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Athens and Empire Greek History After the Persian Wars

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  • Athens and EmpireGreek History After the Persian Wars

  • Delian League: Athenian-Led ConfederacyPurpose: Fight PersiansTreasurers: Hellenotamiae (Athenian)Aristides and the First Assessment (460 talents)Ships or Money PaymentsAllied Treasury at Sacred Island of DelosPrincipal military commander: Cimon, son of Miltiades, proxenos of Sparta, opponent of Themistocles

  • Delian League

  • Pentekontaetia: Fifty Years (Thucydides, 1.89-117) Themistocles: Athens rebuilt and fortified; Piraeus (Thucydides, 1.90-93)Pausanias affair and Athenian allied leadership (Thucydides, 1.128-135)Themistocles: Ostracized in 472, defects to Persians, dies 459 as governor of MagnesiaAthens takes over leadership of the allied Greek confederacy by default (Delian League)

  • Athens Fortified: Long Walls

  • Allied Actions (470s and 460s BCE)Eion (ca. 477): Persian outpost in ThraceScyros (ca. 477): Pirate stronghold in AegeanCarystos (470s): Greeks who collaborated with PersiansEurymedon (469?): Greek victory led by CimonNaxos and Thasos (early 460s): states wishing to leave Delian league

  • Military Action by the Delian League

  • Cimon and Pericles: Differing Political ValuesBust of PericlesCimon: Hoplite democracy Aristocratic leanings Favored strong relationship with Sparta Symbolic victory: Marathon

    Pericles: Democracy of the fleet Lower class sympathies Oppositional attitude toward Sparta Symbolic victory: Salamis

    Both men: strong supporters of expanding Athenian power throughout the Aegean world

  • Cimon, Pericles, and Athenian Foreign PolicyCimons Outmoded Policy (Sparta and Athens as the yoke-fellows of Greece against Persia)Cimon, 4000 Athenian hoplites aid Sparta in Messenian Revolt (462)Ephialtic Reforms of 462/61 BCE (pay for jury duty, stripping of Areopagus)Ostracism of Cimon (ca. 462 BCE); obsolescence of Cimonian policy; Peace of Callias in 449 BCE?Delian League treasury moved to Athens in 454

  • Moses Finleys Typology of ImperialismFinleys Typology of State Power exercised over other states:1. Restriction of freedom of action in interstate relations2. Political/judicial/administrative interference in internal affairs3. Compulsory military/naval service4. Payment of some form of tribute5. Confiscation of land of other states6. Various forms of economic exploitation/subordination

  • Athenian Imperial ControlsAthenian Courts for Athenian/Allied LitigationAthenian Weights, Measures and Currency for Allied StatesProxenoi and Fostering Democratic Constitutions in other Greek StatesCleruchies--10,000 holdings? (Finley)Tribute Lists (ATL)

  • Athenian Tribute ListsFragments of Marble Stele440/39 BCE (IG I3 272)Athens Epigraphical Museum 5384

  • Coinage DecreeAthenian Owl

  • Imperial Economy: InfrastructureFleet (100 active triremes, 200 reserves)Dock workers, shipwrights, around 20,000 rowers, rope and cable industry, pitch manufacture, sail production, crew trainersBuilding ProgramArchitects, sculptors and stone cutters, day laborers for public works projectsAthenian and Inter-State Administration of JusticeLodging and consumer spending for non-Athenians in AthensPay for jury duty; inter-state cases tried in AthensBureaucracy of the empire: 700 officials (Arist. Ath. Pol. 24.3)Imperial Citizenship and Democracy

  • Imperial Ideology: PanathenaeaAthenian Cultural Symbols of Power and DominancePoetic, musical, and athletic contests; torch racePresentation of the peplos to cult statue of AthenaTributary states required to send official delegation to the festival; contribution of cow and panoply by each state; bringing in of tributeTribute assessments announced for the next year

  • From Alliance to Empire: SummaryImmediate Aftermath of Persian WarSpartan Incompetence and IrresolutionThemistocles and Athens FortificationAthenian Command of Delian League470s and early 460sCimonian Policy: Continuation of Persian WarRevolts of League members and subjectionGreek states as tribute-paying subjects of AthensAscendancy of PericlesEphialtic reforms of 462/61 BCEChange in Foreign Policy: Sparta as EnemyAthenian EmpireAthens rules over 179 statesFive administrative districtsApproximately 2 million people lived in the Empire

  • Pericles, the Parthenon, and Athenian ImperialismCultural Politics and Ethics of Empire

  • Athens and the Second Persian WarAbandonment of CityDestruction of Temples (Old Parthenon of Pisistratid times)Pericles Congress DecreeBuilding Program of 440s and 430s BCEAthens as the School of Greece (Thucydides, 2.41)

  • Some Basic Information on the ParthenonTemple to Athena ParthenosConstructed between 447 and 432 BCE; Iktinos and Kallikrates architects; Phidias sculptor of cult statueDimensions: 228 ft. x 101 ft. on top stepArchitectural Features: Doric order with Ionic elements; 8 columns at end (usually 6) and 17 columns on sides

  • Parthenon and Acropolis (from west)

  • Parthenon and Propylaea from the Pnyx (1910)

  • Destruction of Parthenon in 1687

  • Spatial Diagram of Sculptures

  • Full-Scale Replica of Athena ParthenosOriginal of Ivory and Gold41 Feet 10 inches in Height

  • Reconstruction of Athena in situ

  • West Faade of Parthenon

  • South Pteroma (outer portico) of Parthenon

  • Parthenon from the North-West

  • The Living and Breathing ParthenonEntasis and Curvature

  • Parthenon and Its Curves

  • Platform of Parthenon with Curvature

  • Exaggerated Curvature of Parthenon

  • Artistic FeaturesPediment Statuary: Athena born from the head of Zeus (east); Contest between Poseidon and Athena for Athens (west)Metopes (mythical combats): Lapiths vs. Centaurs (south); Gods vs. Giants (east); Greeks vs. Amazons (west?); Trojan scenes (north?)Frieze (low relief): Panathenaic Procession

  • Frieze of Panathenaic ProcessionEast Frieze (V)Cast of East Frieze (V))Eponymous Heroes and Marshalls

  • Frieze of Panathenaic Procession

  • Relief Sculpture on South-West Corner of Parthenon

  • Relief Sculpture on West Faade Relief of Parthenon

  • South Metopes I: Lapiths vs. Centaurs

  • Parthenon and Athenian Imperialism: SummaryMetope Sculpture: Hellenic (Athenian) Superiority over Barbarian (Persian) EmotionalityAcropolis as Destination Point of Panathenaic Procession (Tribute-Bearers)Depiction of Panathenaic Procession on Inner Frieze (Gods and Athenians: Hybris?)Chryselephantine Athena (Ivory and Gold)Imperial Statement: Blending of Ionic and Doric Capitals; Larger Dimensions than Typical Greek Temple

  • But there was one measure above all which at once gave the greatest pleasure to the Athenians, adorned their city and created amazement among the rest of mankind, and which is today the sole testimony that the tales of the ancient power and glory of Greece are no mere fables. By this I mean his [Pericles] construction of temples and buildings; and yet it was this, more than any other action of his, which his enemies slandered and misrepresented. They cried out in the Assembly that Athens had lost its good name and disgraced itself by transferring from Delos into its own keeping the funds that had been contributed by the rest of Greece The Greeks must be outraged, they cried. They must consider this an act of bare-faced tyranny, when they see that with their own contributions, extorted from them by force for the war against the Persians, we are gilding and beautifying our city, as if it were some vain woman decking herself out with costly stones and statues and temples worth millions.Plutarch, Life of Pericles, 12

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