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Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering and Medicine Biotechnology Biotechnology Genetic engineering Genetic engineering Stem cells and regenerative medicine

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Genetic Counseling using “Gene Chips”

Text of Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering and Medicine Biotechnology Biotechnology Genetic engineering...

Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering and Medicine Biotechnology Biotechnology Genetic engineering Genetic engineering Stem cells and regenerative medicine Stem cells and regenerative medicine Drug design Drug design Cancer Cancer Gene therapy Gene therapy Virus and epidemic Virus and epidemic Evolutions mismatched diseases (not in book) and you have it! Evolutions mismatched diseases (not in book) and you have it! What Is Genetic Engineering? Genetic engineering: 2 options Genetic engineering: 2 options Foreign genes inserted Foreign genes inserted Existing genes altered Existing genes altered Technique Technique Restriction enzymes cut DNA; excision Restriction enzymes cut DNA; excision Insert new DNA nucleotides (e.g., A,T,C, or G) Insert new DNA nucleotides (e.g., A,T,C, or G) New gene is expressed (via Genetic Code) New gene is expressed (via Genetic Code) Examples Examples Insulin and Starlight Corn Insulin and Starlight Corn Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) Genetic Counseling using Gene Chips Sequencing of Individuals 20,000 Genes Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering and Medicine Biotechnology Biotechnology Genetic engineering Genetic engineering Stem cells and regenerative medicine Stem cells and regenerative medicine Crime investigations using DNA Crime investigations using DNA Drug design (text) Drug design (text) Cancer Cancer Gene therapy Gene therapy Virus and epidemic Virus and epidemic Evolutions mismatched diseases (not in book) Evolutions mismatched diseases (not in book) What Constitutes a Stem Cell? Unspecialized cells: pluripotent Give rise to more than 250 specialized cells in the body Fetus development Serve as the bodys natural repair system Utilization of regenerated cell types from stem cells for multiple organs and cell types Advantages of Stem cells Purpose Therapies for diseases Awaken the natural capacity for self-repair that resides in our genes Example: repairing damaged nerve cells (e.g., spinal cord injuries) Potential results Patients receive own stem cells to treat disease No need for donor match Compare with kidney and heart donor problems Stems Cell Value: Regeneration of the Eye Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering and Medicine Biotechnology Biotechnology Genetic engineering Genetic engineering Stem cells and regenerative medicine Stem cells and regenerative medicine Crime investigations using DNA Crime investigations using DNA Drug design (text) Drug design (text) Cancer Cancer Gene therapy Gene therapy Virus and epidemic Virus and epidemic Evolutions mismatched diseases (not in book) Evolutions mismatched diseases (not in book) DNA Fingerprinting in Criminal Investigations Analysis of DNA in human tissue Analysis of DNA in human tissue Identify criminals/victims Identify criminals/victims Process Process Micro-sample of cells (e.g., tooth brush) Micro-sample of cells (e.g., tooth brush) Analyze DNA sections Analyze DNA sections Compare to individual of interest Compare to individual of interest Each person = a unique DNA fingerprint Each person = a unique DNA fingerprint Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering and Medicine Biotechnology Biotechnology Genetic engineering Genetic engineering Stem cells and regenerative medicine Stem cells and regenerative medicine Drug design (text) Drug design (text) Cancer Cancer Gene therapy Gene therapy Virus and epidemic Virus and epidemic Evolutions mismatched diseases (not in book) Evolutions mismatched diseases (not in book) Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering and Medicine Biotechnology Biotechnology Genetic engineering Genetic engineering Stem cells and regenerative medicine Stem cells and regenerative medicine Drug design (text) Drug design (text) Cancer Cancer Gene therapy Gene therapy Virus and epidemic Virus and epidemic Evolutions mismatched diseases (not in book) Evolutions mismatched diseases (not in book) Cancer: A Different Kind of Genetic Disease Normal Cell Normal Cell Genetic stewardship Genetic stewardship Cancer Cancer Cells reproduce without restraint Cells reproduce without restraint Genetic defect Genetic defect Usually multiple damaged genes Usually multiple damaged genes Collection of diseases Collection of diseases Genetic defects Genetic defects Therapies Therapies Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy Gene therapy Gene therapy While these are different types of cancer, the root cause of all cancers is the accumulation of un-repaired genetic mutations that lead to uncontrolled growth (i.e., tumors) Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering and Medicine Biotechnology Biotechnology Genetic engineering Genetic engineering Stem cells and regenerative medicine Stem cells and regenerative medicine Drug design (text) Drug design (text) Cancer Cancer Gene therapy Gene therapy Virus and epidemic Virus and epidemic Evolutions mismatched diseases (not in book) Evolutions mismatched diseases (not in book) Gene Therapy Gene therapy Gene therapy Engineer gene with 100% functional DNA (nucleotide excision) Engineer gene with 100% functional DNA (nucleotide excision) Replace defective gene with healthy gene Replace defective gene with healthy gene in vivo (in the body) and in vitro (cell culture) followed by implantation/injection in vivo (in the body) and in vitro (cell culture) followed by implantation/injection in vitro Gene Therapy DNA Repair in the Cells DNA ID damaged section of DNA Excise DNA strand Remove damaged strand Replace with engineered strand Fix the patch Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering and Medicine Biotechnology Biotechnology Genetic engineering Genetic engineering Stem cells and regenerative medicine Stem cells and regenerative medicine Drug design (text) Drug design (text) Cancer Cancer Gene therapy Gene therapy Virus and epidemic Virus and epidemic Evolutions mismatched diseases (not in book) Evolutions mismatched diseases (not in book) Viruses and Human Diseases Virus Virus No metabolism No metabolism Cannot reproduce on own Cannot reproduce on own Structure Structure Short segment of nucleic acid as information broker (DNA or RNA) Short segment of nucleic acid as information broker (DNA or RNA) Protein coat Protein coat How it works How it works Taken into cell and takes over cells metabolism Taken into cell and takes over cells metabolism Your body produces more Your body produces more Kills cell Kills cell Continues to spread reproduce as a contagion Continues to spread reproduce as a contagion HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Contains RNA as information broker (What is your broker) Contains RNA as information broker (What is your broker) Incorporated into you cells RNA Incorporated into you cells RNA Makes new viruses Makes new viruses Cell dies Cell dies Virus lives to fight another day multiple copies Virus lives to fight another day multiple copies Influenza Pandemics The Hong Kong Flu in 1968 evolved into H3N2. 750,000 people died of the virus worldwide The Spanish Flu in 1918, killed approximately 50 million people. It was caused by the H1N1 strain of influenza A. The Asian Flu in 1957 was the H2N2 influenza A strain. Worldwide it is estimated that at least one million people died from this virus. Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering and Medicine Biotechnology Biotechnology Genetic engineering Genetic engineering Stem cells and regenerative medicine Stem cells and regenerative medicine Drug design Drug design Cancer Cancer Gene therapy Gene therapy Virus and epidemic Virus and epidemic Evolutions mismatched diseases (not in book) and you have it/them! Evolutions mismatched diseases (not in book) and you have it/them! Evolutions Mis-match Diseases/Maladies Paleolithic (> 20,000 years before present/YBP) genes in a modern body and modern environment Paleolithic (> 20,000 years before present/YBP) genes in a modern body and modern environment Hypothesis: Hypothesis: Genes in the human body evolved in response to humankinds 4 million years of evolutionary history in Africa Genes in the human body evolved in response to humankinds 4 million years of evolutionary history in Africa Many of those genes adapted to the paleolithic era (> 20,000 YBP) and before (millions of years) Many of those genes adapted to the paleolithic era (> 20,000 YBP) and before (millions of years) In todays world, many of these genes poorly matched to the environment and are a liability In todays world, many of these genes poorly matched to the environment and are a liability The Origin of Mismatch Diseases/Maladies Years Before Present 4 M2 M1 M0.5 M 0 M Ardi Lucy H. erectus H. sapiens Genetic adaptations to previous environments poorly adaptive in our contemporary environment These disease are based on genes whose role is mis-matched for our lifestyles of today Some Mismatched Diseases/Maladies Dental carries Dental carries Impacted wisdom teeth Impacted wisdom teeth Hypertension (heart) Hypertension (heart) Smallpox Smallpox Flu Flu Measles Measles Mumps Mumps Myopia (short-sightedness) Myopia (short-sightedness) Pertussis/whooping cough Many cancers (reproductive organs in both sexes) Type 2 diabetes Plague Flat feet Obesity Lactose intolerance Total = 50+ Mis-matched Disease/Malady: Dental Carries/Cavities Early Paleolithic (> 20,000 YBP) human diet Early Paleolithic (> 20,000 YBP) human diet Mix of fruits, tubers, nuts and occasional meat Mix of fruits, tubers, nuts and occasional meat Very little evidence of dental carries in archaeology Very little evidence of dental carries in archaeology Neolithic (< 5,000 YBP) human diet Neolithic (< 5,000 YBP) human diet Progressive enrichment of carbohydrate-rich foods Progressive enrichment of carbohydrate-rich foods Pervasive evidence for dental carries in archaeology Pervasive evidence for dental carries in archaeology Modern human diet Modern human diet Rich in carbohydrates: sugar + starch Rich in carbohydrates: sugar + starch Action of starch and sugar