nghien cuu-dong_gop_cua_von_xa_hoi_vao_cac_hoat_dong_cua_doanh_nghiep_bds_viet_nam

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Text of nghien cuu-dong_gop_cua_von_xa_hoi_vao_cac_hoat_dong_cua_doanh_nghiep_bds_viet_nam

  • 1. 1 CHNG1 GIITHIU 1.1 BICNHNGHINCU 1.1.1 Bicnhthctin Tronggiaiont nm2000n2008,btngsn(BS)l mttrong nhngngnhkinhtctctngtrngcaoquahuhtccchtiuthhinquy mcngnhhiuqu.TheoTngccThngk(2010a),tronggiainy tctng trng bnh qun v s lng doanh nghip l 41,4%/nm, vn kinh doanh l 36%/nm. Huht ccchtiucnbnth hinquymv hiuqu ca doanh nghipngnh BSutngvitccaohnmctrungbnhcaccngnhkinh tkhc,chnghnnhtcphttrinbnhqungiaion20002008cangnh BS cao hn mctrung bnh ca cc ngnhkinh t trong c nc v s lng doanhnghipl20%,slaong l11%,ngunvnutl15%,tisncnh l6%,doanhthuthunl14%,linhuntrcthul182%,thuvcckhon npngnschl29%(TngccThngk,2010a).Ccchtiuolnghiuqu hotngkinhdoanhcangnhBSctctngtrngcaohnsovimc trungbnhcacnc,cbitlchtiutsutlinhuntrnvnkinhdoanhv tsutlinhuntrndoanhthucaohnmcchungcacnclnltl150% v82%(TngccThngk,2010a).Tctngtrngcaolnglcthuht uttrctipncngoivongnhlnnhtcnc,theoTngccThngk (2010b)ngnhBSthuht33,8%tngsvnuttrctipncngoicaVit Namtrongnm2009. CnggingnhccngnhkinhtkhcVitNam,ccgiaionphttrin cangnhBSphthucnhiuvoccgiaioncicchthchcaqucgia. Xemxtccvnbnphpluthngdnclinquan,oAnhKit(2010)chia qutrnhphttrinthtrngBSVitNamlmbagiaionltrcnm1993, t19932003,vtnm2003nnay.Cccimvbicnhnnkinhtca ccgiaiontrongqutrnhphttrinthtrngBSVitNamctmtt Bng1.1.

2. 2 Bng1.1:CcgiaionphttrincathtrngbtngsnVitNam Giaion Bicnhvkhungphpl cim Trc nm1993 Hinphpnm1980luttai nm 1987: Ngi s dng t chcquynsdng,khngc quyn chuyn nhng v cc quynkhc Ch yu l cc giao dch phi chnh thc. RttdoanhnghipkinhdoanhBS. SnphmBSrtths,chyul quynsdngt. Giaodchchyubngvng. Tnm 1993n 2003 Luttainm1993:ngis dng t c 5 quyn l chuyn nhng, tha k, cho thu, th chp v gp vn Php lnh 1994:ttccctchcsdng t vo mc ch kinh doanh chuynsanghnhthcthut Khng hong kinh t khu vc chu 1997 th im chnh sch giao t ti TP.HCM vo nm2000. Chnh thc xut hin ngnh kinh doanhBStiVitNam. BSchyulccgiaodchthcp. Ngoisnphmtth,cncthm hnh thc phn l bn nn rt pht trin. Khuvcncngoibtuquantm nthtrngBSVitNamvicc hnhthcBOT,BTvlindoanhvi trong nc pht trin sn phm trnh cao nh cao c cn h, vn phng cho thu, h tng khu cng nghip,bnbi. Giaion 2003n nay Nhiu vn bn php lut ra i iu chnh th trng: Lut tai2003,lutxydng,lut nh , lut kinh doanh BS Vit Nam gia nhp WTO th trngchngkhonphttrin. T nm 2008 n nay, Chnh ph p dng chnh sch tin t thtchtkimchlmpht. SngiaodchBSrai. SnphmBSadngtthsn caocp. C mi lin h khn kht vi th trngtichnh,chnhschtichnh nhhngrtlnnthtrngBS. Vi chnh sch tin t tht cht ca Chnhpht nm 2008lmhn ch giaodchtrnthtrngBS. Ngun:Tngkttthamkho oAnhKit(2010). 3. 3 Triquacc giaion hnhthnhvphttrin,nnay ngnhBSVit Namhnhthnhccsnphmkinhdoanhadngvthtrnghnhthnhnhiu dchvhtrchohotngcangnhnhdchvtvnphpl,quut, thmnhgitrBS.Tuynhin,ngnhBSVitNamcnmtstntixut phttchnhschiutitcaChnhphvhnhvicadoanhnghipBSnh sau: ivichnhsch iutitthtrngBScaChnhph: Bng1.1chothyccchnhschiutitcaChnhphctcngrtln ivictrngvsphttrincathtrngBSVitNam.Vitcpht trinnhanhcathtrngBSihiChnhphphibanhnhnhiuchnhsch iutitthtrng.Tnm2008n2010,ChnhphVitNambanhnh tngs49vnbnlutvdilutiutitthtrngBS1 .Tuynhin,cc chnhschbanhnh(nichungchocnnkinht,trongcngnhBS)tda trncslinktgiaccchththamgiathtrngnhdoanhnghip,ngi tiudng,ccnhchtichnhvcccquanqunlnhnclnnhau(Ohno, 2009Porter&cccngs,2010).iunyhmChnhphchanhnthcy tmquantrngcaccmnglilinkttrongvnhochnhchnhsch. Hqulnhiuvnbnphplutbanhnhcnrmrvchngcho(Porter& cccngs,2010). McdChnhphkhnhybntrongbanhnhccchnhschiutitth trngBS,nhngvncnthiuccchnhschtoracccngchtrvncho thtrng,cbitlccknhhuyngvndatrnslinktgiaccchth trnthtrng.Trongbicnhlmpht,Chnhphangngycng banhnhnhiu chnhschthtchtccknhhuyngvntkhchhng(Vnhnh,2010). Trongkhi,knhhuyngvndihnhthccchnhthclinktccchth thamgiathtrngthchacVitNam.ChnghnnhqutnthcBS(Real EstateInvestmentTrustREIT)chbtunhnthcmckhinimtiVit Nam, ch yulccqunc ngoiu t vothtrngtrong nc nhng 1 Thngkcatcgilunntrnwebsite:www.luatvietnam.vn (truycpngy12/03/2011). 4. 4 khngngk(TrnKimChung,2010)chachthngtndngnhnhThi Lan (lhthngnhntintcccungcpvnvayxydngnh)chach thngtitkimnhbtbucnhSingapore(BXydng,2010). Bivcccngchuyngvncnhnch,nnthtrngBSVitNam phthucrtnhiuvothtrngtndng,khilmphtxyra(tnm2008n nay)Chnhphptchnhschtintthtchtlmedastnticanhiu doanhnghipBS.Dovy,vncpbchhinnayiviChnhphlcnphi adngccknhhuyngvnngoingnhngvicchnhthcdatrnslin ktccchththamgiathtrngcthlmtlachnthayth.Munlmc iunycnphicmtkhunglthuytvslinktxhilmnntng. ivihnhvicadoanhnghipbtngsn: Thnht,trongcngtctmkimqutphttrindnuthnghingv ccdoanhnghipthucshunhnc(Porter&cccngs,2010).iuny cnhiuchuyngia(danhschnhkmphlc2)giithchmtphnldo yutlchslivngungctaitrongnnkinhtphnlnthucshu qucdntrcy,hocldoccdoanhnghipnhnccshtrtccc quanqunlnhnc.Mtkhc,tnhminhbchcaccthngtintrnccloith trng(trongcthtrngBS)VitNamhinnaycnrtkm(Porter& cccngs,2010),trongkhiqutphttrindnchyucthchin theoquytnhgiaotcacquanqunlnhnccphncng(oAnh Kit,2010).Dovy,viclachndoanhnghipgiaotphttrindnph thucrtnhiuvoccmiquanhcnhncachdoanhnghipvicnhnlnh ocacquanqunlnhnc. Bivlichmanglitccmiquanhvichnhquyncnhnthy rrng,nnphnlnccdoanhnghipchyuquantmnvicthitlpccmi quanhvichnhquyn,mnhithigianquantmncclichmang litmnglibntrongvccchthbnngoikhc.Ccdoanhnghiput thigian,thmchtinbcvovictmcchmcnivichnhquyntrcli, iunylmccmiquanhtrthnhngunlcctcngtiuccivinn 5. 5 kinht(theoktquphngvnchuyngiacalunnnm2010,danhschc nhkmphlc2).Vinhnthcnhvythdoanhnghiprtkhcthkhai thchtcc lichtccmiquanhphcvchohotngkinhdoanh. Thhai,DoanhnghipBSVitNamphnlnldoanhnghipvavnh. Trongthigny,quymvncadoanhnghipBScxuhngtng,nhng tnhnnm2007cn88%ccdoanhnghipBScquymdi50tng (con s nytnh chung cho cc ngnh kinh t c nc l 95%, xem Hnh 1.1), khong72%doanhnghipcquymlaongdi9ngi(consny tnhchung choccngnhkinhtcncl55%,xemHnh1.2).Ccdoanhnghipcquy m nhrtkhthamgiatosnphmvctrngcangnh BSlngnhthmdng vn,nuccdoanhnghipnysdngccmiquanhcnhndnhquyns dngqutthcngkhngckhnngtrinkhai.Lcttyusdnnhin tngchuynnhngdntrngiyt,lmygithnhvgibnBSth trngVitNamlncaotng isovimtsncChu(xemHnh1.3). Hnh1.1:S doanhnghip BStheoquymvn 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% Di 0,5t ng T0,5 n di1 tng T1 n di5 tng T5 n di10 tng T10 n di50 tng T50 n di 200t ng T200 n di 500t ng T500 tng trln Ttrongdoanhnghiptheoquymvn Cnc Btngsn Hnh1.2:S doanhnghip BStheoquymlaong 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% Di 5 ngi 59 ngi 1049 ngi 50 199 ngi 200 299 ngi 300 499 ngi 500 999 ngi 1000 4999 ngi 5000 ngi trln Tlsdoanhnghiptheoquymlaong Cnc Btngsn Ngun:Tnhtontdliuiutradoanhnghipnm2007caTngccThngk(2010a). 6. 6 Hnh1.3:GibnvchothucnhhngsangtithtrngChunm2010 Ngun:Townsend(2011),trang8. Tuynhin,ccdoanhnghipcquymvnnhcthphttrindnbng cchhuyngvntbnngoi.Nhngtrnthtrng BSVitNamhinnaycc knhhuyngvnrthnch,ccdoanhnghipchyuvayvntngnhng thngmivsdngvnngtrccakhchhngphttrindn.iuny thhinrtrtrongthigiantnm2007nnay,khiChnhphkimchlm phtbngchnhschtintthtchttoplcchiphlivaylnccdoanh BS.Trcbicnh,bucccdoanhnghiptptrunghuyngvntkhch hngbngcchhgiccsnphmbtngsntrngiyt (xemHnh1.4v Hnh1.5) cvnhonthindn,nhmgimplclivay. Hnh1.4:Gichobncnh Hnh1.5:GichothumtbngTTTM Ngun:CngtyCBRE(trchtrongTownsend,2011) Thba,cchotngphnphisnphmtrnthtrngBSVitNam dinbinphctpvnhiucp.TheoctnhcaVnhnh(2010)thc 7. 7 khong80%ccgiaodchtrnthtrngBSlphichnhthc.Trcnm2007, thtrngBScngvichngkhon lmttrongnhngknhutphbinca ngidn(Vnhnh,2010),ngimuaBScngngthingvitrl nhu tBSnnygiBSlncao(xemHnh1.3). Mtkhc,theothngkcaCngtyCBRE(trchtrongTownsend,2011) trcnm2007,trungbnhmidncn95%khchhngcaCBREthnh phHChMinhmuanhbngngunvnvay.Dovy,tnm2007nnay, chnhschtintthtchtcChnhphsdngkimchlmpht,lmcho cuBSgimingk(NguynTrngHoi&HunhThanhin,2011). Tmli,haikhacnhtntitrnthtrngBSlchnhschiutit caChnhphvhnhvicadoanhnghipclinquannvicnhnthccha y v lich v tc hi ca cc mi quan h gia cc ch ththam gia th trng,nnchahochnhcchnhschsdngccmiquanhtiu.i vichnhschiutitvm,Chnhphchaquantmngmcnslinkt giaccchthtrnthtrngnndnnhiungcachnhschkhngcao mcdccchnhschiutitthtrngcbanhnhnhiunhngchatora sadngvcccngchtrthtrng,cbitlcccngchuyngvn chodoanhnghipBS.ividoanhnghipBSthchuschiphinhiubi miquanhcnhncalnhodoanhnghipvicccnhncquanqunl nhnc trongvictipcnqut,nndoanhnghipnhnthcvvaitrcacc miquanhblchlcvchakhaithctiuvchasdngccmiquanh phcvchocchatngkinhdoanh. Bivhaikhacnhtntitrn thtrngBSVitNamclinquann miquanhgiaccchththamgiathtrng,nnrtcnmtkhunglthuyt gipdoanhnghipvccnhhochnhchnhschnhnthcvlnghac ngunlctntitrongccmiquanhcadoanhnghip,cngnhchrang gpcachngtrongcchotngcadoanhnghip.T,lmcnckhoahc vthctingipdoanhnghipBSnhndinvhochnhccchngtrnhpht trinvsdngccmiquanhphcvhotngkinhdoanhngthiqua 8. 8 cngxcnhclunckhoahcvthctinvmilinktgiaccchth thamgiathtrng,nhmgipChnhphhochnhccchnhschiutitth trngBS. 1.1.2 Bicnhlthuyt Ngunlctntitrongccmiquanhlmtdngngunlcvhnh c cpnvitngilvnxhi.Vnxhicnhiunhnghincunh Coleman(1988,1990), Putnam(1995,2000), vNahapiet &Ghosal (1998)nh nghalmtdngngunlctntitrongccmngliquanhcchtlng(nh stnnhim,chias,htr)giaccchththamgia.Cclthuytkinhttha nhnvnxhilnntngraquytnhcaccchthtrongnnkinht,chng chiphihnhvicadoanhnghip,ngitiudngvccchnhschvmca Chnhph,vccquylutkinht(Wilson,2000Wills&cccngs,2004).Do vy,vnxhicnghincudinhiucpkhcnhaunhqucgia,cng ng,doanhnghip(Woolcock&Narayan,2000). cpdoanhnghip,vnxhicadoanhnghipccpnnhl chtlngcc miquan hcalnhodoanh nghipmiquanhca doanh nghipviccchthbnngoichtlngmiquanhgiacccnhn,bphn chcnngbntrongdoanhnghip.Ccnghincuvnxhitrongdoanhnghip cpntng khacnh ringbitktrn,cthtngktmtvinghincutiu biunhsau: ivivnxhicalnhodoanhnghip:Ccnghincugny nh McCallum & O'Connell (2009), Truss & Gill (2009), Par & cc cng s (2008), Wharton&Brunetto(2009), Cialdini&cc cngs(2001), Tushman& OReillyIII(1997),Acquaah(2007)ccpnvnxhicalnhodoanh nghipnhlchtlngcaccmngliquanhcalnh o:tnhhungh,h trlnnhau,quynlc,scngnhncaxhivs camkt.Tuynhin, cc nghincunychaxydngcthangochtlngchotngmngliquan hcalnho,nnkhngtoracccgixydng,phttrinvnhgi vnxhi. 9. 9 ivivnxhibnngoi:CcnghincucaJansen&cccngs (2011),Yang&cccngs(2011),Landry&cccngs(2000)cpnvn xhibnngoidoanhnghiplchtlngccmiquanhgiadoanhnghipvi ccchthtrongmnglichiungang(khchhng,nhphnphi,nhcungcp, ccdoanhnghiptrongcngtpon,nvtvn,nghincu,ccithcnh tranhtrongcngngnh)vmnglichiudc(chnhquyncccpvcccng tymcontrongcngtpon).Ccnghincunykhngxydngthango chtlngmiquanhchotngchthtrongmngli,mthayvolcp nchtlngcamiquanhgiadoanhnghipviccchthbnngoini chung. V