The Persian WarsLesson 5 Core Knowledge History and Geography 6th grade.
The Persian WarsThe beginning of the War.
Youve recently learned that there were a number a city-states on the coast of Asia Minor (another name for the Anatolian Peninsula, where much of Turkey is located). About 546 B.C. These city-states came under the control of the Persians, who appointed harsh tyrants to rule each city-state.
Sardis In 499 B.C. The city-state
Miletus rebelled against Persian rule.
Athenians agreed to help (Sparta refused).
Athens victory on Sardis created momentum and everybody wanted to join in on the REVOLT!
Athens went back home. what?! 3 years later the Persian king Darius regained control of the Greek
city states in Asia Minor. Persians were now angry with the Athenians.
dun dun dun...
Marathon The Athenians and the Persians met on the plain at
Marathon, about 26 miles from Athens. The Athenians attacked even though they were badly
outnumbered and were successful. By the end of the battle 6,000 Persians were dead,
while only 192 Greeks had fallen. The Greeks ordered a messenger to run back to Athens
to deliver the news. He ran the 26 miles, gasped out his victory announcement: Rejoice, we conquer! then died of exhaustion.
Thermopylae In 480 B.C. (10 years later) another Persian
army was dispatched to defeat the Greeks. With an army of more than 100,000 men as well
as 600 - 700 ships, the Persian king Xerxes was determined to conquer all of Greece.
FINALLY Athens and Sparta put aside their differences. (hip hip hurray!) With these two joined together along with a few other city-states they had
about 10,000 men and 200 to 300 ships. This army was led by King Leonidas of Sparta.
By battling in Thermopylae, about 75 miles northwest of Athens, they delayed the battle trying to increase their chances.
Things didnt turn out as planned traitor/retreat, 300 valiant Spartans died defending the pass.
Salamis Athens was burnt to the ground after the attempt at Thermopylae. Persians were set to conquer all of southern Greece. Xerxes set out with his Navy first clashing near the island called
Salamis. The Persians had big ships but the Greeks knew the waterways. Persians were lured into the shallow waters where their ships were
sunk The Athenian navy was able to defeat the huge Persian fleet. Xerxes immediately left Greece and sailed home. (boo hoo) The next year the Spartan general Pausanias led the Greeks against
the Persians in the battle of Plataea. Pausanias won the battle and drove the Persian army out of Greece.
The Golden Age of AthensLesson 6 Core Knowledge History and Geography Grade 6.
Rise of the Athenian EmpireThe Greeks unexpected victory in the Persian Wars ensured that the Greek city-states would remain free and independent. The war also established Athens and Sparta as the two leading Greek city-states.
Despite working together during the Wars Athens and Greece Pursued separate paths as soon as the wars were over.
Spartans went home to keep an eye on the helots.
Athenians began building a mighty empire.
Delian League established Athens thought they were
the ones in charge. Money from the League
went to fund the Golden Age of Athens.
During this time Athens created some of the greatest artistic and cultural achievements.
After the Wars
Pericles was one of the leading citizens during the Golden Age.
He was reelected for 30 years as one of the ten strategoi or generals.
He eventually became the most powerful and influential man in Athens.
His best skill was an orator (public speaker). his words were like thunder
He was also known for his hard work and dedication.
He did not believe in wasting time at parties and social events.
He helped the Athenian empire to grow stronger.
He strengthened the Athenian Democracy.
He supported and was a patron of the arts.
Pericles (PER ih kleez)
The most famous of all the buildings built under Pericles.
A temple to Athena ~ The Greek Goddess of wisdom.
Considered the greatest of all Greek buildings and one of the treasures to human culture.
The Parthenon is 230 feet long, 100 feet wide, and 60 feet tall. More than 20,000 tons of marble were used in the construction.
Three styles of architecture based on a distinctive type of column.
Doric: The oldest and the simplest. Featured a large ridged column with a capital, or a top, shaped like a saucer.
Ionic: Tall and slender with spiral scroll-like curlicues on either side.
Corinthian: most ornate. The capital on top of the column looks like a basket with layers of leaves in it.
Over 15,000 Athenians could gather here.
Like the Olympics, Greek drama began as part of a religious festival.
Performances grew from a single actor to several and were judged and prizes given to the best playwright.
Two kinds of drama: Comedy and Tradegy.
In addition to architecture and drama, a number of other arts also flourished during the Golden Age of Athens. Pottery that was decorated with
pictures from mythology. Historians who wrote history and
stories. Advances in Science and
Other Cultural Achievements
Lesson 7 Core Knowledge History and Geography Grade 6
The Peloponnesian War
Athens vs SpartaAs Athens built its empire, Sparta looked on with concern. The Spartans worried that Athens was becoming too powerful. They also resented Athenian attempts to push Athenian-style democracy on other Greek city-states.
Sparta joined together with its allies and created the Peloponnesian League.
430 B.C. relations between Athens and the Peloponnesian League deteriorated.
One year later the Peloponnesian war broke out.
This war continued for more than 25 years and would eventually put an end to the Athenian empire.
Pericles was still leader of Athens.
Spartan Army was stronger but Athenians had a stronger Navy.
Athenians did not fight the Spartans on their terms.
They hid behind their walls. The country people beyond the
walls poured into the city. The Spartan army burnt the
crops and farm houses.
Pericles was cautious and wouldnt let the Athenians fight just yet.
He figured the longer the Spartans had to wait the fewer supplies they would have.
During the first year of war this strategy was successful.
The Spartans gave up and left. On their way the Athenian Navy attacked several cities on the coast of Peloponnesus.
The Peloponnesian War
2nd Year of War Began with another Spartan land
attack. Athenians retreated again. A terrible plague swept through
the Athens. plague: a disease that sweeps through a town
or country, causing many to die.
The plague lasted for 3 years. The war dragged on for years
with no victory on either side.
About 415 B.C. an Athenian named Alcibiades proposed that the Athenians conquer the island of Sicily, now a part of Italy but then inhabited by Greeks. This island was on the other side of Peloponnesus. If it was conquered, then Athens could renew its supplies, attack Sparta from both sides, and defeat their archrivals. Not all Athenians were in favor of
this and did not trust him, but there were enough that were so they invaded.
The attack on Sicily ended tragically. Lives were lost and many Athenians were made slaves.
Alcibiades fled to Sparta and told them Athens plans. TRAITOR!!
Spartans took the information but didnt trust him. He fled to Persia they didnt trust him either.
The defeat in Sicily weakened the Athenian army and navy.
Spartans built a big navy. Persians became the Spartans
allies. Spartan had a naval victory
cutting off Athens supply of grains.
In 404 B.C. Athens surrendered. The Spartans and their allies won
the Peloponnesian war.
Athenians had to tear down their walls.
No more democracy ~ ruled by 30 nobles.
These nobles were corrupt and cruel. Athenians rebelled and in 403 B.C. the kings of Sparta decided that as long as Athens was peaceful they would leave them alone.
Lesson 8 Core Knowledge History and Geography Grade 6
Greek Philosophy and Socrates
Philosophy and AdversityPeople often grow more philosophical during times of adversity. When life is good, it is easy to ignore large questions about the meaning of life. But when times are tough, these questions seem to thrust themselves upon us with increased urgency.
These questions were answered: because of the Gods!
By the 6th century B.C. some people were no longer satisfied with that answer.
Philosophy: love of wisdom. Philosopher: Lover of wisdom
who used reason to acquire this wisdom.
Why? Where? How?
One of the most famous Greek philosphers. 469 - 399 B.C. Fought in the Peloponnesian war as a young
man. Socrates wrote nothing down. His student,
Plato, wrote down what we know about Socrates.
Interested in where the world came from and what it might be made of. How are humans to behave.
One of the first to study ethics. ethics: the branch of philosophy that studies what it means to
live a go