PART II: SYNTAX THE SIMPLE SENTENCE Definition Classification Parts of the Sentence The Main Parts of the Sentence The Subject The Predicate Agreement of the Predicate with the Subject The Secondary Parts of the Sentence The Object The Attribute The Adverbial Modifier. Detached Parts of the Sentence The independent Elements of the Sentence Sentences with Homogeneous Parts WORD ORDER SYNTAX THE SIMPLE SENTENCE The Main Parts of the Sentence The Subject The Predicate Agreement of the Predicate with the Subject The Secondary Parts of the Sentence The Object The Attribute The Adverbial Modifier. Detached Parts of the Sentence The independent Elements of the Sentence Sentences with Homogeneous Parts WORD ORDER THE COMPOUND SENTENCE AND THE COMPLEX SENTENCE The Compound Sentence The Complex Sentence THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES THE INDIRECT SPEECH General remarks Inverted order of words Position of the object Position of the attribute Position of the adverbial modifiers THE COMPOUND SENTENCE AND THE COMPLEX SENTENCE The Compound Sentence General Notion Types of Coordination The Complex Sentence General Notion. Types of clauses. THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES THE INDIRECT SPEECH
PART II: SYNTAXTHE SIMPLE SENTENCE
the declarative sentence the interrogative sentence:
States a fact in the affirmative or He was born in 1962. negative form a) general questions: b) special questions: c) alternative questions: d) disjunctive questions: Do you like art? Where do you live? Do you live in town or in the country? You speak English, dont you?
the imperative sentence the exclamatory sentence two-member sentence
Induces a person to do something, so it Stop talking! expresses a command, a request, an invitation, etc. Expresses some kind of emotion or What a lovely day it is! feeling
1 it has two members: a subject and a predicate (if one of them is missing it is easily understood from the context). It can be: a) complete when it has a subject and a predicate: b) incomplete: (when one of the principal parts or both of them are missing, but can be easily understood from the context they are called: elliptical):1 it has only one member which is neither the subject, nor the predicate 2 it is generally used in descriptions and emotional speech 3 the main part is often expressed
She had established immediate contact with an architect. I met her yesterday. Who does it for you? James, of course. Where were you yesterday? At the cinema. Dusk of a summer night. To have his friendship, his admiration, but not at that price.
a one membersentence:
by: 1) noun (sometimes modified by attributes) 2) infinitive 1 consists only of the principal parts:
She is a student. Winter!
2 consists of the subject, predicate They visited me yesterday. and one or more secondary parts:
QUESTIONSTypes of questions General Characteristics 1 require the answer yes or no. Examples Do you have classes on Saturday? Are you well today? Who is Cher? How do people communicate? Do you have English on Monday or on Tuesday? You are Jenny, arent you? It isnt a very nice day, is it?
2 begin with an interrogative word.
Alternati ve Disjuncti ve
3 indicate choice. 4 require the answers yes or no and consist of an affirmative statement followed by a negative question, or a negative statement followed by an affirmative question. 5 we repeat the auxiliary verb in the question.
You havent been here before, have you? NB. If theres no auxiliary we use: do, She bought this book, didnt she? does, did. You can speak French, 1 If we have modal verbs, we repeat cant you? Youre coming, arent them in the question. 2 Notice the meaning of yes and no in you? Yes. (I am coming.) answer to question tags. No. (Im not coming.)
THE MAIN PARTS OF THE SENTENCETHE SUBJECT Ways of expressing the subject: Examples
1 a noun in the common (or occasionally The teacher brought a map. possessive) case Adas is a noble heart. 2 a pronoun (personal, demonstrative, That set me thinking of my plan of action. All were happy. indefinite, possessive, interrogative) Hers is not a very successful plan called me. 3 a substantivized adjective or participle 4 a numeral (cardinal or ordinal) The wounded were taken good care of. The two were quite unable to do anything. The fist stood in front of him.
5 an infinitive, an infinitive phrase or To live is to work. construction To be a rich man is not always roses and beauty. 6 a gerund, a construction gerundial phrase or Lying doesnt go well with me. Winning the war is what counts. On is a preposition.
7 any part of speech used as a quotation
8 a group of words which is one part of The needle and thread is lost. (here the the sentence, i.e. a syntactically subject represents one person). Their friend and defender is darkly indivisible group. groping towards the solution.
It as the subject of the sentence
Type of subjec t notion al
it represents a living being or a thing and has the following characteristics: 1 stands for a definite thing or some abstract idea the personal it: 2 points out a person or thing expressed by a predicative noun, or it refers to the thought contained in a preceding
The door opened. It was opened by a young girl. It is John. It was a large room with a great window.
statement, thus having a demonstrative meaning the demonstrative it: formal it does not represent any person or thing. Here we must distinguish: a) the impersonal it, which is used to denote: 1 natural phenomena or that which characterizes the environment. 2 to denote time and distance: b) the introductory or anticipatory it introduces the real subject: c) the emphatic it is used for emphasis:
Dick came home late, it provoked his father.
It is cold in winter. It is delightfully quiet in the night. It is morning already. It was curious to observe that child. It was he who had brought the book.
Type of predica te The simple predica te
Expressed by:/ characteristics 1 a finite verb in a simple or compound tense form
Examples Yesterday, Ann arrived home late. My dear I have been looking for you everywhere.
2 a phraseological unit: to get rid, to take care, to pay attention, to lose sight, to make fun, to take care, to take part, to have a swim, to have a run, to give a laugh, to give a push, to take a look, etc. a) a finite verb which lost its concrete meaning + a noun mostly Burton gave a kindly little chuckle. used with the indefinite article b) a finite verb + abstract noun without article
Then we got rid of such NB. The characteristic feature of this inconveniences.predicate is that the finite verb has lost its concrete meaning to a certain extent and forms one unit with the noun, consequently the noun cannot be treated as an object to the verb. It is impossible to put a question to the second component. C o m p a r e: My friend gave me an interesting book to read. The man gave a violent start.
The 1 consists of two parts: compou a) a finite verb + b) some other
nd predica te The compou nd nomina l predica te The compou nd verbal predica te The compou nd verbal modal predica te
part of speech: a noun, a pronoun, an adjective, a verbal, etc. 2 link verb + predicative. 3 it denotes the state or quality of the person or thing expressed by the subject. He grew more cheerful.
It is of two types: 1. the compound verbal modal predicate 2. the compound verbal aspect predicate shows whether the action is possible, impossible, obligatory, necessary, desirable, etc. It consists of: You can prove everything and nothing. 1 a modal verb and an infinitive. The operation was to take 2 modal expressions: to be + place in the capital of the city. Infinitive, to have + infinitive. I have to work for my living. 3 a verb with a modal meaning ( to to throw hope, to expect, to intend, to He wanted attempt, to try, to endeavor, to long, himself into the whirlpool of to wish, to want, to desire, etc.) and Paris. He tried to open the tin an infinitive or a gerund. with a pocket knife. I am going to leave Paris.
4 modal expressions ( to be able, to be obliged, to be bound, to be willing, to be anxious, to be capable, to be going) and an infinitive. The 1 consists of such verbs as: to begin, compou to start, to commence to fall, to set nd about, to go on, to keep on, to verbal proceed, to continue, to stop, to give aspect up, to finish, to cease, to come and predica an infinitive or gerund. te 2 Would and used + Infinitive, which express a repeated action in the past, also belong here. Mixed types of predica 1 the compound modal nominal predicate. 2 the compound aspect nominal
His bones ceased to ache.
I used to write poetry myself when I was his age.
He greatly longed to be the next heir himself. I continued to be glad for that.
predicate. 3 the compound modal aspect predicate. I had to begin living all over again.
NB. The link verbs and their characteristics Examples The nightmare of my life had come true. (link verb) Giles and Beatrice were coming for the night. (verb of complete prediction) The poor man sat amazed. Tome went home miserable.
1 have partly lost their original concrete meaning: to appear, to get, to grow, to continue, to feel, to keep, to look, to turn, to hold, to prove, to turn out, to loom, to rank, to remain, to run, to seem, to smell, to taste, to fall, to stand, to go, to work. Many of these verbs can be used both as verbs of complete predication fully preserving their concrete meaning and as link verbs: to be, to grow, to look, to feel, to come, to go. 2 There are