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  • 1. The Persian EmpireBy: Nima Mansouri10/26/2012

2. Aryans Warlike culture, superior on horseback and chariots The fathers of Persians Medes and Persians and the Parthians 3. 1400 BC 4. Capitals five cities served as the royal capital 5. Pasargadae built by Cyrus to commemorate his victoryover the Medes It was remote and impractical as anadministrative capital Cyruss grave 6. Babylon rebuilt by Cyrus as a royal capital for his usewhen affairs brought him to Mesopotamia 7. Susa Darius moved the empiresadministration to Susa the old Elamite capital, perhaps forefficiency It was well-located at the hub of a roadand water transport network Winter capital 8. Ecbatana Summer capital the old Median capital in the ZagrosMountains 9. Persepolis In 520 BC Darius began building thegreatest of the Persian capitals atPersepolis Construction of Persepolis wasinterrupted for long periods and wasnot completed nearly 200 years laterwhen the city was sacked and burned to the ground by Alexander 10. Rise to power The Persians settled on relatively poor andremote lands they were little troubled by first the Elamiesto their west then the Assyrians who destroyed theElamites around 640 BC and then the Medes (to their north) andresurgent Babylonians who conqueredAssyria in 609 BC 11. Cyrus II became king of the small Persiankingdom of Anshan in 559 BC Within ten years he had subjugated theeastern part of Persia and established areputation among even his rivals as a naturalleader to whom men gravitated 12. When the Median king attempted to reassertcontrol over Persia around 550 BC, the Medianarmy revolted on the battlefield, handing overtheir king to Cyrus and surrendering their owncapital at Ecbatana Cyrus II was now Cyrus the Great, founder ofthe Persian Empire Cyrus then conquered in quick succession theLydians of Asia Minor, Greek colonies on theAegean coast, the Parthians, and the Hyrcaniansto the north 13. In 541 BC he marched into the steppes ofCentral Asia, establishing a fortified borderalong the Jaxartes River In 540 BC, his 19th year as king, Cyrus turnedon his onetime ally, Babylon. After one battle, the army and people ofBabylon surrendered their king, city, andempire that stretched from southernMesopotamia to Phoenicia 14. Before Cyrus could expand into Egypt or towardGreece, however, he was killed fighting nomadictribesmen who were threatening his easternprovinces .The first successors to Cyrus conquered Egypt,gathered new provinces in North Africa, andextended the empire into India to the IndusRiver Cambyses II Darius 15. In 513 BC a huge floating bridge was built acrossthe Bosporus Strait, linking Asia and Europe. ThePersian army took Thrace and Macedonia to cutoff grain to the Greeks, but could not subjugatethe elusive Scythians Xerxes The firs king who had a women as his navygeneral This was the peak of the Persian Empire. Thestage was set for the mighty struggle with thecity-states of Greece that lasted 50 years. 16. Economy Great King Darius instituted many economicinnovations and reforms: systematizedtaxation; standardized weights, measures, andmonetary units (the first successfulwidespread use of coins); improvedtransportation routes, including the 1600-mileRoyal Road from Susa to Sardis and an earlySuez Canal; royal trading ships; promotion ofagriculture; a banking system; and promotionof international trade. 17. Religion and culture The Persian kings and nobility wereZoroastrians, a religion named after itsfounder, Zarathustra, called Zoroaster inGreek Zarathustra conceived his religion around 600BC, and it had great influence later onJudaism, Christianity, and Islam Zoroastrianism was monotheistic, centeringon one supreme god who created everythingmaterial and spiritual 18. Government The head of the Persian government was the king whoseword was law His authority was extended by a bureaucracy led byPersian nobles, scribes who kept the records, a treasurythat collected taxes and funded building projects andarmies, and a system of roads, couriers, and signalstations that facilitated mail and trade In the early years when the army was predominatelyPersian, it capably preserved the internal and externalpeace Much of the empire was divided into provinces calledsatrapies, ruled by a satrap. All of Egypt was usually asingle satrapy, for example 19. Military All Persian men to the age of 50 years wereobligated to serve in the armies of thePersian Empire The army consisted mainly of four types ofunits: spearmen for infantry shock combat,foot archers to act as skirmishers, lightcavalry armed mainly with bows, and heavycavalry that wore some armor and carriedspears 20. Apranik and her Ranks, never surrendered, they have fought an on goingbloody battle to the bitter ends. Apranik became a symbol for the PersianResistance & Freedom 21. Sura was one of the Greatest Heroines of PersianHistory, A strategically and Military Genius during theParthian dynasty 22. Artemisia I: became the ruler of Halicarnassus (A Greek City-State and acolony of Persian Empire). She ruled under the over lordship of the PersianEmperor Xerxes I (Kheshayar Shah). She was the legendary Grand Admiral andleader of the Persian Navy 23. Youtab Aryobarzan was the Commander of Achaemenids Army, sister ofthe legendary Persian Hero, Aryobarzan (Achaemenids General), shestood side by side to her brother and fought the Greeks and Macedoniansto death during the invasion of Alexander. The name Youtab means:Unique. 24. Decline and fallAlexander invaded in 334BC, captured Lydia by333, took Egypt in 332,and became king ofPersia in 331