Aftermath of Persian Wars Persian Wars, Delian League/Athenian Empire, Peloponnesian War, Civil Unrest,

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  • CLASSICAL AGE 510 BC- 323 BC

    Includes:

    Persian Wars, Delian League/Athenian Empire, Peloponnesian War, Civil Unrest, Alexander the Great

  • ATHENIAN EMPIRE Aftermath of the Persian Wars until Peloponnesian War

    479 BC-431 BC

  • RECAP

    • Major Events of the Archaic Age? Dates? • Trade, writing, art

    • Polis

    • Colonization

    • Government • Major forms?

    • Why democracy in Athens?

    • Warfare • Like in Dark Age?

    • Different in Archaic-how/why?

    • How did warfare influence Sparta’s development and impact the Persian War?

    • How did the Persian Wars affect Greece?

  • DELIAN LEAGUE • Major naval power!

    • New political power for the lower classes

    • Delian League 477 BC- 404 BC • 477-454 Delian League • 454-404 Athenian Empire

    • Major cultural center • Building projects (acropolis) • Religious festivals • Tragedies • Olympic games extended • Intellectual growth

    • Medicine and philosophy

    • Other democracies • Syracuse

  • GROWTH OF ATHENIAN DOMINATION • Conflict in the east

    • Continued 449 BC

    • Sparta allowed Athenian leadership

    • Cimon

    • Empire by force

    • Cleruchies

    • Greek unrest

    • Themistocles vs Kimon

    • Conflict with Sparta

    • Spartan earthquake 462 BC

    • Cimon sent help

    • Expedition failed and Spartan Athenian relationship strained

    • Athens reforms government more

    • Delian League 477-404 BC

  • ATHENIAN REFORMS

    • Cleisthenes

    • Rearranged the tribes

    • Archons chosen by lot chosen from upper classes

    • Ostracisms

    • Themistocles

    • Archons chosen by lot from among the general population

    • Ephialtes

    • Archons voted from general population

    • Limited areopagus

    • Court system

  • ATHENIAN DEMOKRATIA AFTER THE PERSIAN WARS

    • Pericles

    • Athenian Assembly

    • Met every 10 days

    • Citizenship Law of 451

    • Voting

    • Athenian Officials

    • Generals rose in prestige

    • 700 government positions

    • Judicial System

    • Crime a civil matter

    • State pay

    • Jury duty, boule, assembly

    • Civic functions

  • CULTURE AFTER THE PERSIAN WARS UNTIL THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR

  • POLIS

    • Acropolis

    • Highest point in a polis

    • Serves as a fortified hill

    • Agora

    • Marketplace of the city

    • Stoas

    • Long rectangular buildings to serve as shelter and a place to discuss business

    To Agora

  • •Agora with acropolis to the south-east and the areopagus (hill) to the south

  • PHYSICAL SPACE OF THE POLIS

  • VISUAL ART

    • Archaic • Idealized • Static • “archaic smile”

    • Classical • New motivation behind

    development • Anti-East • Motion • Still a sense of tranquility

  • SCULPTURE

  • VISUAL ART

    • Roman copy of the discobolus by Myron

  • ARCHITECTURE

  • VISUAL ART

    • Pediments

    • Statues under the roof of a temple

    • Celebrating civility and excellence

    • Grave stela

  • VASES

    • Interested in action not contemplation

    • Little personal information

    • Mythological or the mundane

    • Depictions of trades

    • Women at work • Domestic

    • Prostitution either as slaves or metics

  • POTTERY

    Ajax and Achilles playing dice 530 BC

    • Progression from abstract to naturalized human form.

    Women washing clothes 470 BC

  • OTHER CULTURAL CONTRIBUTIONS

  • LYRIC POETRY •Simonides •War epitaphs

    •Pindar • True excellence is found in ancestors

    • “Go tell the Spartans, stranger passing by That here, obeying their commands, we lie.” • -Simonides

    • “And now Alcidamas gives clear proof that the power born in the blood is like the fruit-bearing fields that now, in alternation, yield mankind yearly sustenance from the ground…”

    • -Pindar “Sixth Nemean Ode”

  • OIKOS

    • Oikos: primary unit of production, consumption and reproduction

    • Citizenship contingent on acceptance into the polis

    • Death at 36 for women and 45 for men

    • 50% mortality rate

    • Women married young-age 15; 30 for men

    • 20% of girls exposed at birth

    • Marriage

    • Girls would dedicate dolls to Artemis

    • Night-time procession

    • Marriage to one spouse

    • Men worked outside and women inside (food/textiles0

    • Separate lving quarters

  • RELIGION

    • Characteristics • Near East connection

    • Human qualities

    • Role of sacrifices • Temenos

    • Reciprocity: • People gave offerings to gods as a “you bless me, I’ll bless you”

    • Rules, appeasement, and rituals • Gods honor: Hospitality, proper burial, humility, and shun homicide

    • Offenses • Forgetting a sacrifice, violating a temple, breaking an oath

    • Homicide: gods punished by casting a miasma (curse) until the murderer was punished

    • Appeasements and Worship • Came from oracles, dreams, divination and prophesies

    • Prayers, singing, sacrifices, propitiation

  • RELIGION

    • Role of art

    • Cults and Festivals

    • Apollo

    • Greater and Lesser Dionysia

    • Sparta

    • Eleusinian Mysteries

    • Women Cults

    • Daily Life

  • GAMES AND FESTIVALS

    • Pan-Hellenic Games

    • Olympian

    • Nemean

    • Delphi

    • Isthmian

    • Gymnasium

    • Women

  • INTELLECTUAL LIFE AND EDUCATION

    • No formal schooling

    • Mousike • Upper class schools sponsored by parents

    • Learned lyric poetry/lyre

    • Both girls and boys by 6th century • Girls to become priestesses or manage family accounts

    • Ceased by 18

    • Cultural participation • Promote tradition, indoctrination, and social cohesion

    • Sophists: • Taught art of persuasion

  • DRAMA AND TRAGEDY

    • Dionysian Festival

    • Performed over three days

    • Held in late spring

    • Competitive

    • Three playwrights chosen to produce four plays

    • A trilogy (set of tragedies) and a satyr (comedy/satire)

    • The plot would involve a struggle between gods and humans and represent a political struggle concurrent in Athens

    • Playwrights competed for best drama as well as the actors

  • FIRST (UNDECLARED) PELOPONNESIAN WAR

    • First Peloponnesian War 460-445 BC • Megara allies with Athens • Corinth invades and Athens builds a wall • Sparta attempts to help but draws Athens into Boeotian affairs

    • Pericles continues war against Persia until 449 BC • Athens continues to dominate • Attempts to kick Persia out of Egypt-fails • Moves treasury in 454 BC to Athens (League continues 477-404 BC)

    • In 445 BC the Athenian Empire collapsed

    • Collapse of the Athenian Empire • Spartan peace treaty in 445 BC • A “30 Years Peace” was negotiated with Sparta until 431 BC

    • Athens still continues to build her city-state up

  • BREAKDOWN OF THE PEACE

    • 441-439 War with Samos

    • Many city-states began to rebel as Pericles was using the money to build up Athens

    • Pericles responded that Greece was free of Persia

    • 431 BC Athens places sanction on Megara and Potidaea

    • Interferes with Corinthian trade

    • Corinth appeals to Sparta

    • Sparta offers compromise-Pericles refuses