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The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek World View

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Page 1: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

The Persian Wars

The Limits of EmpireAnd the Birth of a Greek

World View

Page 2: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

Assyrian Empire

Page 3: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

Assyria

• SennacheribDestroys Babylon in 689 BC.

• Esarhaddon (681-669)Conquers Egypt in 671 BC.

• Ashurbarnipal (669-630)Struggles to maintain the empire until he

abdicates in 630 BC.

Page 4: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

Media

• Deioces (728-675 BC)• Phraortes (675-653 BC)

United the Median tribesAttacked Assyria.

• Cyaxares (653-ca 645/ 617 - 585)– Overrun by the Scythians while Recovered

Media and allied with Babylon

Page 5: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

Babylon

• Nabopolassar (625-605)– Asserts Babylonian independence.– Defeats the Assyrians at Qablinu in 615 BC– Alliance with Media:– 612 BC: Fall of Nineveh

Page 6: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria
Page 7: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

Median Empire

• Cyaxares:– Attacks Lydia in 590 BC.– On 28 May 585 BC. the war ends.

• Astyages (585-550 BC)– Married Aryenis in 585 BC.– Gave Mandane to Cambyses I before 580

BC.– Deserted by his troops and defeated by his

grandson, Cyrus, in 550 BC.

Page 8: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

Cyrus the Great

• King of Anshan in 560 BC.• Attacked Media in 550 BC.• Defeated Croesus of Lydia in 547/6 BC.• Defeated Babylon in 539 BC.• Died in 530 BC. attacking the

Massagetae

Page 9: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

Cyrus’ Campaigns

560: King on Anshan550: King of Media547: Conquest of Lydia

539: Conquest of Babylon535 – 530: Expansion East

Page 10: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

Cambyses

• King of Babylon by 27 March, 538 BC.• Great King in Sept, 530.• Invaded Egypt in 525.• Cambyses was “not in his right mind,

but mad” (Hdt. 3.25).• Died accidentally in 522 BC.• Succeeded by Smerdis, March 522• Smerdis killed September 522 BC

Page 11: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria
Page 12: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

Darius I

• Two years of rebellions: consolidated power by 520 BC.

• Reorganization into 20 satrapies• Invaded Scythia via Europe in 513• Satrapy in Europe, Skudra (Thrace)• Construction of Persepolis• 507: Accepted ‘Earth and Water’ from

Athens.

Page 13: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

Empire of Darius I

Page 14: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

Persia in the Aegean ca 510

Page 15: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

The Ionian Revolt

• Aristagoras, Tyrant of Cyzicus and Miletus– Convinced Persians to invade Naxos– Four month siege failed in 499– Aristagoras and Histiaeus launch revolt of the

Ionians

Page 16: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

Ionian Revolt

• Cleomenes refused to participate• Athens contributed 20 ships

– “Perhaps it is easier to fool a crowd…” (Hdt. V.97).

– Sardis sacked, the temple of Cybele burned.– Ionian army defeated near Ephesus– Athenian aid withdrawn– Aristagoras killed in Thrace

Page 17: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria
Page 18: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

Persian Response

• 498• Took Byzantium, Chalcedon, the Troad,

Lamponium, Lemnos and Imbros – Defeated the Ionian army at Ephesus– Took Clazomenae and Cyme

• 497-494– Besieged Miletus and campaigned in that area

• 494 BC.– The Battle of Lade– The fall of Miletus

Page 19: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

Mardonius

• Son of Gobryas, – Nephew and son in law of Darius

• 492:– Replaced Otanes as Commander of the

Coast– Assembled a fleet in Cilicia– Army mustered in Sardis– Crossed the Hellespont– Subdued Macedonia

Page 20: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

492 Invasion

Page 21: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

Mardonius’ Failure

• Fleet destroyed rounding Athos• Mardonius defeated by the Brygi• Most of the army wasted away• Removed from his command in 491

– Replaced by Datis– But… he was a close friend to Xerxes.

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Datis the Mede

• 491– Made Commander of the Coast– Enslisted Hippias as guide.

• 490– Musterd in Cilicia and crossed the Aegean

via the Cyclades Islands• Rhodes - Samos - Naxos - Delos

– Captured Euboea from Carystos to Eretria

Page 23: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

The Marathon Invasion

Page 24: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria
Page 25: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

Miltiades son of Cimon

• Tyrant of the Chersonese – Subject to Darius– At the bridge over the Ister in 513– Fled the Chersonese in 496

• Marathon: Sept. 490 BC.– Miltiades elected 10th. General– Advocated a quick attack– The run under the arrows

Page 26: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

Marathon Satellite i

Page 27: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

Marathon ii

Page 28: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

Tomb of the Fallen

Page 29: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria
Page 30: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

The Marathon Run

• Plutarch– Pheidippides ran the 22 miles

• Herodotus– No mention

• Modern:– Introduced at the first Olympic Games of

the Modern Era, Athens, 1896.– 42.195 k./ 26 miles 385 yards– 1908 London Olympics

Page 31: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

Xerxes

• 489 -7: Darius prepares for a third invasion

• 487: Egyptian Revolt• 486: Darius dies in November.• 485

– Xerxes Recovers Egypt.

• 484-2– Canal cut across Athos– Revolt in Babylon delays preparations

Page 32: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

Really Big Numbers

• 481– Mustered the army in Cappadocia– Moved to Sardis by the fall.

• 480– Marched to Abydos and crossed the

Hellespont– Army counted at Doriscus (1,700,000)– Marched in 3 columns to Therma– Fleet to Artemisium, Army to Thermopylae

Page 33: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

Converging on Cappadocia

Page 34: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria
Page 35: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

Greek Response

• Allied fleet:– 271 ships– 127 Athenian– Battle of Artemisium

• Land forces:– The Tempe Pass– The Isthmus of Corinth– Thermopylae

Page 36: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

Leonidas

• King of Sparta 490 - 480 BC.– Delphic oracle

• The 300– Men with sons– Greek allies ordered to withdraw.– 19 – 20 August, 480 BC.– “We will fight in the shade!”– Stranger, go tell the

Lacedaemonians that here we lay, obedient to their command.

Page 37: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria
Page 38: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

Themistocles of Athens

• Archon in 493 BC.– Used the Laurium surplus to build a fleet– Initiated the walls around the Piraeus

• Artemisium (late August, 480)– commanded the 127 Athenian ships– Eurybiades of Sparta admiral of the fleet– Persian fleet reduced by about 1/3

Page 39: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

Xerxes in Athens

• Thermopylae to Attica– Xerxes marched through Trachis, Doris, then

Phocis.– At Panopea the army split:

• 4000 troops went to Delphi• The main army sacked Thespia and Plataea

• Athens– Themistocles had convinced the Athenians to move

to Salamis– Persians besieged the priests on the Acropolis– The fleet moved to Phalerum

Page 40: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

In the Saronic Gulf

Page 41: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

The Battle of Salamis

• Themistocles:– Salamis and Megara need to be held to

protect the Isthmus– Threatened to pull out the Athenian

ships– Warned Xerxes of the plan to withdraw

• The Battle:– The Persians surround the Island– The Greeks fought in the narrow

channels

• Xerxes withdraws– 300,000 left under Mardonius

Page 42: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

Trireme

Page 43: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

Salamis Satellite

Page 44: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

Salamis II

Page 45: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

Plataea• Mardonius:

– Led the Persian forces to Thebes in summer 479 BC.– Occupied Athens in July (city abandoned again)– Moved to Thebes to draw the Greeks onto the plains.

• Pausanias & Aristides– Withdrawal to Plataea– Spartans caught on the

plain.– Persians forced inside the

walls– Athenians take the walls

Page 46: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

Plataea

Page 47: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

Mycale

• Persian fleet docked at Samos in spring 479

• Greek fleet, under Leutychides, docked at Delos.– Sailed to Samos in July of 479 BC.

• Persians withdrew to fortify Mycale.• Greek fleet pursued.

– Made a beachhead.– Defeated the Persians, burned the fleet

Page 48: The Persian Wars - University of Albertaegarvin/assets/7-persian-wars.pdf · The Persian Wars The Limits of Empire And the Birth of a Greek. World View . Assyrian Empire. Assyria

The Battle of Mycale