Text of Genetic Engineering What is genetic engineering ? Genetic engineering, genetic modification (GM),...
What is genetic engineering ? Genetic engineering, genetic modification (GM), and the now-deprecated gene splicing are terms for the process of manipulating genes, usually outside the organism's normal reproductive process.
What is genetic engineering Cont It often involves the isolation, manipulation and reintroduction of DNA into cells or model organisms, usually to express a protein. The aim is to introduce new characteristics such as making a crop resistant to a herbicide, introducing a novel trait, or producing a new protein or enzyme. Examples include the production of human insulin through the use of modified bacteria, the production of erythropoietin in Chinese Hamster ovary cells, and the production of new types of experimental mice such as the OncoMouse (cancer mouse) for research, through genetic redesign.
Types of Genetic Engineering Recombinant DNA- Recombinant DNA is the general name for taking a piece of one DNA, and combining it with another strand of DNA.
Ways to recombine DNA. A). Transformation- cut a piece of DNA with a restriction enzyme and then ligate the DNA insert into the vector with DNA Ligase. Allow the bacteria to reproduce with the new DNA. The protein that is made is extracted to be used for diseases like insulin for diabetes. B). Non-Bacterial Transformation-the DNA is injected directly into the nucleus of the cell being transformed not a bacterial cell. C). Phage Introduction- a bacterial virus is used to insert DNA into a particular cell.
Cloning Reproductive cloning is a technology used to generate an animal that has the same nuclear DNA as another currently or previously existing animal. http://www.dnalc.org/resources/animations/clo ning101.html http://www.dnalc.org/resources/animations/clo ning101.html http://www.biotechnologyonline.gov.au/swf/int _dogcloning.swf http://www.biotechnologyonline.gov.au/swf/int _dogcloning.swf Stem cells: http://www.dnalc.org/resources/animations/ste mcells.html http://www.dnalc.org/resources/animations/ste mcells.html
Other Examples Phytoremediation- Using plants to clean up water, soil & air pollution. Bioremediation-Using microorganisms to clean up pollution Transgenic organisms-These types of hybrid organisms can be created by genetic engineering. http://highered.mcgraw- hill.com/sites/0072919345/student_view0 /chapter16/elearning.html# http://highered.mcgraw- hill.com/sites/0072919345/student_view0 /chapter16/elearning.html#
Another one.. Gene therapy- Inserting genes into cells to treat or cure diseases A normal gene may be inserted into a nonspecific location within the genome to replace a nonfunctional gene. An abnormal gene could be swapped for a normal gene The abnormal gene could be repaired through selective reverse mutation, which returns the gene to its normal function. The regulation (the degree to which a gene is turned on or off) of a particular gene could be altered. http://www.edu365.cat/aulanet/comsoc/Lab_ bio/simulacions/GeneTherapy/GeneTherapy. htm http://www.edu365.cat/aulanet/comsoc/Lab_ bio/simulacions/GeneTherapy/GeneTherapy. htm