Gramatica-Limbii-Engleze 3.pdf

  • View
    254

  • Download
    3

Embed Size (px)

Text of Gramatica-Limbii-Engleze 3.pdf

  • 8/10/2019 Gramatica-Limbii-Engleze 3.pdf

    1/44

    Contents

    Contents ................................................................................................................. 1

    I. The present continuous ....................................................................................... 2Form .................................................................................................................... 2

    The spelling of the present participle .................................................................. 3

    Uses of the present continuous tense ................................................................. 4

    Verbs not normally used in the continuous tenses ..............................................

    II. The simple present tense ................................................................................... !

    Form .................................................................................................................... !

    "pelling notes ...................................................................................................... !

    The simple present used to e#press .................................................................... $

    %#ercises &ith present tense simple ' continuous ................................................. (

    III. The simple past tense ...................................................................................... 11

    Form .................................................................................................................. 11

    "pelling notes .................................................................................................... 12

    Irregular )erbs* form ......................................................................................... 12

    Use ................................................................................................................... 12

    IV. The past continuous tense .............................................................................. 13Form .................................................................................................................. 13

    %#ercises &ith the "imple +ast and the +ast Continuous ..................................... 14

    V. The present perfect tense ................................................................................ 1$

    Form .................................................................................................................. 1$

    Use .................................................................................................................... 1(

    VI. The present perfect continuous tense ............................................................. 21

    Form .................................................................................................................. 21

    Use .................................................................................................................... 21

    %#ercises &ith +resent +erfect "imple ' +resent +erfect Continuous ..................22

    The +resent +erfect and the +ast Tense ............................................................... 2

    VII. The past perfect tense .................................................................................... 2,

    Form .................................................................................................................. 2,

    Use .................................................................................................................... 2,

    VIII. The past perfect continuous tense ................................................................ 2!

    Form ................................................................................................................. 2!

    Use .................................................................................................................... 2!

    1

  • 8/10/2019 Gramatica-Limbii-Engleze 3.pdf

    2/44

    The +ast +erfect and the +ast +erfect Continuous .............................................2$

    %#ercises &ith +ast +erfect "imple ' Contiuous ..................................................2$

    I-. The future ....................................................................................................... 31

    (.1. The simple present used for the future ...................................................... 32

    (.2. Future &ith intention ................................................................................. 32

    (.3. The present continuous .............................................................................. 32

    (.4. The be going to form .................................................................................. 33

    (.. The future simple ....................................................................................... 3

    (.,. The future continuous tense ....................................................................... 3$

    (.!. The future perfect Form ............................................................................. 3(

    (.$. The future perfect continuous ................................................................... 3(

    %#ercises &ith the Future ..................................................................................... 4

    I. The present continuous

    Form

    The present continuous tense is formed with the present tense of the auxiliary verb be + the

    present participle:

    Affirmative Neative Interroative

    I am working I am not working am I working?

    you are working you are not working are you working?

    he/she/it is working he/she/it is not working is he/she/it working?

    we are working we are not working are we working?

    you are working you are not working are you working?

    they are working they are not working are they working?

    Neative interroative: am I not working? are you not working? is he not working?

    !ontractions: the verb be can be contracted" so the present continuous of any verb can be

    contracted:

    Affirmative Neative Neative interroative

    I'm working I'm not working aren't I working?

    #

  • 8/10/2019 Gramatica-Limbii-Engleze 3.pdf

    3/44

    Note the irreular contraction aren't I? for am I not?

    The spellin of the present participle

    1. $hen a verb ends in a sinle e" this e is dropped before ing

    argue arguing

    hate hating

    love loving

    %xceptions :

    ae ageing

    dye dyeing

    sine singeing

    agree agreeing

    see seeing

    #. $hen a verb of one syllable has one vowel and ends in a sinle consonant" this consonant is

    doubled before ing:

    hit hitting

    run running

    stop stopping

    &. 'erbs of two or more syllables whose last syllable contains only one vowel and ends in a

    sinle consonant double this consonant if the stress falls on the last syllable:

    admit admitting

    begin beginning

    prefer preferring

    (. %xceptions

    budget budgeting

    &

  • 8/10/2019 Gramatica-Limbii-Engleze 3.pdf

    4/44

    enter entering )stress not on the last syllable*.

    . A final 1 after a sinle vowel is always doubled:

    Signal signalling

    travel travelling except in American %nlish.

    6. ing can be added to a verb endin in y without affectin the spellin of the verb:

    carry carrying

    enjoy enjoying

    hurry hurrying

    ,ses of the present continuous tense

    For an action happenin now

    It is raining.

    I am not wearing a coat as it isn 't cold.

    Why are you sitting at my desk?

    For an action happenin about this time but not necessarily at the moment of spea-in:

    I am reading a play by Shaw. )This may mean at the moment of spea-in but may also mean

    now in a more eneral sense.*

    e is teaching !rench and learning "reek. )/e may not be doin either at the moment of

    spea-in.*

    $hen two continuous tenses havin the same sub0ect are 0oined by and, the auxiliary may

    be dropped before the second verb" as in the above example.

    For a definite arranement in the near future:

    I'm meeting #eter tonight.

    $re you doing anything tomorrow afternoon? % &es I'm playing tennis with $nn.

    $ith a point in time to indicate an action which beins before this point and probably

    continues after it:

    $t si( I am bathing the baby. )I start bathin him before six.*

    (

  • 8/10/2019 Gramatica-Limbii-Engleze 3.pdf

    5/44

    $ith always:

    e is always losing his keys.

    This form is used" chiefly in the affirmative" for a freuently repeated action" usually when the

    freuency annoys the spea-er or seems unreasonable to him:

    )om is always going away for weekends

    For an action which appears to be continuous:

    e's always working

    'erbs not normally used in the continuous tenses

    The continuous tenses are chiefly used for deliberate actions. 2ome verbs are" not normally

    used in the continuous and have only one present tense" the simple present. These verbs can be

    rouped as follows:

    'erbs of the senses )involuntary actions*: feel, hear, see, smell; also notice and observe

    )3 notice*" and feel, look, taste used as lin- verbs

    'erbs expressin feelins and emotions" e.. admire )3 respect*" adore, appreciate )3

    value*" care for )3 li-e*" desire, detest, dislike, fear, hate, like, loathe, love, mind ) 3

    care*" respect, value, want, wish. 'erbs of mental activity" e.. agree, appreciate )3 understand*" assume, believe, expect

    )3 thin-*" feel )3 thin-*" feel sure/certain, fo

Search related