDour, aT-tr

    ar

    fornre

    neregulate

    pentru

    gradelede comparatie:

    Canl.lratir

    Superlalir

    \1o.st

    t81

    Ctnd

    ins[

    -3,

    ina] este

    gay

    cov

    Eacepli i l

    shy

    sly

    itl,{

    wry1

    ADJOCIIYE

    CU

    Urmdtoarele

    adjctive

    Pozitie

    il t

    l i l i le

    I

    litl.lesi

    J

    oldcsi

    I

    l.lihesl.

    iarth.rnost

    I

    l ,r r lhcstr . ' . themrost

    I

    iitst

    hindmosl,

    hindcmost

    I

    uLmosi.

    ultcrmosl

    upm0sri

    uupernosL

    l

    I

    {

    t

    t

    {

    J

    I

    s

    c66

    s 667

    rarc

    {

    hind

    Urmdtoarele cuvinte,

    iar la

    gradele

    comparaiiv

    (beneath)

    { 'D)

    (our)

    {

    (upl

    cind sint la gradul pozit iv,au tunc,t ie e ad1erb,

    Ei

    superlativ ar

    tunclie de adjeotiv:

    l

    compdaiivul

    qi.sute.lativul

    adjectivelor

    ,r.v

    9i,,y

    si t adeseo.i

    ortogfatiale

    ti

    r

    Icn

    ru , .11 si , l / . ru vaoare dp

    adi"cl iv.

    v"u

    si

    {

    :64

    a

    ,

    -6q

    b

    3td4hc"

    r Ia-t

    r , robdL:1,

    a orieine,

    .onplral i \ui ddv"" l ,ului

    /o'e.sd.

    dJpl

    ' rni i

    Lori . a

    l" i

    /ort r /u"; t . I

    f | .

    un s rn:r lJLiv ormdt

    dupd

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    .

    npd.

    i :nd la oris n.

    .omoffJl i iul

    aJvFrb-lui

    , , jn; , "d"".

    er '

    un d'rblu

    romp"ral ivi

    ncr,

    a losi sunolatiiul dverbulu

    jatsn.

    "rcrcn^t : t r ; ' 'an

    fo, l d

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    ivF

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    i .omp,mtiv

    rornr '

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    .pl

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    la

    n". '

    tD'nort

    tn l ' r ,b

    '

    "ngfr l

  • 8/12/2019 Alice Badescu-gramatica Limbii Engleze

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    132

    668

    -{djactirele

    rele

    toare

    la

    pu'otele cardinal

    au

    urmitoarele

    grade de

    comparal ie:

    easlmostl.

    casternmost

    no hmostl.

    northernnost

    souihm.str.

    southernmost

    westmostl,

    w.sterndost

    6t i0

    ln srar i

    da

    a'

    F' le

    lorm"

    mai

    '

    \ i

    ' ;

    o

    -cr i '

    . ' l '

    sunpr ls l ive

    ru lorma nprc-

    u la je. .onslru i

    .

    pr i r ' .d 'u 'arFs.upFr l l i L lu i

    t? 's/

    ' r

    'prmrne r '

    la unpre

    adjectire

    sau adrrbel

    i .d

    rcrnor,

    [email protected]

    of

    r .p

    n

    p

    nc .a.orno" '

    iJ

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    r't\csouth{nnan

    leak

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    \"

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    f i ;0 C.

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    r

    .n, n" lp

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    p

    n

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    i

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    I n, i l i

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    adeseori

    si in ccl

    masculin -

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    ihe

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    e lat

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    ine

    9t,,a'des'

    jnzz

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    hcatd

    a nDa

    ?aled

    musical

    '

    Giren

    ler olporllnity.

    she

    sill do

    eelg

    '.DrlaDle

    York

    8i2

    obse

    alii asupra

    adiectirelor

    cu

    gratle

    le

    comp&rafie

    eregulati

    I t t

    6?t

    1) Adjectilul

    tll

    (: bolnav)

    are

    formle

    de

    comparalie

    neregulate

    tors'

    Sh"

    (d.

    - ,s"

    \ th , l I

    ca\

    hF"l isr :shr

    hJJ cdl led

    up

    lar

    do ' or '

    fadiJ

    sh n sh"

    \ " ' ak n to

    noop|ar '

    She

    \Y.rs

    u.. tZ

    /@ree,

    ihan

    rYc thougnt"

    674 2) lll si siek. Sinonirnul rlie(Livului

    ll

    si'e i'ft

    ln

    SLiA' ll

    este

    chi-

    "''

    ""}".t"i;ii

    i;;;al

    ai atlieciivului

    si(A'

    anbeleadjective vindacela;inlels:

    t

    Fo.nc

    r.r.

    intrebuinlate.

    '

    afietu^t

    :

    hr1dn61

    3

    los.rmost

    :

    lae.st.

    'tui.lmost:

    in

    the e,s

    n dle

    6

    tapmost.:

    al

    lhc aerg tap.

    r

    tnl . tnast

    -

    la ,s l

    I \ '?r

    r i

    r ' .h ' la \ t . l l

    \ l : l i r j

    r

    111

    oP.r r ' 'pra

    5l

  • 8/12/2019 Alice Badescu-gramatica Limbii Engleze

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    [email protected]

    183

    l,ohar,. In Angtia. tll (: bolnav) este Dtrebuinlat numai

    prdical,iv.

    \tribu-

    liv

    ti

    ca adjectiv

    substanlivatr, este nlocuii

    prin

    st./r

    (:

    bolnav):

    t l .a, l tcoti )

    \ou

    loJk,//

    - l

    l . ts l t

    ,

    | . . ,16

    '

    L,1

    , ,

    r .s,rd' \

    _

    tott ibbu )

    HF

    F

    1

    .r , l

    n '"n.

    1p

    i\

    nn,, / , .1 i \p

    nJ

    on

    ",

    ".1l lo.\:

    n"

    .

    (substdntie)

    The

    si.l musi be

    cared or.

    Cind lnsi sic&este ntrebuintat predicatir. lo &dsi.A are n ,{nglia nuanla

    de: a avea

    greatri (la propriu), (iar la

    tigurat) a ii

    sAtul peste

    misurd de cineva

    (ptdicatio

    ) "You

    look livid. af.

    you

    3i.l?"

    "As

    st./. as a.atl

    I

    am alwavs sdst.l *hen I

    cross he Chinnel

    -

    it's

    alw.rls ronsh. and

    I

    nm such a bad sailor."3

    I'n

    si.ft

    la;d

    lire-,i)

    ol

    felliig

    her

    fo

    do her

    job

    t.opcrry.

    3)

    Ani,oninrul adjertil'ului ill esle

    {r.ll

    sau in

    good

    tahlt. In bad heaLth

    S

    6i5

    este sinonim or ill. Heahhlt nu este antonimul adjecti 'ului til. tnsnmnd

    ,,sdnitos"

    ln sensulde a fi iniotdauna sdndtos. ezistent la holi. robust.

    4) IlL ri trotst, norst poi ii i subsi,antii'e9i adverle:

    I

    woD't

    hale

    Jou

    think ill ol

    Jour

    felioF.

    lSlbst.)

    l ' l l

    tb in l @roe ot l , im

    i l

    he docsr ' l come.

    {Subsi . )

    Let

    him do his orr .

    ts isr . )

    Ii wiil

    80

    il, $iti

    Xon

    il

    ]ou

    don'l

    oneX

    Iour

    doclor.

    (Idv.)

    I'o.J plaJcd

    Dadly. fiona

    piar.d,orra

    dd Elsie

    played

    ao.-"l.

    (,,\dv.)

    Little. A littlea, fcw. A I$a

    s

    676

    1) Lit e-

    -

    LittLc are cinci

    lnlelesuri principale:

    S

    $77

    O

    lAlhs

    \lntn

    substanliv

    plural) (contrar:

    narn)

    :

    ,

    pu,tin(i)" (:

    insu-

    S

    6;8

    ficiont). se rclere la cantitate sdu duratd, are comparati'ul lr.rs i supeflativul

    /.asl

    _si

    este

    intrebujniat cu substantive nenumerabile

    (nullle

    do Inalcrii,

    d

    abstracl i i etc.):

    lirl? donfl. htne \\ite. Utne timc. li,ri intelesl.

    She has lri&

    (:

    trea

    pltille)

    knowledgeol DnglisJi,

    so she

    .a.'t rad

    inis boo[.

    1..$

    joy,

    lcsr air. i.ss wo.k. lcis tngl'sn.

    les.s oisc

    Hc look the line

    ol

    lcas, resistarc

    and accelteii to be

    pui

    on a diet.

    ,

    b) a liulA intrebuin,tat, cu substantive nenumerabile (deci

    fnre

    substan-

    g

    67$

    t iy

    plural -s i grade

    de comparal i r )

    : . ,pul in(e)"

    ( :

    . rceva". , ,n iqte" :s inoninr :

    son1. este lntrebuinlaL cu Eubsianlivele

    care nu au

    plurfll:

    a

    til1|e

    mone\,

    a tiltL winc,.r

    little wliile. o lnre

    jnicrest

    She has

    d hirL

    (:

    cevar krowledgc or

    Xnglish.

    so shc ran reid thjs

    )ook.

    t

    L

    "n

    .

    l '

    .v

    ' r

    : I 'andb/sbp.du.d

    lJ\d

    / , , , r

    p

    r l n j ,

    J

    moiPv. ] .1n.J n,

    s1l iv . ,

    )

    |

    4dn

    h' , j

    'n i -

    hlndb.s bF.dus. h \d o 1." t"

    , -

    c" \al

    I

    monr

    \ .an

    a , ' , r i

    ivr '

    lve, i i i

    S

    687)

    cJ lilll

    (+

    subst.

    p1.)

    :

    ,,mic(n)"6

    se referd la

    f.irsta copiilor nici

    ;i

    a

    g

    660

    animalelor tinere

    (: pui);

    are comparativul

    yourger

    ti

    suprlarivul

    Soangesl

    (iD stilul familiar,lirer qi hlles4:

    J im

    is r l , t r ,

    boJ hp k m

    t,ook sFl l

    i l tFr '1onr / i rd

    o; ts l -

    'T lF

    i InAI ish)

    rhar"4

    CanalLt

    l lap, i i , l " .D

    r" ,4rs l id

    d" I ranla.

    s

    p

    L.

    a

    bal siilat .r

    "uieri

    rotdcaum de .,lu de m re:

    r / / , t i / . /b intdJ" . t j \p, ,

    r i r r r iv"sdun,ho'ar t"

    der"rm:nar iv.r .ol iutesiof ,

    s lD'

    adj

    . r ivp

    npholr

    'p

    (dprprmindr i \ . ,

    t \p7i S

    82t .

    6; \djcct ,v

    del f , rninal iv

    1S

    821).

    6

    -{djectjv

    calilicaliv

    ($

    609J.

  • 8/12/2019 Alice Badescu-gramatica Limbii Engleze

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    134

    Tnp

    snarrca

    {as

    lrJ ine

    I ' r

    / ; r rL

    o'P'

    '

    o

    i ;

    Th"

    / ; , /P '

    k jd ' 5r

    r rpk'd

    rn ornqnr '

    He

    is our

    /t',6'|

    (onc) (Ian l

    S 6 1

    .r , l iah(r : ibubFl

    plrL

    '

    mi46'

    p tLin

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    1

    '

    " '

    . . rn*

    ; t ,u,

    t '

    " ' r"hri

    l ; d;m'r 's iun'

    i-do1"r 'LJ"i

    r^re 'd

    gra4F

    d'

    compa-

    f1L;r.ompstr ' r t ' lp ' .s 'pu1rnu' i :ar asrazrrru I s ' '13 si superldri ul

    Past

    (j

    i

    stilul

    tamiiiar'

    lil'61)r

    ' ' .

    l l r l .

    roo d i '1 lP

    "

    u1

    I

    ir ' t i1"

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    n.

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    no

    t ,

    "

    a nJn

    hl

    lh ' ndnrs 'L

    i :

    r r" :gn,

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    , . r , r .

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    Lown

    tlrc

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    tead

    hrr l .ssrr

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    l l ' r l ' iet

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    i , i ;

    , : . .

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    JU"ur

    '

    crnLlPrla l t r i l tne / tdes- tL ' j

    T l t l i r , .5 l

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    ol

    darrY

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    (

    C\i

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    nJ

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    IFl "

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    lu

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    " run" ' ' f "

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    o nrr rnld

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    t13' ILLLts

    u

    ur dxnrnutrv:

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    girll

    (|'.tila tur

    dragi

    Il

    Iliess rour

    li'l'

    lrei'L

    ((le ntimioal1

    bun{l)

    . .shchadi l lc lnostdclSnl lulnl , i .voice' thcgalest l i lt l luugh,t l leniost iNoi lat i t '

    lirlc

    vars

    s

    e GD:i

    ln

    l i rLr

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    i l ryd

    moderna

    /J/ / c ' 'F i r lo' ' r i ' pr i r ' s t"d/ /

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    de

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    t l . r t t rqisnt t t " \ t '

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    l " s impld

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    "i"""

    i ,

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    un

    'ubsrdr

    l i \ ' on' rel :

    IsaFaSwet l l , llchousc.mncnsna/ l?/ |h{nJox.s i i , l lcsnd]/ 's ,hoIBeI l l 'Lveev

    i . / .Cuvintul

    irr le

    Poate

    i

    ' " i :

    ll'he

    /tl,

    (subsl

    I caa

    gile

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    atraid'

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    (adj)

    f;:'i liJ;"li$"'."'

    ,Fve

    ome

    .o ,/,r.

    \ l l , r

    guis

    d

    lor g $cl lPr^ver l r

    $

    riAl

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    085

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    ' l r " r t

    l ; r ' lL_F

    l t lc

    I r . l . In

    | ' oLsr

    ;;", ;;;

    t.j,,

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    tenlLe

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    sri\6

    sp'.

    'l"':hir",":

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    '::"J'.4"'1"1:',''i';'",:il'rli";"

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    |

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    s

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    ,',1;,rl

    d't

    Dredrd'iv

  • 8/12/2019 Alice Badescu-gramatica Limbii Engleze

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    135

    1l i ' l1 l" l :

    nF " . j ) . ] : i

    , r 'J , -or

    oo, 'u l

    'oncr, . ,

    r : i l^ r l r

    t , , t t

    . i

    o

    [e ' . ' . , tc

    arr

    I '

    nuanla puzrtr ir :

    t I .

    Lal

    n id"

    / , "

    .

    I .u, in.

    , - i , .d.

    "r, t

    . ,

    \ l f r

    l , ,nelL

    l l - ' ,q

    n. ,q"

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    . , i i fd

    i i

    n t-

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    . ; IL i . r ,

    rp

    nrd

    mJd , /1 4

    . '

    / , r

    l r i "nds

    o In,r ' l :m

    de pr i

    , "n i

    t i^m..

    .

    1l

    I : \

    : i f t{rcr. Leasl i tc$c.t. Drt t i ind r

    t1l/p

    cub.,. .( . /

    n, pr i .

    { fbb

    n,c ar ' r r ra

    pa.

    r , r / : r

    i -

    -ub- ' .

    p l . rn,n

    ar. t .

    / " *

    r i

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    rn"

    n" t" , , "

    " ;^r

    rFntr ta ' ,

    lp tFr

    Fi

    /Fs

    o'

    p-n,ru

    ru

    n i f .

    I o,Ut i ,

    umF0roivul

    /as ' .

    rF ir :a

    raondndi

    l6

    t i "

    F l i rdt

    ppn-ru

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    r .

    . i ,

    r r .

    in-

    l '1 : : l : l "g l '

    1 , '

    n r rmba

    pnsrpr i

    onr.mpo,a, 'a

    p" , | ' ru

    i

    p\p" i_d

    I

    un,. . rur ,

    op.r

    r i

    , r r

    .ompJr ir r \

    Ft pozr l . \

    ut , r '

    .

    r

    :

    ks.s

    r.oots

    Lls

    clorhes

    lprs

    leopte

    There

    ]rcre Lsr

    thsn

    ten

    p-.ople

    r

    ihe

    wa,uns-rood.

    4)

    Little

    ,ci

    much sint

    antonime.

    ca

    ;si

    pluralele

    respectire

    te\r

    si rrany.

    S

    {i89

    s

    690

    l '

    ] lurb. l lant.

    l t l . , , -

    "rbst.

    ss.rc. tp

    rnrrFb,r ir , ,a, , , r .ub.."nt i \p

    q

    rir t

    n num

    tabttpst

    F\pr i '1l i .dn

    it r . .a:

    di"rp^rr jv i .

    non,t

    1

    -rbrt .

    nt r . inr le.

    Dy nla

    (u

    substanl i \ .

    nudptdhi l . .

    " \

    ima

    nL,rdr r t .

    Deo.Fbiras

    dtnrr_ rco.te

    : : l i " i , , : i " .1: ." , . t , . , .hrcp4' i ,d. i , r ^c 'bi , .adinrrprdi . , r ; \Fr,

    / r , . . i

    / . , \ .

    l lnrb.

    l l i

    I r .

    -

    urh.

    Long

    . 2) Intoeuirer cuyintelor

    .,mu{:h',

    i

    ,,mnny',

    prin sinonimele lor. Cu_ { 699

    vintele

    r?rci

    Fi

    r?anl sint,

    adescorj

    nl;cuite p"";'"inon;,"t"

    tn",

    ,-"*rl

    fi*,

    '

    a

    La..t

    dpdl

    tott .

    pt.pntt

    [ . t

    t , ,

    tat) t tam.\. ta6

    (of)

    \ tarr.) .

    .

    t?.) |u t , ton1,

    l

    d.Fstp

    rnonime

    e a. langd

    tvud

    qara:r . t t t t

    tnanu

    sr

    d

    /nr:p

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    o

    "t,al

    o

    yod)

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    had Ji .n, 'hh"d

    In InF

    .oooFr. , 'v,

    a

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    d.dt

    ot thc n,t \ rF

    +H,:'IJ':'il";i

    b""'1,"ri1""1 ii.:""f

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    d'

    a

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    i

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    ot

    " 'd

    inp^.1 '

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    ".d, lv

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    L.

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    th,

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    B,"ot o e.

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    lLu,:h

    ,t

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    si se

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    de

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