Persian and Peloponnesian Wars Persian and Peloponnesian Wars

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Persian and Peloponnesian Wars

Persian and Peloponnesian WarsWho were the Persians?Location: modern-day IranEstablished: one of the largest empires of the ancient worldConquered: the Chaldeans, Babylon, Lidia, Greek cities in Ionia, EgyptBuilt: numerous roadsLongest road was the: Royal RoadWorlds first long highway, 1,500 milesPersians contCommunication consisted of: messengers on horseback (relay race)Four main kings: Cyrus the Great, Cambyses II, Darius I, and XerxesCyrus the Great created: the Persian EmpireAllowed conquered peoples to: keep their own customsMany conquered peoples: respected DariusFreed the Jews in BabylonCambyses II was known for conquering: Egypt

Persians contDarius IReformed the: army and created a permanent armyHighly trained soldiers called: the Ten Thousand ImmortalsConquered parts of: IndiaFailed to conquer: GreeceSurrounded himself with: symbols of powerMinted: first coins in PersiaHigh point of: Persian cultureXerxes tried to conquer what area like his father: Greece

The Persian Wars (490 BC - 479 BC)Greeks in Ionia rebel against Persian rule, ask for help from other GreeksPersian emperor Darius decides to get revenge on the GreeksFirst Persian Invasion 490 BCBattle at Marathon Athenians attack the Persians while they are unloading and the Persians retreatAn Athenian messenger runs 26 miles from Marathon to Athens to announce the victoryHe dies after delivering the messageDarius is furious over the humiliating defeat and starts to plan another invasionHowever he dies and his son Xerxes vows to get revenge for his fatherSecond Persian Invasion 480 BCBattle at ThermopylaeGreeks are afraid they wont have enough time to prepareA group of 300 Spartans decide to hold off the entire Persian army at the mountain pass of ThermopylaeAre successful for several days until a local shows the Persians an alternate path through the mountain and they kill all the SpartansThe Persians advance and burn AthensNeed the Persian navy to bring additional supplies

Battle of SalamisAn Athenian navy commander lures the Persian navy into the narrow Strait of SalamisPersian ships were very large and could not maneuver wellXerxes watches from a throne on the shore as his navy is destroyedThe Persian army is now stranded in Greece with few suppliesIn 479 BC a large Greek army led by the might of Sparta crushes the Persians, ending the warPersianBattles

The Golden Age of AthensAthens and Sparta became the two most powerful city-states as leaders in the Persian WarsSparta not popular, Athens becomes the leading city-state Why were Spartans not as popular?Dozens of Greek city-states banded together for defenseThis alliance was to be a league of equalsAthens, as the largest and richest, ended up controlling the entire allianceBecame known as the Delian LeagueAs the Leagues leader, Athens controlled its ships and moneyWould not allow unhappy members to quitWould attack rebelling members with the League fleetThe League more or less turned into an Athenian EmpireUsed League funds to rebuild AthensBuilt the Parthenon = a grand temple dedicated to the goddess AthenaPericlesGreat champion of democracy and most influential politician in AthensCommissioned the ParthenonIntroduced payment for those who served in public offices and juriesBelieved in the superiority of Athens

Trade brought much wealth to AthensAthens at the time was the heart of Greek cultureGreatest rival was SpartaHad its own allied city-states = Peloponnesian LeagueAthens fears the military might of Sparta and alliesSparta fears that the Athenian navy would stop Sparta from tradingThis mutual fear led to Sparta and Athens declaring war in 431 BC

The Peloponnesian WarWar between Athens and SpartaSparta and allies dominate the landAthens and allies dominate the seaSpartans surround Athens hoping for an open battleAthens avoids any battles on landKnowing they cant compete in open battle, they hide behind their city walls, relying on supplies from their navy and coloniesIn 430 BC a terrible plague breaks out in Athens, killing a third of the people, including Pericles421 truce, war breaks out six years later when Athens attacks one of Spartas alliesThis time Sparta destroys the Athenian navy and Athens surrenders - The walls of Athens are torn down and the Empire destroyedCosts of the warWeakened major Greek city-statesAthens nearly destroyed, Sparta exhausted as wellSparta tries to act as Greeces dominant powerLost too many resources, defeated by Thebes who also cant maintain controlStruggle for power in Greece led to a long cycle of warfare that left all of Greece vulnerableIgnored the growing power of Macedonia to the northLoss of freedom