ENGLISH PHONOLOGY Submitted by: Endang Tri Rahayu C0308009

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Submitted by:Endang Tri Rahayu



Sebelas Maret University

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Chapter IPhonetics and Phonology

A. PhoneticsIn dealing with English Phonology, we need to elaborate more about the

definition of phonetics and phonology. Both are the subdisciplines in linguistics dealing with sound. Crystal (1994: 259) defined phonetics as:

“The science which studies the characteristics of human sound making, especially those sounds used in speech, and provides methods for their description, classification, and transcription.”While Catford (1994: 1) stated:

“Phonetics is the systematic study of human speech sounds. It provides means of describing and classifying virtually all the sounds that can be produced by human vocal tracts.”In McMahon elaboration (2002: 1), the point of view of phonetics is on the objective way of describing and analysing the range of sounds human use in their languages. According to it, the sounds from other than human vocal tract are not the topics of phonetics. Verhaar (1984: 12) claimed that phonetics is a study of language sounds without regarding to their meanings.

According to Katamba (1991: 2), Phonetics has three subdisciplines:i.) Acoustic Phonetics is the study of physical properties of speech sounds using laboratory instruments. Therefore the study of Acoustic Phonetics is closely related to physics.ii.) Auditory Phonetics is the study of speech perception by human ear. By looking at this meaning, Auditory Phonetics is closely related to anatomy, physiology, and neurology.iii.) Articulatory Phonetics explores how human vocal apparatus produces sounds. It is very important for studying linguistics.From the three subdisciplines above we can make illustration. If we are making language sounds, we are in term of Articulatory Phonetics. The sound waves we produce when making language sounds are studied in Acoustics Phonetics. The last, when the sounds perceived by human ear, the process of perceiving the language sounds are the studied in Auditory Phonetics. Thus, the term Phonetics in our subject is Articulatory Phonetics.

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B. PhonologyWhile phonetics just focused on the sounds made by human vocal tract,

phonology provides clear subjective ways of describing these sounds. Each language only makes use of a subset of the full range of possible, producible, and distinguishable sounds. That is why the characteristics of English sound system different from French. Phonology is the language-specific selection and organisation of sounds to signal meanings. Phonologists are interested in the sound patterns of particular languages, and in what speakers and the hearers need to know, and the children need to learn, to be speakers of those languages. This study is closely related to psychology.

The term phonology itself is introduced by Trubetzskoy linguists in Praha, also Jacobson and all of them whose belong to Prague School. Its relationship with phonetics is a complex one, but we might initially approach phonology as narrowed-down phonetics.

C. The Advantages of Studying Phonetics and PhonologyIn general, those who are interested in language analysis will broaden

their knowledge by studying phonetics and phonology. It is because these subdisciplines of linguistics set up the basic components of language.

Katamba (1991: 77) and Catford (1995: 1-3) elaborated the importance of studying these disciplines. They gave evidences about people who can take advantages from studying them.

Actors need some practical phonetics in order to play certain characters with distinguish dialects and foreign accents. It is studied in drama schools.

Speech therapists use the knowledge to help their patients make some language sounds. Specialists in deaf school also teach their students communicate orally.

Neurologists or neurolinguists often treat their patients who suffered from brain injuries to produce sounds.

Polices use forensic phonetics to identify an assumption towards a suspect. According to the accents or how they speak, polices can identify geographical dialects, jobs, social status, physical appearance, and so on.

Alexander Graham Bell, the telephone’s inventor, was a phonetics expert from Scotland. His invention is an application of acoustic phonetics. It seems that the study of acoustic phonetics will help computer programmers making oral programming language.

Psycholinguists can analyse the process of producing sounds in babies and disintegration of this language in aphasia.

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Historians use the sciences to investigate some languages from the same region. They can conclude whether or not the languages are from the same cluster.

`Sociolinguists expert try to find out the correlation between geographical dialects, social grouping, and utterances. As an example, the English middle-classes tend to delete the [h] sound as in [hit] and [ht]. So, they will pronounce them [it] and [t].

Looking at a lot of benefits of studying phonetics and phonology, it is strongly recommended for us to study these knowledge. Moreover, we are dealing with language.

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Chapter IIThe Organs of Speech and The Process of Making


A. Organs of SpeechHuman beings are capable of

producing sounds an infinite number of sounds. When we speak, there is continuous movement of such organs as the tongue, the velum (soft palate), the lips, and the lungs. The figure shows the main organs of speech: the jaw, the lips, the teeth, the alveolar ridge, the tongue, the hard palate, the soft palate (the velum), the uvula, the pharynx, the larynx, and the vocal cords. The mobile organs are the lower jaw, the lips, the tongue, the velum, the uvula, the pharynx, and the vocal cords. However, we have most control over the jaw, the lips, and the tongue. The tongue is so important that it is divided again into four main areas: the tip, the blade (or lamina), the front and the back.

B. Sound Producing ProcessEssentially, speaking is modified breathing: it makes use of the resources

involved in normal respiration, but in a more controlled way. When we are speaking, the phase of breathing out is significantly longer, depending on the length of the utterance we want to produce. Sound producing process is divided into three main aspects sequently: initiation, phonation, and articulation. Layer (1994: 131) added one more sequent, coordination.

i.) InitiationCatford (1994: 217) stated that initiation is:

“An activity in the vocal tract which compresses or rarefies the air in the tract, and hence initiates or tends to initiate an air-stream.”

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In the airstream there are two significant thing namely airstream mechanism and airflow direction. Take a look at the diagram:

Pulmonic PressureAirstream is initiated by lungs that contracts to move the positive pressure so that the air can be released. The characteristics of this airstream is egressive. This is the most common initiation process in most of languages in the world, including English.Pulmonic SuctionAirstream is initiated by expanding the air from lungs, so that it ignites a sucking movement or ingressive. Certain sounds can be made with air sucked in through the mouth, for example the sound of disgust in English that often written ‘Tch! Tch!’.Glottallic PressureIt can be done if the larynx with the closed glottis. Larynx pushed up to press the air in initiatory closure. Glottallic pressure utterances are also called ejectives. It is written down using diacritics (apostrophe) as in [p’], [t’], [ts’], and [f’]. It often found in Kaukasus, African, and Indian. Glottallic SuctionIt can be done if the larynx with the closed glottis. The downed pressure from larynx moves negative suction between initiation closure with articulatory structure on mouth.

ii.)PhonationClark and Yallop (1996: 19) defined phonation as

“The term phonation refers principally to vocal fold vibration but can also be taken to include all the means by which the larynx functions as source of sound, not all which involve vibrations of the folds in a strict sense.”Phonation mode includes voicelessness, whisper, breathy voice, voice, and creak. Other linguist, Catford (1994: 218) stated that phonation is an activity in the larynx which is neither initiatory nor articulatory in which the airstream is

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modulated byits passage through the glottis (the space between the vocal folds) before being finally ‘shaped’ into a specific sound-type by the articulation. Catford also divided phonation into five as well as Clark and Yallop.

iii.) ArticulationAccording to Catford (1994: 218), articulation is an activity in the vocal tract (chiefly in the part of the vocal tract above the larynx), which interrupts, or modulates, the air-stream in such a way that a specific type of sound is generated. Articulation is the final phase of sound producing process. In articulation, the characteristics of the sound mainly controlled by two aspects: place of articulation and manner of articulation.

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Chapter III:Vocals

A. Vowels ClassificationSound can be divided into two main types. A vowel is a sound that needs

an open air passage in the mouth. The air passage can be modified in terms of shape with different mouth and tongue shapes producing different vowels. In classifying vowels, we need not indicate airstream mechanism, since it will always be pulmonic egressive, and we can generally assume that vowels are all voiced and oral. We need to consider three different parameters (Catford, 1994: 124):

i.) The position of the tongue vertically (high or low)ii.) The position of the tongue horizontally (front or back)iii.) The position of the lips (rounded or unrounded)

B. Cardinal VowelsTo simplify the pronunciation of vowel sounds, an English expert

phonetics, Daniel Jones, divided vowels into primary cardinal vowels and secondary cardinal vowels. It is classified based on the combination between articulatory manners and auditory manners

i.) Primary Cardinal VowelsBelow is the picture of primary cardinal vowels.

According to the configuration of the tongue on the left, we can draw lines to connect each dot so that they can be represented as the diagram on the right side.

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ii.) Secondary Cardinal VowelsThe factor that makes primary cardinal vowels differs from

secondary cardinal vowels is the lips position parameter. The lips position in secondary cardinal vowels is the opposite from primary cardinal vowels. On the right is the image of cardinal vowels. For example, a pair of front and close vowels is [i] and [y]. The left represents a primary cardinal vowel and the second represents a secondary cardinal vowel.

Table of Cardinal Vowels

No. Symbol Example1. i beat (English) 2. e che (Italian)3. bet (English)4. a spa (English)5. dam (Dutch)6. hawk (English)7. beau (French)8. u gut (German)9. y tu (French)

10. o goethe (German)11. heure (French)12. not distinctive13. hock (English)14. $ but (English)15. o (Vietnamese)16. u (Japanese)

C. Monophthong, Diphthongs, and Triphthongs“Diphthongs is a term used in phonetic classification of vowel sounds on

the basis of their manner of articulation; it refers to a vowel where there is a single (perceptual) noticeable change in quality during a syllable. Related terms are monopthtong, where qualitative change is heard, and tripthtongs where two such changes can be heard.” (Crystal, 1994: 105). For example, near [nr] is a diphthongs and fire [fai] is a tripthongs.

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Chapter IV:Consonants

A. Consonants ClassificationCrystal (1994: 74) defined:“Consonants are sounds made by a closure or narrowing in the vocal tract

so that the airflow is either completely blocked, or so restricted that audible friction is produced.” Consonants classified by vocal fold position, place of articulation, and manner of articulation.

B. Vocal Fold PositionA major division among speech sounds which is relevant for all languages

is the dichotomy of voiced and voiceless. If you put your fingers on your larynx, and produce a very long [zzzzz], you should feel vibration; this shows that [z] is a voiced sound. On the other hand, if you make a very long [sssss], you will not feel the same sort of activity: [s] is a voiceless sound.

For voiced sounds, the vocal folds are drawn together, closing off the glottis; however, the pressure of air flowing from the lungs will causes the folds to part, and their essentially elastic nature will then force them together again. Repetitions of this cycle of opening and closing cause vibration, as for [z]. Voicelessness and voicing are the two main settings of phonation, or states of the glottis.

C. Place of ArticulationWe are going to look at place of articulation start from the mouth until

pharynx. English has eight common places of articulation. They are:i.) BilabialFor a bilabial sound, the active articulator is the bottom lip, and the

passive articulator is the top lip. Bilabial consonants are /p/, /b/, /m/, /B/, //, and //.

ii.) Labio-dentalFor labio-dental sound, the active articulator is again the bottom lip, but

this time it moves up to the front teeth. Labio-dental consonants are //, /Ä/, /f/, /v/, and /Ì/

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iii.) DentalFor the two dental fricatives, it follows that the passive articulator is the

top front teeth; the active articulator is the tip of the tongue. Dental consonants are /B/ and //.

iv.) AlveolarAlveolar sound are produced by the tip or blade of the tongue moving up

towards the alveolar ridge, the bony protrusion you can feel if you curl your tongue back just behind your top front teeth. Alveolar consonants are /t/, /d/, /n/, /s/, /z/, /r/, /l/, //, //, //, and //.`

v.) PostalveolarPostalveolar sounds are produced with the blade of the tongue as the

active articulator, and the adjoining parts of the alveolar ridge and the hard palate as the passive one. Postalveolar consonants are /@/, /F/, /&/, and /A/.

vi.) PalatalPalatals are produced by the front of the tongue, which moves up

towards the hard palate. Palatal consonants are //, //, //, //, //, //, and //vii.) VelarFor velar sounds, the active articulator is the back of the tongue, and the

passive articulator is the velum, or soft palate. Velar consonants are //, //, //, //, //, and //

viii.) GlottalGlottal sounds are in the minority in articulatory terms, since they do not

involve the tongue: instead, the articulators are the vocal folds, constitute a place of articulation as well as having a crucial role voicing. English has two glottal sounds. The first is allophonic, namely the glottal stop, [], which appears as an intervocalic realization of /t/ in many accents, as in butter. The glottal stop is technically voiceless. Though in fact it could hardly be anything else, since when the vocal folds are pressed together to completely obstruct the airstream, as must be the case for a stop sound, air cannot simultaneously be passing through to cause vibration. The second, the voiceless glottal fricative [h], is a phoneme in its own right. Glottal consonant are //, //, and //.Below are places of articulation that occur less frequent in English:

ix.) RetroflexRetroflex occurred by bending the tip of the tongue backwards to the

front of the palate, in other word, the back of alveolar ridge. Retroflex consonants are //, //, //, //, //, //, //, //.

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x.) UvularSimilar to velar sound, in uvular the back of the tongue is coming near the

uvular. Some of uvular consonants are //, //, //, //, //, and //.xi.) PharyngealPharyngeal sounds draw attention to sounds that occurred in pharynx.

For example, // and //.Retroflex, uvular, pharyngeal, and glottal sounds occur frequently in

world languages. They are not, however, significant in English.

D. Manner of ArticulationHow close the active and passive articulators get, determines the manner

of articulation. There are three main manners of articulation; stops, fricatives, and approximants, and one subsidiary case which in a sense is intermediate between the first two.

i.) Complete Closure: PlosivesPlosives or stops occurred if the active and passive articulators actually

touch, stopping airflow through the oral cavity completely for a brief period, and then released. Plosives consonants are /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, //, //, //, //, //, //, //, //, and //.

ii.) Complete Closure: AffricativesAffricatives are a combination of sounds. Initially there is complete

closure as for a plosive. This is then followed by a slow release with friction, as for a fricative. Affricatives consonants are /&/ and /A/.

iii.) Complete Closure: Nasals Nasals sounds involve the complete closure of mouth. The velum is

lowered, diverting the air through the nose. In English, the vocal cords vibrate in the production of nasals and so English nasals are voiced. Nasals consonants are /m/, //, /n/, //, // //, and //.

iv.) Intermittent Closure: TrillsSound can be produced by tapping the tongue repeatedly against a point

of contact. Trill consonants are //, /r/, and //.v.) Intermittent Closure: TapsTap is almost the same as trill, but the vibration is slower. Tap consonants

are //, //, and /v/.vi.) Partial Closure: LateralsThese sounds involve partial closure in the mouth. The air stream is

blocked by the tip of the tongue but allowed to escape around the sides of the tongue. Lateral consonants are /l/, //, and //.

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vii.) Narrowing: FricativesThese sounds are the result of incomplete closure at some point in the

mouth. The air escapes through a narrowed channel with audible friction. The fricatives are //, //, /f/, /v/, /B/, //, /s/, /z/, /@/, /F/, //, //, //, //, //, //, //, //, // //, /h/,and//.Below is the chart of International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). IPA consists of a regular, consistent, economical system of notation to describe the sounds that occur in speech. This alphabet is based on the ordinary Roman alphabet, supplemented by other symbols so as to provide scholars with techniques for representing unambiguously all possible sounds.

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Chapter V:Phoneme

A. The Definition of Phoneme

Phonemes are the minimal, sequential, and contrastive units of the phonology of languages. The advantages of studying phoneme as Roach (1990: 35) said is to gain the benefits of a set of phoneme itself.

A phoneme is a speech sound that helps us construct meaning. That is, if we replace it with another sound (where this is possible) we get a new meaning or no meaning at all. If I replace the initial consonant (/r/) from rubble, I can get double or Hubble (astronomer for whom the space telescope is named) or meaningless forms (as regards the lexicon of standard English) like fubble and wubble. The same thing happens if I change the vowel and get rabble, rebel, Ribble (an English river) and the nonsense form robble. (I have used the conventional spelling of “rebel” here, but to avoid confusion should perhaps use phonetic transcription, so that replacements would always appear in the same position as the character they replace.)

But what happens when a phoneme is adapted to the spoken context in which it occurs, in ways that do not alter the meaning either for speaker or hearer? Rather than say these are different phonemes that share the same meaning we use the model of allophones, which are variants of a phoneme. Thus if we isolate the l sound in the initial position in lick and in the final position in ball, we should be able to hear that the sound is (physically) different as is the way our speech organs produce it. Technically, in the second case, the back of the tongue is raised towards the velum or soft palate. The initial l sound is called clear l, while the terminal l sound is sometimes called a dark l. When we want to show the detail of phonetic variants or allophones we enclose the symbols in square brackets whereas in transcribing sounds from a phonological viewpoint we use slant lines. So, using the IPA transcription [l] is clear l, while [ɫ] is dark l.

So long as we need a form of transcription, we will rely on the IPA scheme. But increasingly it is possible to use digital recording and reproduction

If this is not clear think:

Am I only describing a sound (irrespective of how this sound fits into a system, has meaning and so on)? If so, use square brackets.

Am I trying to show how the sound is part of a wider system (irrespective of how exactly it sounds in a given instance)? If so, use slant brackets.

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to produce reference versions of sounds. This would not, of course, prevent change in the choice of which particular sounds to use in a given context. When people wonder about harass (hær ə s) or harass (həræs) they usually are able to articulate either, and are concerned about which reveals them as more or less educated in the use of the “proper” form. (For your information, the stress historically falls on the first syllable, to rhyme with embarrass - thus in both Pocket Oxford [UK, 1969] and Funk & Wagnalls New Practical Standard [US, 1946]. The fashion for hu-rass is found on both sides of the Atlantic and we should not credit it to, or blame it on, US speakers of English.).


English has twelve vowel sounds. In the table above they are divided into seven short and five long vowels. An alternative way of organizing them is according to where (in the mouth) they are produced. This method allows us to describe them as front, central and back. We can qualify them further by how high the tongue and lower jaw are when we make these vowel sounds, and by whether our lips are rounded or spread, and finally by whether they are short or long. This scheme shows the following arrangement:

Front vowels

/i:/ - cream, seen (long high front spread vowel) /ɪ/ - bit, silly (short high front spread vowel) /ɛ/ - bet, head (short mid front spread vowel); this may also be shown by

the symbol /e/ /æ/ - cat, dad (short low front spread vowel); this may also be shown

by /a/

Central vowels

/ɜ:/- burn, firm (long mid central spread vowel); this may also be shown by the symbol /ə:/.

/ə/ - about, clever (short mid central spread vowel); this is sometimes known as schwa, or the neutral vowel sound - it never occurs in a stressed position.

/ʌ/ - cut, nut (short low front spread vowel); this vowel is quite uncommon among speakers in the Midlands and further north in Britain.

Back vowels

/u:/ - boob, glue (long high back rounded vowel) /ʊ/ - put, soot (short high back rounded vowel); also shown by /u/ /ɔ:/ - corn, faun (long mid back rounded vowel) also shown by /o:/ /ɒ/- dog, rotten (short low back rounded vowel) also shown by /o/ /ɑ:/ - hard, far (long low back spread vowel)

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We can also arrange the vowels in a table or even depict them against a cross-section of the human mouth. Here is an example of a simple table:


Front Central Back

High ɪ i: ʊ u: Mid ɛ ə ɜ: ɔ:Low æ ʌ ɒ ɑ:


Diphthongs are sounds that begin as one vowel and end as another, while gliding between them. For this reason they are sometimes described as glide vowels. How many are there? Almost every modern authority says eight - but they do not all list the same eight (check this for yourself). Simeon Potter, in Our Language (Potter, S, [1950] Chapter VI, Sounds and Spelling, London, Penguin) says there are nine - and lists those I have shown in the table above, all of which I have found in the modern reference works. The one most usually omitted is /ɔə/ as in bored. Many speakers do not use this diphthong, but use the same vowel in poured as in fraud - but it is alive and well in the north of Britain.

Potter notes that all English diphthongs are falling - that is the first element is stressed more than the second. Other languages have rising diphthongs, where the second element is stressed, as in Italian “uomo” (man) and “uovo” (egg).


Some authorities claim one or two fewer consonants than I have shown above, regarding those with double symbols (/tʃ/ and /dʒ/) as “diphthong consonants” in Potter's phrase. The list omits one sound that is not strictly a consonant but works like one. The full IPA list of phonetic symbols includes some for non-pulmonic consonants (not made with air coming from the lungs), click and glottal sounds. In some varieties of English, especially in the south of Britain (but the sound has migrated north) we find the glottal plosive or glottal stop, shown by the symbol /ʔ/ (essentially a question mark without the dot at the tail). This sound occurs in place of /t/ for some speakers - so /botəl/ or /botl/ (bottle) become /boʔəl/ or /boʔl/.

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We form consonants by controlling or impeding the egressive (outward) flow of air. We do this with the articulators - from the glottis, past the velum, the hard palate and alveolar ridge and the tongue, to the teeth and lips. The sound results from three things:

voicing - causing the vocal cords to vibrate where the articulation happens how the articulation happens - how the airflow is controlled


All vowels must be voiced - they are caused by vibration in the vocal cords. But consonants may be voiced or not. Some of the consonant sounds of English come in pairs that differ in being voiced or not - in which case they are described as voiceless or unvoiced. So /b/ is voiced and /p/ is the unvoiced consonant in one pair, while voiced /g/ and voiceless /k/ form another pair.

We can explain the consonant sounds by the place where the articulation principally occurs or by the kinds of articulation that occurs there. The first scheme gives us this arrangement:

Articulation described by region

Glottal articulation - articulation by the glottis. We use this for one consonant in English. This is /h/ in initial position in house or hope.

Velar articulation - we do this with the back of the tongue against the velum. We use it for initial hard /g/ (as in golf) and for final /ŋ/ (as in gong).

Palatal articulation - we do this with the front of the tongue on the hard palate. We use it for /dʒ/ (as in jam) and for /ʃ/ (as in sheep or sugar).

Alveolar articulation - we do this with the tongue blade on the alveolar ridge. We use it for /t/ (as in teeth), /d/ (as in dodo) /z/ (as in zebra) /n/ (as in no) and /l/ (as in light).

Dental articulation - we do this with the tip of the tongue on the back of the upper front teeth. We use it for /θ/ (as in think) and /ð/ (as in that). This is one form of articulation that we can observe and feel ourselves doing.

Labio-dental articulation - we do this with the lower lip and upper front teeth. We use it for /v/ (as in vampire).

Labial articulation - we do this with the lips for /b/ (as in boat) and /m/ (as in most). Where we use two lips (as in English) this is bilabial articulation.

Articulation described by manner

This scheme gives us a different arrangement into stop(or plosive) consonants, affricates, fricatives, nasal consonants, laterals and approximants.

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Stop consonants (so-called because the airflow is stopped) or plosive consonants (because it is subsequently released, causing an outrush of air and a burst of sound) are:

o Bilabial voiced /b/ (as in boat) and voiceless /p/ (as in post)o Alveolar voiced /d/ (as in dad) and voiceless /t/ (as in tap)o Velar voiced /g/ (as in golf) and voiceless /k/ (as in cow) Affricates are a kind of stop consonant, where the expelled air causes

friction rather than plosion. They are palatal /tʃ/ (as in cheat) and palatal /dʒ/ (as in jam)

Fricatives come from restricting, but not completely stopping, the airflow. The air passes through a narrow space and the sound arises from the friction this produces. They come in voiced and unvoiced pairs:

o Labio-dental voiced /v/ (as in vole) and unvoiced /f/ (as in foal) o Dental voiced /ð/ (as in those) and unvoiced /θ/ (as in thick)o Alveolar voiced /z/ (as in zest) and unvoiced /s/ (as in sent) o Palatal voiced /ʒ/ (as in the middle of leisure) and unvoiced /ʃ/ (as at the end of

trash) Nasal consonants involve closing the articulators but lowering the uvula,

which normally closes off the route to the nose, through which the air escapes. There are three nasal consonants in English:

o Bilabial /m/ (as in mine) o Alveolar /n/ (as in nine) o Velar /ŋ/ (as at the end of gong) Lateral consonants allow the air to escape at the sides of the tongue. In

English there is only one such sound, which is alveolar /l/ (as at the start of lamp) Approximants do not impede the flow of air. They are all voiced but are

counted as consonants chiefly because of how they function in syllables. They are:

o Bilabial /w/ (as in water) o Alveolar /r/ (as in road) o Palatal /j/ (as in yet)

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A. AssimilationAssimilation: progressive assimilation, regressive assimilation.

B. The process of assimilation:1. Palatal

In-legal= illegal

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In-rational = irrationalIn-licit = illicit

2. Nasal This is the process where the oral segment needs nasal from the near segment.

3. CoalescentThis process happens where the sounds influenced each other.

C. DissimilationIn this process, the same sounds change into different sounds.


Electric Electrical angle AngularRegion Regional circle CircularOrbit Orbital table TabularGenitive Genital title TitularCulture Cultural single singular

Angle - -al = angleal = angularCircle - -al = circleal = circular


In this chapter, we will discuss about English phonology and its varieties. As we know that English language not only use by England people but also Canadian, African, and so on.

A. English vocalExample:

CLOSE OPEN/i/ beat, peel, dean, seem bee, knee, tea

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I bit, pill, din, bide’ bait, pale, Dane, same bay, Tay, haya bat, Dan, pal, Sam u boot, pool, Luke, fool shoe, coo, twoo boat, pole, both, foal show, know, toe

B. Scottish Standard EnglishScottish Standard English is one of the varieties of English language that use

by Scottish that different with England.CLOSE OPEN

i Beat, peel, dean, seem, here Bee, knee, teaI Bit, pill, din, bid, birde Bait, pale, Dane, same, hair Bay, Tay, haya Sam, psalm, darn, bath, car Shah, brau Pool, pull, fool, sure Shoe, coo, twoo Boat, pole, both, shore, sport Show, know, toe

C. General AmericanCLOSE OPEN

i Beat, peel, dean, seem, here Bee, knee, teaI Bit, pill, din, bide Bait, pale, Dane, same, scarcea Bat, Sam, Dan, bathu Boot, pool, Luke, fool, sure Shoe, coo, two

/o/ Boat, foal, both, sport Show, know, toe/ai Bite, dine, like, file Shy, buy, tie

D. English Consonantp pie Pooh leap rip ripet/ tie Two writ write mittenk kye Coo leak rick

b/ buy Boo ribd die Do lead rid rideg/ guy Goo league rigm my Moue run rhymen nigh Gnu lean Rhinef fie leaf riff rife

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s sigh Sue lease ricev vie leavez Zoo rise mizzenl lie Loo riler rye Rue leerw Wye Wooj Youh high Who

E. English Allophone Phoneme Consonant


Clark and Yallop (1996):

1. Phonetic and Phonology before 20th century

2. Phonemic Phonology

3. The Traditions of Phonetic

4. The Prague School

5. Glossematics and Stratificational Phonology

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6. Prosodic Phonology

7. Generative Phonology

8. Natural Generative Phonology

9. Natural Phonology

10. Autosegmental and CV Phonology

11. Metrical Phonology

12. Lexical Phonology

13. Dependency Phonology

14. Experimental Phonology