Submitted by: Endang Tri Rahayu C0308009
ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF LETTERS AND FINE ARTS Sebelas Maret University 2009
Chapter I Phonetics and PhonologyA. PhoneticsIn dealing with English Phonology, we need to elaborate more about the definition of phonetics and phonology. Both are the subdisciplines in linguistics dealing with sound. Crystal (1994: 259) defined phonetics as: The science which studies the characteristics of human sound making, especially those sounds used in speech, and provides methods for their description, classification, and transcription. While Catford (1994: 1) stated: Phonetics is the systematic study of human speech sounds. It provides means of describing and classifying virtually all the sounds that can be produced by human vocal tracts. In McMahon elaboration (2002: 1), the point of view of phonetics is on the objective way of describing and analysing the range of sounds human use in their languages. According to it, the sounds from other than human vocal tract are not the topics of phonetics. Verhaar (1984: 12) claimed that phonetics is a study of language sounds without regarding to their meanings. According to Katamba (1991: 2), Phonetics has three subdisciplines: i.) Acoustic Phonetics is the study of physical properties of speech sounds using laboratory instruments. Therefore the study of Acoustic Phonetics is closely related to physics. ii.) Auditory Phonetics is the study of speech perception by human ear. By looking at this meaning, Auditory Phonetics is closely related to anatomy, physiology, and neurology. iii.) Articulatory Phonetics explores how human vocal apparatus produces sounds. It is very important for studying linguistics. From the three subdisciplines above we can make illustration. If we are making language sounds, we are in term of Articulatory Phonetics. The sound waves we produce when making language sounds are studied in Acoustics Phonetics. The last, when the sounds perceived by human ear, the process of perceiving the
language sounds are the studied in Auditory Phonetics. Thus, the term Phonetics in our subject is Articulatory Phonetics.
B. PhonologyWhile phonetics just focused on the sounds made by human vocal tract, phonology provides clear subjective ways of describing these sounds. Each language only makes use of a subset of the full range of possible, producible, and distinguishable sounds. That is why the characteristics of English sound system different from French. Phonology is the language-specific selection and organisation of sounds to signal meanings. Phonologists are interested in the sound patterns of particular languages, and in what speakers and the hearers need to know, and the children need to learn, to be speakers of those languages. This study is closely related to psychology. The term phonology itself is introduced by Trubetzskoy linguists in Praha, also Jacobson and all of them whose belong to Prague School. Its relationship with phonetics is a complex one, but we might initially approach phonology as narrowed-down phonetics.
C. The Advantages of Studying Phonetics and PhonologyIn general, those who are interested in language analysis will broaden their knowledge by studying phonetics and phonology. It is because these subdisciplines of linguistics set up the basic components of language. Katamba (1991: 77) and Catford (1995: 1-3) elaborated the importance of studying these disciplines. They gave evidences about people who can take advantages from studying them. Actors need some practical phonetics in order to play certain characters with distinguish dialects and foreign accents. It is studied in drama schools. Speech therapists use the knowledge to help their patients make some language sounds. Specialists in deaf school also teach their students communicate orally. Neurologists or neurolinguists often treat their patients who suffered from brain injuries to produce sounds.
Polices use forensic phonetics to identify an assumption towards a suspect. According to the accents or how they speak, polices can identify geographical dialects, jobs, social status, physical appearance, and so on. Alexander Graham Bell, the telephones inventor, was a phonetics expert from Scotland. His invention is an application of acoustic phonetics. It seems that the study of acoustic phonetics will help computer programmers making oral programming language. Psycholinguists can analyse the process of producing sounds in babies and disintegration of this language in aphasia. Historians use the sciences to investigate some languages from the same region. They can conclude whether or not the languages are from the same cluster. `Sociolinguists expert try to find out the correlation between geographical dialects, social grouping, and utterances. As an example, the English middle-classes tend to delete the [h] sound as in [hit] and [ht]. So, they will pronounce them [it] and [t]. Looking at a lot of benefits of studying phonetics and phonology, it is strongly recommended for us to study these knowledge. Moreover, we are dealing with language.
Chapter II The Organs of Speech and The Process of Making SoundsA. Organs of SpeechHuman beings are capable of producing sounds an infinite number of sounds. When we speak, there is continuous movement of such organs as the tongue, the velum (soft palate), the lips, and the lungs. The figure shows the main organs of speech: the jaw, the lips, the teeth, the alveolar ridge, the tongue, the hard palate, the soft palate (the velum), the uvula, the pharynx, the larynx, and the vocal cords. The mobile organs are the lower jaw, the lips, the tongue, the velum, the uvula, the pharynx, and the vocal cords. However, we have most control over the jaw, the lips, and the tongue. The tongue is so important that it is divided again into four main areas: the tip, the blade (or lamina), the front and the back.
B. Sound Producing Process
Essentially, speaking is modified breathing: it makes use of the resources involved in normal respiration, but in a more controlled way. When we are speaking, the phase of breathing out is significantly longer, depending on the length of the utterance we want to produce. Sound producing process is divided into three main aspects sequently: initiation, phonation, and articulation. Layer (1994: 131) added one more sequent, coordination.
i.) InitiationCatford (1994: 217) stated that initiation is: An activity in the vocal tract which compresses or rarefies the air in the tract, and hence initiates or tends to initiate an air-stream.
In the airstream there are two significant thing namely airstream mechanism and airflow direction. Take a look at the diagram:
Pulmonic Pressure Airstream is initiated by lungs that contracts to move the positive pressure so that the air can be released. The characteristics of this airstream is egressive. This is the most common initiation process in most of languages in the world, including English. Pulmonic Suction Airstream is initiated by expanding the air from lungs, so that it ignites a sucking movement or ingressive. Certain sounds can be made with air sucked in through the mouth, for example the sound of disgust in English that often written Tch! Tch!. Glottallic Pressure It can be done if the larynx with the closed glottis. Larynx pushed up to press the air in initiatory closure. Glottallic pressure utterances are also called ejectives. It is written down using diacritics (apostrophe) as in [p], [t], [ts], and [f]. It often found in Kaukasus, African, and Indian. Glottallic Suction It can be done if the larynx with the closed glottis. The downed pressure from larynx moves negative suction between initiation closure with articulatory structure on mouth.
ii.)PhonationClark and Yallop (1996: 19) defined phonation as The term phonation refers principally to vocal fold vibration but can also be taken to include all the means by which the larynx functions as source of sound, not all which involve vibrations of the folds in a strict sense. Phonation mode includes voicelessness, whisper, breathy voice, voice, and creak. Other linguist, Catford (1994: 218) stated that
phonation is an activity in the larynx which is neither initiatory nor articulatory in which the airstream is modulated byits passage through the glottis (the space between the vocal folds) before being finally shaped into a specific sound-type by the articulation. Catford also divided phonation into five as well as Clark and Yallop.
iii.) ArticulationAccording to Catford (1994: 218), articulation is an activity in the vocal tract (chiefly in the part of the vocal tract above the larynx), which interrupts, or modulates, the air-stream in such a way that a specific type of sound is generated. Articulation is the final phase of sound producing process. In articulation, the characteristics of the sound mainly controlled by two aspects: place of articulation and manner of articulation.
Chapter III: VocalsA. Vowels ClassificationSound can be divided into two main types. A vowel is a sound that needs an open air passage in the mouth. The air passage can be modified in terms of shape with different mouth and tongue shapes producing different vowels. In classifying vowels, we need not indicate airstream mechanism, since it will always be pulmonic egressive, and we can generally assume that vowels are all voiced and oral. We need to consider three different parameters (Catford, 1994: 124): i.) The position of the tongue vertically (high or low) ii.) The position of the tongue horizontally (front or back) iii.) The position of the lips (rounded or unrounded)
B. Cardinal VowelsTo simplify the pronunciation of vowel sounds, an English expert phonetics, Daniel Jones, divided vowels into primary cardinal vowels and secondary cardinal vowels. It is cl