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The Persian Wars a nd The Peloponnesian Wars

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The Persian Wars a nd The Peloponnesian Wars. Democracy in Athens. Draco 7 th Century BC Draconian law code – death for almost all crimes Birthright government Solon 630-558 BC established wealth-based democratic government Defined citizenship. The Persian Wars. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of The Persian Wars a nd The Peloponnesian Wars

The Persian Wars

The Persian WarsandThe Peloponnesian WarsDemocracy in AthensDraco 7th Century BCDraconian law code death for almost all crimesBirthright governmentSolon 630-558 BC established wealth-based democratic governmentDefined citizenship

The Persian WarsReported by Herodotus, the father of historyAcahemenid kings of PersiaWars between Greeks and Persians in 5th century BCRoughly from 492 448 BC

Map of Persian Empire

Battle of MarathonIonian revolt and other battles490 BC - Darius I The Great sent about 25,000 men to plains of MarathonDarius preceded by Cyrus the Great and Cambyses10,000 Athenians and Plataeans under Callinachus and MiltiadesFirst victory for Greeks

Battle at Thermopylae, 480 BCXerxes King of Persia, son of Darius I70,000 Persians bridged the Hellespont10,000 ImmortalsThemistocles led navy at AthensAthens and Sparta form allianceDecide to defend at ThermopylaeLeonidas I and 300 Spartans and 1000 BoetiansNaval battle at Artemesium fought at same timeAllies lost both battles

Map of Battle of Thermopylae

Battle of Salamis, also 480 BCAthens evacuated after ThermopylaeAthens taken and burnedNavy waiting around island SalamisThemistocles trickConfined waters around SalamisEgyptians, Phoenecians, Ionian Greeks with Persians40 Greek ships lost, 200 Persian ships lostQueen Artemisia of Halicarnassus"My men have become women, and my women men."

Battle of Plataea, 479 BCXerxes I had left a land army under Mardonius Spartans and Athenians rode up Met at isthmus of CorinthMardonius fledOther regions rebelled from Persia

The Delian League, 478 BCIonian city-states joined for mutual protectionTreasuary on island of Delos, Aristides leads AthensAthens in charge due to naval supremacyPericles leads Athens during Golden AgeParthenon built on AcropolisLong Walls builtSparta captures Athens in 404 BC

Peloponnesian Wars ThucydidesBegins in 431 BC between Athens and Sparta429 BC Pericles dies of plagueThree stage warMost of Delian League sided with Sparta404 BC Sparta wins war with defeat of Athenian navy at Aegospotami by Lysander with help from PersiaLysander installs 30 rulers at Athens, later known as the 30 Tyrants

The Thirty Tyrants, 404 BCSpartan hegemony indirect imperial dominanceLong Walls destroyedAthenian oligarchy (pro-Spartan) appointed by Sparta led by CritiasOnly lasted 13 monthsLeading democrats exiledCouncil of 500 were the judiciaryOnly 3000 Athenian had citizenshipMany sentenced to hemlock including Socrates

End of Thirty TyrantsOther city-states helped exiled democratsRetook Piraeus by forceSparta did not come to helpDemocracy restored in 403 BCBattle of Leuctra 371 BC Thebans over SpartansMacedoniaPhilip II

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