- 1. To what extent should Athens beremembered as a great city-state?
2. The Persian Wars 3. Frank Millers 300 4. Empires in Western Asia, c. 600 BCE 5. Cyrus the Great 6. The Cyrus Cylindar:First Charter of Human Rights?Ex[alted Marduk, Enlil-of-the-Go]ds, relented. He changedhis mind about all the settlements whose sanctuaries were inruinsand took pity on them. He inspected and checked allthe countries, seeking for the upright king of his choice. Hetook the hand of Cyrus, king of the city of Anshan, and calledhim by his name, proclaiming him aloud for the kingship overall of everything.All the people of Tintir, of all Sumer andAkkad, nobles and governors, bowed down before him andkissed his feet, rejoicing over his kingship and their facesshone. 7. The Cyrus Cylindar:First Charter of Human Rights?I am Cyrus, king of the universe, the great king, thepowerful king, king of Babylon, king of Sumer and Akkad,king of the four quarters of the worldMy vast troops were marching peaceably in Babylon, andthe whole of [Sumer] and Akkad had nothing to fear. Isought the safety of the city of Babylon and all itssanctuaries.I collected together all of their people andreturned them to their settlements, and the gods of thelandat the command of Marduk, the great lord, Ireturned them unharmed to their cells, in the sanctuariesthat make them happy 8. The Persian Empire under Darius 9. Clay Tablet with FoundationInscription of Darius I The founding ofPersepolis: 'The goldsmiths whowrought the gold, thosewere Medes and Egyptians.The men who wrought thewood, those were Sardiansand Egyptians. The menwho wrought the bakedbrick, those wereBabylonians. The men whoadorned the wall, those wereMedes and Egyptians.' 10. Local Coinage is IntroducedGold Daric Silver shekel 11. c. 500 BCE 12. 499-493 BCE: Ionian Revolt 13. Darius Invasion: 490 BCEMARATHON 14. Xerxes: Herodotus, Histories, 7.8Xerxes, being about to take in hand the expedition against Athens,called together an assembly of the noblest Persians to learn theiropinions, and to lay before them his own designs. So, when the menwere met, the king spoke thus to them:'Persians, I shall not be the first to bring in among you a new custom-- I shall but follow one which has come down to us from ourforefathersNow in all this Ahuramazda guides us; and we, obeyinghis guidance, prosper greatly. What need have I to tell you of thedeeds of Cyrus and Cambyses, and my own father Darius, how manynations they conquered, and added to our dominions? Ye know rightwell what great things they achieved. 15. Xerxes: Herodotus, Histories, 7.8But for myself, I will say that, from the day on which I mounted thethrone, I have not ceased to consider by what means I may rivalthose who have preceded me in this post of honor, and increase thepower of Persia as much as any of them. And truly I have ponderedupon this, until at last I have found out a way whereby we may atonce win glory, and likewise get possession of a land which is aslarge and as rich as our own nay, which is even more varied in thefruits it bears- while at the same time we obtain satisfaction andrevenge. For this cause I have now called you together, that I maymake known to you what I design to do.My intent is to throw a bridge over the Hellespont and march anarmy through Europe against Greece, that thereby I may obtainvengeance from the Athenians for the wrongs committed by themagainst the Persians and against my father.' 16. Xerxes Inscription at PersepolisWhen my father Darius went away from thethrone, I became king on his throne by thegrace of Ahuramazda. After I became king, Ifinished what had been done by my father,and I added other works.A great God is Ahuramazda, who createdthis earth, who created yonder sky, whocreated man, who created happiness forman, who made Xerxes king, one king ofmany, one lord of many.I am Xerxes, the Great King, King of Kings,King of countries containing many kinds (ofmen), King in this great earth far and wide,son of King Darius, an Achaemenian 17. Xerxes Invasion: 480 BCE 18. OBfu ailll dthien agrm aa mBernitds gwehe orevofe ran tyh mee nHtioenl lheassp ontreached us, this was by far the greatest; so much so thatno other expedition compared to this seems of anyaccount, neither that which Darius undertook againstthe Scythians, nor the expedition of theScythiansnor, again, that of the sons of Atreusagainst Troy, of which we hear in story; nor that of theMysians and TeucriansAll of these expeditions, and others, if such there were,are as nothing compared with this. For was there anation in all of Asia which Xerxes did not bring withhim against Greece? Or was there a river, except thoseof unusual size, which sufficed for his troops todrink? 19. Why sit you, doomed ones? Fly to theworlds end, leavingAthenian Response: ThemistoclesHome and the heights your city circles likea wheel.The head shall not remain in its place, northe body,Nor the feet beneath, nor the hands, northe parts between;But all is ruined, for fire and the headlonggod of warSpeeding in a Syrian chariot shall bring youlow.Many a tower shall he destroy, not yoursalone,And give pitiless fire many shrines of gods,Which even now stand sweating, with fearquivering,While over the rooftops black blood runsstreamingIn prophecy of woe that needs must come.But rise,Haste from the sanctuary and bow yourhearts to grief. 20. Not wholly can Pallas win the heart ofOlympian Zeus,Athenian Response: Though she Themistoclesprays him with many prayersand all her subtlety;Yet will I speak to you this other word, asfirm as adamant:Though all else shall be taken within thebound of CecropsAnd the fastness of the holy mountain ofCithaeron,Yet Zeus the all-seeing grants to AthenesprayerThat the wooden wall only shall not fall, buthelp you and your children.But await not the host of horse and footcoming from Asia,Nor be still, but turn your back andwithdraw from the foe.Truly a day will come when you will meethim face to face.Divine Salamis, you will bring death towomens sonsWhen the corn is scattered, or the harvestgathered in. 21. Athenian Trireme 22. Demaratus, a Spartan traitorWant has at all times been a fellow-dweller with us in our land, while valor isan ally we have gained through wisdom and strict laws. Her aid enables us todrive out want and escape slavery. Brave are all the Greeksbut what I amabout to say does not concern all, but only the Spartans. First then, comewhat may, they will never accept your terms, which would reduce Greece toslavery; and further, they are sure to join battle with you, though all the restof the Greeks should submit to your willWhen the Spartans fight as a group, they are the bravest of all. For althoughthey are free men, they are not in all respects free; law is the master whomthey obey, and this master they fear more than your subjects fear you, KingXerxes. Whatever their law commands, they do; and its commandment isalways the same: it forbids them to flee in battle, whatever the number oftheir foes, and requires them to stand firm, and either to conquer or to die. 23. Thermopylae 24. Xerxes Awaits Battle 25. A Traitor Leads to Massacre 26. Inscriptions at ThermopylaeHerodotus 7.228Here did four thousand men from Pelops landAgainst three hundred myriads bravely stand.This was in honor of all. Another was for theSpartans alone:Go, stranger, and tell the LacedaemoniansThat here, obeying their commands, we fell. 27. Athens is Abandoned 28. How Should We Remember the Persian Wars? Herodotus memory Athenian role vs. Spartan role 29. And here I feel constrained to deliver an opinion, which most men, I know,will How dislike, Should but which, We as it seems Remember to me to be true, the I Persian am determined Wars?not towithhold. Had the Athenians, from fear of the approaching danger, quittedtheir country, or had they without quitting it submitted to the power ofXerxes, Herodotus there would certainly memoryhave been no attempt to resist the Persians bysea; in which case the course of events by land would have been thefollowing Athenian the Spartans role would vs. Spartan at last have rolestood alone, and, standing alone,would have displayed prodigies of valor and died nobly.Greece would havebeen brought under Persia.If then a man should now say that theAthenians were the saviors of Greece, he would not exceed the truth. Forthey truly held the scales; and whichever side they espoused must have carriedthe day. They too it was who, when they had determined to maintain thefreedom of Greece, roused up that portion of the Greek nation which hadnot gone over to the Medes; and so, next to the gods, they repulsed theinvader. Even the terrible oracles which reached them from Delphi, andstruck fear into their hearts, failed to persuade them to fly from Greece. Theyhad the courage to remain faithful to their land, and await the coming of thefoe. 30. How Should We Remember the Persian Wars? Diodorus memory Persian memory? The movie 300 31. The New 300