Text of Today’s Vocab Persian Wars- A series of wars that involved the Persian Empire and Greeks....
Todays Vocab Persian Wars- A series of wars that involved the Persian Empire and Greeks. Battle of Thermopylae- A battle made famous because of 300 Spartans who held off a Persian Army of possibly up to a million soldiers for 3 days. Delian League- A organization of city-states led by Athens in order to prevent Persian dominance. Pericles- The leader of Athens who took them into a Golden Age and expanded democracy.
Warm Up? Explain the difference between Athens and Spartan values.
PERSIAN WARS A series of wars that took place between the Greeks and the rapidly expanding Persian Empire. The wars began in 490 BC and lasted for about 10 years. It was one of the most important events that happened to the Athenians!
1 st Battle: Battle at Marathon When did it begin? 490 BC What happened? A Persian fleet of ships came into the Aegean with over 25,000 men and were met by 10,000 Athenians. Who Won? Huge Athenian victory because of their well trained discipline army. Why did the marathon come from this battle? A runner named Pheidippides (fy DIP uh deez) raced back to Athens to tell them of their victory and to protect the city. Athenian army soon came back to protect the city. Pheidippides died.
2 nd Battle: Battle at Thermopylae When did it begin? 480 BC What happened? Persians led by Xerxes tried to invade Greece from the north. The Greeks were very divided and some even fought for the Persians. The Persians faced little resistance until arriving at Thermopylae where they were met by 7,000 Greeks led by 300 Spartan warriors. A traitor gave the Persians the way around the cliffs. After every Greek was slaughtered they were on their way to Athens. Who won? The Persians
3 rd Battle: Battle at Salamis When did it begin? Right after Thermopylae around 480 BC What happened? Persians led by Xerxes continued to head south to Athens setting it on fire. Themistocles (an Athenian statesman) convinced the Athenians to evacuate and fight the Persians from the sea. The Athenians put their ships in a narrow channel near the island of Salamis and the Persians eventually followed. But, the Persian ships were too big and the Greek ships were able to ram the large ships. Who won? Over 1/3 of the Persian fleet sunk! The Athenians were again victorious.
4 th and Final Battle: Battle at Plataea When did it begin? 479 BC What happened? The Spartans met the Persian army at Plataea. The Spartans were able to drive the Persian army out of Greece for good. This signified the end of the Persian Wars. However, despite the great power and success Greece displayed as a unified country they did not stay that way. They joined with their old allies again between Athens and Sparta. Also, the defeat of the Persians gave way to the Delian League, which eventually led to the Athenian Empire.
Effects of the Persian Wars Creation of the Delian League The purpose of the League was defense, waging a military campaign against the Persians and freeing the Greek cities that were still under Persian control. Who lead the League? Athens, but each city-state had 1 vote-The League was essentially a democratic alliance between equals. How did Athens benefit from the League? As the League grew, the power of Athens, as leader of the League grew tremendously. Athens grew very wealthy during this time! They were paid taxes by the other members of the League for maintaining the fleet. With all of that money, Athens began to build things such as the Acropolis!
What was the change in the Delian League? Thasos was unhappy with the League and payments to Athens and rebelled. The revolt was not successful, but it was the first time in the League history where a decision was made only in regard to the interests of Athens rather than the interests of the League. As Athens stood on the brink of becoming a democratic state, Pericles stood ready to move the Delian League into an Athenian Empire.
Pericles When did he rule? 461-429 BC, Athens Golden Age Organized Delian League What were his 3 goals for Greece/Athens? 1. Strengthen Athenian Democracy 2. Make the Empire Strong 3. Glorify Athens
Pericles and democracy Pericles felt that democracy was a very important part of Athens. He allowed more people to become involved in government offices and get paid. (Before this office holders werent paid, so only the rich could afford to be a public official.) Pericles created the first city- state that ruled by Direct Democracy. Citizens rule directly, not through representation. But not all citizens were allowed to take part in the government.
Athenian vs. American democracy Athenian Democracy - 18 yr old men allowed to take part and vote - Have parents who are citizens - Laws are voted on and created by Assembly -Executive branch composed of a council of 50 men - Jury size varied -No appeals, no attorneys, 1 day trial American Democracy - Citizens born in U.S. have all rights and vote - Representatives elected to vote on and create laws - Executive branch is an elected president and appointed officials - Jury made up of 12 jurors - Defendants and plaintiffs have attorneys - Appeals process - Bill of rights to protect citizens
Similarities: Citizens have political power 3 Branches of Government Legislative Branch: passes laws Executive Branch: enforces laws Judicial Branch: conducts trials
Closing? 1. If the Greeks had lost the Persian Wars what gift from Athens may have been lost? 2. What are some differences and similarities between American and Athenian democracy? 3. What was the Delian League and how did it make Athens powerful?