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Genetic Engineering: Chapter 1- History of Genetic Engineering

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  1. 1. Genetic Engineering Chapter 1: History of Genetic Engineering Hikmet Gekil, Professor Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics Inonu University
  2. 2. Prehistoric Times Since prehistoric times (circa 10,000 years ago), domestication of organisms (both animals and plants) through artificial selection (aka. selective breeding) Hikmet Geckil 2 Genetic Engineering: History of Genetic Engineering
  3. 3. Genetic engineering (a.k.a., recombinant DNA technology) is the direct transfer of DNA from one organism to another which was first accomplished by Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen in 1973. Since 1976 the technology has been commercialised, with companies producing and selling genetically modified food and medicine. Hikmet Geckil 3 Genetic Engineering: History of Genetic Engineering
  4. 4. Major Breakthroughs in Genetics Genetic inheritance (i.e., heredity) was first discovered by Gregor Mendel in 1865 following experiments crossing peas: the foundation of modern genetics. Hikmet Geckil 4 Genetic Engineering: History of Genetic Engineering
  5. 5. 1869 Isolation of nucleic acids (what he called nuclein) by Friedrich Miescher. 1902 Walter Sutton & Theodor Boveri propose that inheritance is due to chromosomes. The term "genetics" was coined by William Bateson in 1905. 1910 Thomas Morgan demonstrated that the chromosomes carry the genes. 1948 Barbara McClintock discovered transposons. Hikmet Geckil Genetic Engineering: History of Genetic Engineering 5
  6. 6. Hikmet Geckil Genetic Engineering: History of Genetic Engineering 6 1940s-1950s Frederick Griffith's transformation experiment and DNA carries the genetic information Colin MacLeodOswald Avery Frederick Griffith
  7. 7. Hikmet Geckil Genetic Engineering: History of Genetic Engineering 7 Martha Chase and Alfred Hersheys blender experiment
  8. 8. Hikmet Geckil Genetic Engineering: History of Genetic Engineering 8 1953 James Watson and Francis Crick with their DNA model: foundation to the era of molecular genetics
  9. 9. 1961 Sidney Brenner, Franois Jacob & Matthew Meselson: messenger RNA. 1966 Marshall Nirenberg & Har Gobind Khorana: genetic code. 1990s- 2010s focus: large-scale genetics projects and entire genome sequencings. Hikmet Geckil Genetic Engineering: History of Genetic Engineering 9
  10. 10. Genetic Engineering: The Tools of the Trade Two Important Tools 1. Restriction enzymes (enzymes to cut DNA) 2. Small DNA Vectors (plasmids, cosmids, phages) used to transfer the pasted DNA. Hikmet Geckil 10 Genetic Engineering: History of Genetic Engineering
  11. 11. Genetic Engineering: Major Breakthroughs 1969 Stewart Linn & Werner Arber discovered restriction enzymes in Escherichia coli. 1972 The first recombinant DNA molecule (i.e., combined the DNA from SV40 virus with the DNA from lambda virus) by Paul Berg, utilizing restriction enzymes and DNA ligase. 1977 DNA sequencing method by Frederick Sanger. 1983 Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) by Kary Mullis. Hikmet Geckil Genetic Engineering: History of Genetic Engineering 11
  12. 12. 1996 The birth of the first cloned animal, Dolly the sheep. 2003 Human genome sequenced. Since the 1990s Gene therapy in clinical trials to treat diseases and conditions such as AIDS, cystic fibrosis, cancer, high cholesterol, etc. Hikmet Geckil 12 Genetic Engineering: History of Genetic Engineering
  13. 13. Since 1976 Commercialization of genetically modified food, feed-stock, and medicine Insulin, growth hormone, erythropoietin, factor IX, interferons, interleukins, tissue plasminogen activator Vacine production Glo fish to help detect environmental pollutants Flavr Savr tomato, Golden Rice, GM potato, soya, and Bt corn, etc. Hikmet Geckil Genetic Engineering: History of Genetic Engineering 13
  14. 14. Genetic Engineering: The Latest RNA interference and other gene silincing technologies Gene and genome editing methodologies Other clinical translations: modified immune cells and stem cells Hikmet Geckil Genetic Engineering: History of Genetic Engineering 14

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