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Gramatica limbii engleze 1

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Text of Gramatica limbii engleze 1

  • 1. MORFOLOGIA (THE MORPHOLOGY)

    (gr. morphe = form, logos = studiu)Morfologia este partea gramaticii care cuprinde regulile de modificare a

    cuvintelor n procesul comunicrii. Ea studiaz prile de vorbire sub aspect formal, semantic i funcional.

    Prile de vorbire sunt:

    1. Articolul (The Article)2. Substantivul (The Noun)3. Adjectivul (The Adjective)4. Pronumele (The

    Pronoun)5. Numeralul (The Numeral)6. Verbul (The Verb)7. Adverbul (The Adverb)8. Prepoziia (The

    Preposition)9. Conjuncia (The Conjunction) 10. Interjecia (The Interjection)

    1.1. ARTICOLUL (THE ARTICLE)Este un instrument gramatical care individualizeaz sau determin un

    substantiv. Prezena lui dovedete c substantivul pe care-l nsoete este deja cunoscut de interlocutor.

    1.1.1. ARTICOLUL HOTRT (THE DEFINITE ARTICLE)

    este the - pronunat [\] - naintea cuvintelor care ncep cu o consoan sau semi-

    consoanthe ball [ \ bO-l] the window [\ `wind\u ]- pronunat [I/i] - n faa cuvintelor care ncep cu o vocalthe eye [i ai]the apple [i `Epl]

    singular: plural:the girl [\ g|l] = fata the girls [\ g|lz]= fetelethe boy [\ Boi] = biatul the boys [\ Boiz] = bieiithe tree [\ trI] = copacul the trees [\ trIz] = copaciithe cat [\ kEt] = pisica the cats [\ kEts]= pisicile

    Articolul hotrt apare ntr-un mare numr de expresii:on the one side/hand = pe de o parte on the other side/hand = pe de alt parte at the same time = n acelai timp etc

    Articolul hotrt plasat n faa unor adjective d acestora sensul unor substantive la numrul plural:adj. rich = bogat-bogat, bogai-bogate the rich = cei bogai - cele bogateadj. poor = srac-srac, sraci-srace the poor = cei sraci - cele srace

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  • Articolul hotrt apare la gradul superlativ relativ al adjectivelor:the best = cel mai bun, cea mai bun, cei mai buni, cele mai bunethe least = cel mai puin, cea mai puin, cei mai puini, cele mai puinethe biggest = cel mai mare, cea mai mare, cei mai mari, cele mai marithe most interesting = cel mai interesant, cea mai interesant, cei mai interesani, cele mai interesante etc

    Articolul hotrt apare i n structura the..., the... = cu ct..., cu att... (dou comparative juxtapuse)The earlier you come, the better it is. = Cu ct vii/venii mai devreme cu att e mai bine.The more we are, the easier it is.= Cu ct suntem mai muli, cu att este mai uor.The more interesting the book is, the more I like it. = Cu ct cartea este mai interesant, cu att mi place mai mult.

    Articolul hotrt se intercaleaz de regul ntre un substantiv precedat de o prepoziie i prepoziia respectiv.a house in the forest = o cas n pdurea boat on the lake = o barc pe lacacross the road = peste drumat the end = la sfritat the door = la uin the end = n finalin the morning = dimineaain the village = n satin the shade = la umbr

    Articolul hotrt poate fi ntlnit n unele denumiri geografice:The Black Sea, The Danube, The Carpathians, The Alps, The Himalaya Mountains, The Thames, The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, The Commonwealth of Australia States and Territories, The United States of America, The Sahara Desert, The Atlantic Ocean, The Indian Ocean, The Pacific Ocean etc.

    Articolul hotrt nsoete, de obicei, substantivele cnd acestea sunt acompaniate/precedate de adjective.in the first/second/third/etc. sentence = n prima/a doua/a treia/etc. propoziiein the course of time = n decursul timpului, de-a lungul timpuluiin the second half = n a doua jumtatein the days/months that followed = n zilele/lunile care au urmatMount Everest is the highest mountain in the world. = Muntele Everest este cel mai nalt munte din lume.

    Articolul hotrt the se mai traduce n limba romn prin articolele adjectivale cel, cea, cei, cele sau articolele posesive al, a, ai, ale.Alfred the Great = Alfred cel MareStephen the Great = tefan cel MareThe Second World War = Cel de al doilea rzboi mondial.

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  • 1.1.2. ARTICOLUL NEHOTRT (THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE)

    este :- a [\] - naintea cuvintelor care ncep cu consoan sau semiconsoan:

    a dog [\ `dog]= un cine a wall [\ `wOl]= un zid/peretea flower [\ `flau\]= o floare a year [\ `ji\] = un an

    - an [\n] - naintea cuvintelor care ncep cu vocal:an apple [\n `Epl]= un mr an eye [\n `ai] = un ochian ear [\n `i\]= o ureche an idea [\n ai`di\]= o idee

    Articolul nehotrt introduce de obicei un element nou. El poate fi ntlnit :- n faa substantivelor nsoite/precedate de adjective :

    a good teacher = un profesor buna big house = o cas marea book of proverbs = o carte de proverbea house on fire = o cas n flcria little tea = puin/destul ceai

    - n unele structuri :a tobacconist's = o tutungeriea baker's = o brutriea greengrocer's = un aprozara blue - eyed girl = o fat cu ochi albatria confectioner's = o cofetriea jeweller's = un magazin de

    bijuteriia chemist 's = o farmaciea stationer's = o papetrieonce upon a time = a fost odata grocer' s = o bcnietwo/three at a time = cte doi/trei o dat

    Articolul nehotrt are n unele cazuri funcie numeric:a hundred = o suta thousand = o mietwo saucers and an ash-tray = dou farfurioare i o scrumier

    1.1.3. ARTICOLUL ZERO (THE ZERO ARTICLE)

    Articolul zero apare:a) n nume de continente, ri, persoane, zilele sptmnii etc.

    Exemple: Africa, Asia, America, Europe, England, France, Italy, Romania, Sunday, Alice, Bob, George, John, Mary, Peter, Richard, William etc.

    b) n faa subsantivelor folosite n sens general:Children like sweets. = Copiilor le plac dulciurile.Knowledge is power. = tiina nseamn putere.Oil is lighter than water. = Uleiul este mai uor dect apa.Boys like toys and lots of noise.= Bieilor le plac jucriile i mult zgomot.

    c) n faa subsantivelor nenumrabile (uncountables):Gold is yellow.= Aurul este galben.This house is made of wood.= Aceast cas este fcut din lemn.

    d) naintea substantivelor abstracte sau nume de materie: care, death, hatred, honesty, hunger, love, sand, salt, tea, water etc.Salt seasons all things. (prov.) = Sarea d gust tuturor lucrurilor.

    Multe substantive abstracte apar n proverbe.

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  • Hunger is the best sauce. = Foamea este cel mai bun buctar.

    e) nume de: culori (white, black, yellow, red, green, brown, pink, violet, orange, blue, black), sporturi i jocuri sportive (football, volleyball, basketball, hockey, tennis etc.), limbi (English, Romanian, German, French etc.), mese (breakfast, snack, lunch, tea, dinner, supper).

    f) n unele expresii / structuri fixe, care trebuie memorate pentru evitarea greelilor.after dark = dup lsarea ntunericuluiafter three o'clock = dup ora treiafter dinner = dup cinday by day = zi de zidrop by drop = strop cu stropday after day = zi dup zi, zi de zifrom end to end = de la cap la capfrom first to last = de la primul la ultimulfrom place to place = din loc n locfrom time to time = din cnd n cndgood for food = comestibilgoods on sale = mrfuri/bunuri de vnzarein general = n generalto learn by heart = a nva pe de rostpiece by piece = bucat cu bucatJust in time = chiar la timp/moment

    to leave for school = a pleca la coalto keep in mind = a ine minteto be on duty = a fi de serviciuto go on foot = a merge pe jos to put in order = a pune n ordineto be in parliament = a fi n parlamentto go to bed = a merge la culcarefrom London = de la Londra to look for help/aid = a cuta ajutorto pay on demand = a plti la cererefrom morning to night = de dimineaa pn searafrom beginning to end = de la nceput la sfriton certain conditions = cu anumite condiii

    1.2. SUSBTANTIVUL (THE NOUN)Substantivul (lat.: substantivus; substans = substan; sub = sub/dedesubt,

    stans = aezat) este partea de vorbire care denumete fiine, obiecte, stri, noiuni, nsuiri etc.

    1.2.1. Clasificare - comune (Common Nouns)

    dog (cine), cat (pisic), bird (pasre), house (cas), apple (mr), girl (fat), boy (biat), water (ap).

    - proprii (Proper Nouns)John, Alice, Romania, London, Europe, Asia, July, Sunday, Great Britain etc.

    - abstracte (Abstract Nouns)friendship (prietenie), joy (bucurie), wisdom (nelepciune), safety ( siguran), theory (teorie), gratitude (recunotin) etc.

    - inidividuale (Individual Nouns)man (brbat), house (cas), stone (piatr), tree (copac) etc.

    - colective (Collective Nouns)team (echip), army (armat), family (familie), fleet (flot), crowd (mulime),

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  • flock (stol), swarm (roi), group (grup) etc.- nume de materie (Names of Matter)

    water (ap), air (aer), fire (foc), beer (bere), milk (lapte), steel (oel), silver (argint), gold (aur), snow (zpad), wine (vin), tea (ceai), salt (sare) etc.

    1.2.2. Genul substantivelor (The Gender of the Nouns)

    masculin (masculine) feminin (feminine)(he = el) (she = ea)

    actor = actor actress = actribachelor = celibatar spinster = celibatarbarman = barman barmaid = barmani

    boy = biat girl = fatbridegroom =

    ginerebride = mireas

    brother = frate sister = sordad/daddy =

    tati/tticu mam/mammy = mami

    earl = conte countess = contesfather = tat mother = mam

    gentleman = domn gentlewoman = doamngod = zeu goddess = zei

    grandfather = grandpa = bunic

    grandmother = grandma = bunic

    hero = erou heroine = eroinhusband = so wife = soie

    king = rege queen = reginlad = flcu lass = fatlandlord = proprietar

    landlady = proprietreas

    man = brbat woman = femeiemaster = stpn mistress = stpnmonk = clugr nun = clugri

    nephew = nepot niece = nepoatpapa/daddy = tata mamma/mammy = mamapoliceman = poliist policewoman = poliist

    prince = prin princess = prinessalesman =

    vnztor saleswoman = vnztoare

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