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Status of the Croatian Nuclear Energy Programme (CRONEP) Željko Tomšić University of Zagreb Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing Regional Workshop on Establishing a National Position and Decision Making for a Nuclear Power Programme Zagreb, Croatia, 7 - 9 September 2011

Proračun za 2005. godinu

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  • Status of the Croatian Nuclear

    Energy Programme (CRONEP)

    eljko Tomi University of Zagreb

    Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing

    Regional Workshop on Establishing a National Position

    and Decision Making

    for a Nuclear Power Programme

    Zagreb, Croatia, 7 - 9 September 2011

  • CROATIAN ENERGY STRATEGY

    AND NUCLEAR POWER

    PROGRAMME

  • BASIC CROATIAN ENERGY STRATEGY OBJECTIVES

    National Energy Strategy is adopted by the Croatian Parliament on October, 16th 2009.

    The Croatian Energy Strategy has three basic energy objectives:

    Security of energy supply;

    Competitiveness of energy sector;

    Sustainable development.

  • FOLLOWING 20-20-20 EU TARGETS

    20% decrease in greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 in comparison to 1990;

    20% of renewable energy sources in gross final energy consumption in 2020;

    10% shall be a share of renewable energy sources in 2020 used in all types of transport in comparison with

    final gasoline and diesel fuel, bio fuel consumption in

    road and railway transport and total electricity

    consumption in transport;

    9% decrease of final energy consumption in a period by 2016 applying energy efficiency measures.

  • FINAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION PROJECTIONS

    0

    100

    200

    300

    400

    500

    600

    700

    800

    2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020 2022 2024 2026 2028 2030

    PJ

    Other Sectors Transport Industry

    46.1%

    32.0%

    22.0%

    46.3%

    33.0%

    20.6%

    2006 2020

    Comparison of final energy consumption

    according to the

    business-as-usual

    projection with the final

    energy consumption

    after the

    implementation of

    energy efficiency

    measures.

    PJ 2006 2015 2020 Growth rate

    2006 - 2020 2030

    Consumption according to

    Business as usual scenario 267.89 362.75 409.60 3.1 % 500.83

    Consumption after

    implementation of energy

    efficiency measures

    267.89 345.18 386.84 2.7 % 470.60

    Reduction in final energy

    consumption 0.00 17.57 22.76 / 30.24

    Sustainable scenario of final energy consumption

  • CROATIAN ENERGY SECTOR

    CHARACTERISTICS AND POTENTIAL

    Poor domestic reserve of fossil fuels,

    but

    Potentially transit country for oil, natural gas and electricity;

    Advantages of maritime country; Potential and sites for:

    hydropower plants, wind

    parks, biomass, geothermal,

    solar,

    construction of underground

    gas storages,

    underground CO2 storages,

    nuclear power plant,

    other power generation

    facilities.

    0

    1000

    2000

    3000

    4000

    5000

    6000

    7000

    8000

    9000

    2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020 2022 2024 2026 2028 2030

    Prod

    uctio

    n, 1

    03t

    Domestic production Oil import

    0

    1.000

    2.000

    3.000

    4.000

    5.000

    6.000

    7.000

    8.000

    2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020 2022 2024 2026 2028 2030

    10

    6m

    3

    Domestic production Import

    Estimated domestic gas production in Croatia

    Estimated oil production in Croatia

    No domestic coal reserves

  • NATIONAL TARGET

    The Republic of Croatia has set the goal that in

    the period until year 2020 the share in

    electricity generation from large hydro power

    plants and other renewable energy sources in

    total electricity consumption is maintained at the

    present level of 35%.

  • SECTORS OBJECTIVES FOR RES

    Biomass31.5%

    Biofuels10.8%

    Hydropower- HPP28.2%

    Hydropower- Small HPP1.2%

    Wind energy12.2%

    Solar energy5.9%

    Biogas3.1%

    Geothermal energy1.3%

    Other energy(air, water)

    5.8%

    Structure of RES shares in 20% of gross final energy consumption in 2020

    Sector Share of RES, %

    Electricity 9.2

    Transport 2.2

    Heating and cooling 8.6

    The goal is to use around 84 PJ of renewable energy sources in

    2020

  • ELECTRICITY

    Year 2006. 2010. 2020.

    Growth rate of

    consumption

    2006. - 2020. (%)

    2030.

    Immediate consumption

    according to the basis projection

    (TWh) 15,0 18,0 27,0 4,3 36,9

    Direct consumption towards a

    sustainable scenario (TWh) 15,0 17,0 25,0 3,7 33

    Total electricity consumption for

    sustainable scenario (TWh) 17,3 20,0 28,0 3,5 36,8

    Final electricity consumption and total electricity consumption in sustainable scenario

    Installed capacity and starting up new plants

    - 1,1 GW power plants will be shut

    down.

    2,4 GW thermal

    power plants

    should be built to

    cover consumption

    and support

    generation from

    RES.

  • 3 POSSIBLE SCENARIOS AND CO2 EMISSIONS

    Even with nuclear option Croatia will have difficulties in meeting

    internationally negotiating binding targets, CO2 reduction until 2020 in

    comparison to 1990 while maintaining security of supply and

    competitiveness.

    Kyoto targetBase year

    0,0

    5,0

    10,0

    15,0

    20,0

    25,0

    30,0

    35,0

    40,0

    45,0

    50,0

    1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030

    10

    00

    ktC

    O2e

    q

    Emission 1990.-2005. 'Blue'' scenario 'Green'' scenario

    'White'' scenario Kyoto target Base year

    Blue scenario without

    NPP (gas, coal, RES);

    NPP after 2020 in

    Green (gas,NPP,RES)

    and White scenario

    (gas,coal,NPP,RES);

    After 2020 CCS

    technology included.

  • NUCLEAR - PRESENT NATIONAL POSITION

    National Energy Strategy is adopted by the Croatian Parliament on October, 16th 2009 decided in favour of

    launching the Croatian Nuclear Energy Program (CRONEP),

    consistent with the IAEA methodology.

    Before making the decisions on building the nuclear power plant, it is necessary to perform preparation activities in

    accordance with the International Atomic Energy Agency

    (IAEA).

    Decision on the construction of a nuclear power plant will be taken by the Croatian Parliament.

    It was primarily planned decision-making on building the nuclear power plant by 2012, nowdays is not realistic but launching

    nuclear program is necessary and is in the process.

  • National Position

    The Program of Preliminary Activities

    on CRONEP will be detailed in the

    Strategy Implementation Programme

    Strategy Implementation Programme

    in preparation contains also a list of

    preparatory activities of the Phase 1

  • The launching of the Croatian Nuclear Energy

    Programme comprises two basic goals:

    providing for existence (co-existence) in

    immediate vicinity of two nuclear power plants and

    five nuclear reactors in NPP Krko and NPP Paks

    providing for preconditions required for

    decision making and realization of nuclear

    power plant construction.

    Nuclear safety and public awareness will be

    in the focus of the CRONEP.

    ROLE OF CRONEP

  • EXPERIENCE IN NUCLEAR

    The Republic of Croatia has previous nuclear experience and belongs to a group of countries that use nuclear power for energy purposes.

    Hrvatska Elektroprivreda (Croatian Power Utility) is co-owner of 700 MW NPP Krko in Slovenia.

    Croatian nuclear experience arises from: more than 10 years of preparations and construction

    of NPP Krko; 28 years of successful operation of NPP Krko; preparation for construction of the first NPP in Croatia

    carried out until 1987 (NPP Prevlaka).

    Positive influence of NPP Krko construction and operation is still present in the Croatian industry.

    In 1987 NPP Prevlaka project was terminated after Chernobyl accident.

  • Tanja

    Vir

    Prevlaka

    In Croatia a few nuclear sites were identified through intensive site selection processes carried out in 70-ies, late 80-ies and early 90-ies;

    A site for low and medium level radioactive waste identified and included in the National Spatial Plan;

    Now it is necessary to re-evaluate them but they were identified.

    SITE THE GREAT ADVANTAGE

  • Siting Regulation

    Site Selection Criteria for thermal power plants and

    nuclear facilities (1991) Elimination criteria

    Comparative criteria

    Ordinance on safety and security for siting, design,

    construction, operation and decommissioning of

    nuclear facilities (2008) Basic elimination criteria (7)

    Special elimination criteria (16)

    Comparative criteria (33)

    New Act on radiological and nuclear safety (OG

    28/2010) Site Selection is deregulated from the nuclear safety point of

    view

    New ordinance on site evaluation in preparation

  • Overview of Current Human Resources

    in Croatia to Support Nuclear Power

    20-30 years ago Croatia had experienced nuclear staff

    Knowledge achieved during two nuclear projects: Construction and operation of NPP Krko jointly built with

    Slovenian partners

    Construction of NPP Prevlaka project ceased in 1987, after Chernobyl accident

    The biggest number of nuclear experts (nuclear power engineers) already retired

    Lack of new nuclear projects in the last 20 years resulted in Multy skilled workforce a number of ex-nuclear staff has been

    involved in different areas of business today

    Drop of interest of local industry for participation in relatively narrow range of jobs and services related to NPP Krko

    Drop of interest of students for nuclear power courses

  • Overview of Current Human Resources in

    Croatia to Support Nuclear Power

    Government

    Ministry of Economy

    Educational institutions

    Scientific Institutions

    Regulator = State office

    for Radiation Protection

    and Nuclear Safety

    Consultants

    National Industry

    Operator = Croatian

    Power Utility

    Currently

    25

    employees

    10-20

    companies

    with working

    experience on

    NPP Krko

    Institute Ruer

    Bokovi,

    Faculty of Electrical

    Engineering and

    Computing Zagreb

    Domestic + foreign

    + Croatian

    workforce from

    NPP Krko (80

    workers)

    4 nuclear engineers

    + variety of

    workforce in fields

    needed to start with

    PHASE 1

    18

  • State Office for Radiological and Nuclear Safety established in 2010 based on Act on radiological and nuclear safety (OG 28/2010)

    Took over all responsibilities from the former State office for radiation protection and State office for nuclear safety together with inspection of radiation sources which was located within Ministry of Health

    Functionally and financially independent nuclear regulatory body

    Act on radiological and nuclear safety (2010)

    Details of licensing process for nuclear instalation will be presentend in separate presentation

    Legal & regulatory infrastructure

  • Overall development

    In accordance with IAEA methodology, the aspects covered by preliminary activities from PHASE 1 are the

    following:

    national status

    nuclear safety

    nuclear program management

    program funding

    legal framework

    the proliferation issue

    regulatory framework

    environmental protection

    protection against radiation

    siting and infrastructure

    electricity transmission network

    human resources development

    public communication

    planning of crisis

    safety and physical protection

    nuclear fuel cycle

    radioactive waste

    inclusion of domestic industry, work and services

    policy regarding the procurement of equipment and services.

  • Overall development

    Nuclear safety and Regulatory framework

    Probably the most developed part of the

    CRONEP

    Favourable influence of two factors:

    Existence of the nuclear regulator (State

    office for radiological and nuclear safety)

    Significant number of institutes, local

    industry and individuals with previous

    experience from NPP Krko operation have

    already achieved safety culture

  • Overall development

    Electricity transmission network

    A study on the circumstances in the Croatian power

    grid in 2020 was carried out in 2008

    Results:

    Croatian Power System may easily withstand a

    1000 MW NPP in 2020

    Construction of 600 MW NPP will result in

    shortage of power in 2020

    1600 MW NPP will be too big for the Croatian

    Power System in 2020

  • Overall development

    Public communication

    A limited range of public surveys were conducted in the

    past 3-4 years, mostly among student population

    NEMIS - internet portal (www.nemis.zpf.fer.hr )

    containing objective information on nuclear issues was

    set up in 2009

    During the process of preparation the National Energy

    Strategy, positive aspects of nuclear energy were

    recognized among participating parties

    However, engagement of a professional

    communication agency is inevitable in the near future

    http://www.nemis.zpf.fer.hr/

  • Overall development

    Radioactive waste Croatia has obligation to find solution for half of the waste from NPP

    Krko

    National Strategy for Management of radioactive waste and

    spent nuclear fuel (July 2009) 3 options:

    Fund for financing decommissioning of NPP Krko and

    disposal of NPP Krko radioactive waste and spent

    nuclear fuel established in 2007.

    Project tasks for analysis these 3 options is defined

    Joint CRO-

    SLO

    repositories

    Export in 3rd

    country

    Repository in

    Croatia

  • Thank you for your attention !

    Plitvice Krka waterfalls

    Zagreb