Principles of Genetic Engineering. What is genetic engineering. Genetic engineering, also known as recombinant DNA technology , means altering the genes in a living organism to produce a new genotype. Various kinds of genetic modification are possible: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Text of Principles of Genetic Engineering
Principles of Genetic Engineering
What is genetic engineering
Genetic engineering, also known as recombinant DNA technology, means altering the genes in a living organism to produce a new genotype.
Various kinds of genetic modification are possible: – inserting a foreign gene from one species into
another – altering an existing gene so that its product is
changed– changing gene expression so that it is translated
more often or not at all.
Changing gene expression so that it is translated more often or not at all.Humans have been doing this for centuries.
A clone produces two organisms with exactly the same genes.Plants are easily cloned by vegetative propagation; cuttings, layering, etc.Animals can also be cloned. The diploid nucleus of and egg cell is replaced with the haploid nucleus of a body cell. Doesn’t work very well – too many genes are turned off.
Making Recombinant DNA – Gene Splicing
1) Isolate pieces of DNA with desirable gene.2) Inserting DNA into host plasmid which is bacteria or a virus.3) Cloning vector.4 )Selecting clones with desired genes.
Step 1: Isolating the gene
Proteins called “restriction enzymes” are used to cut the DNA into small pieces.
Step 2: Inserting gene into vector
Vector – molecule of DNA which is used to carry a foreign gene into a host cell.
Step 3: Cloning Vector
All genetically identical because of asexual reproductionhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zlqD4UWCuws
Outcomes of Genetic Engineering
Safety of Genetic Engineering
New kinds of organisms– New diseases– Epidemic
Healthcare– Insulin production for diabetics– Interferon– Fixing genetic defects
• Producing hormones or enzymeshttp://www.iptv.org/video/detail.cfm/3761/exm_20030905_ge_fullhttp://www.mnn.com/green-tech/research-innovations/photos/12-bizarre-examples-of-genetic-engineering/mad-science