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Genetic Engineering. Types of Genetic Engineering Negative Positive

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Text of Genetic Engineering. Types of Genetic Engineering Negative Positive

  • Slide 1
  • Genetic Engineering
  • Slide 2
  • Types of Genetic Engineering Negative Positive
  • Slide 3
  • Negative Genetic Engineering Correct a genetic defect
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  • Positive Genetic Engineering Make a life-form better.
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  • Eugenics Eugenics- make improvements upon organism.
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  • Types of Genetic Therapy Somatic Therapy Germ line Therapy
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  • Somatic Therapy Somatic therapy is a type of genetic therapy that only affects the individual. Changes are not passed on to any subsequent generations or off spring.
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  • Germ line Therapy Germ line therapy is a type of genetic therapy that not only affects the individual but also the off spring. Changes are passed on to subsequent generations.
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  • Splicing Splicing is a method where genes from one organism are spliced into the DNA of another organism. This is the most common method of genetic engineering.
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  • Philosophical Views Conservative Michael Ruse Can we do better than God? Liberal Jonathan Glover Decisions: the Genetic Supermarket
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  • Michael Ruse Argues that we cannot get it better than God. His main point is that if we make everyone with superhuman powers and abilities the world will become a dramatically different and radically worse place. The awe of human creation and achievement will be lost, with everyone excelling at everything.
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  • Jonathan Glover Argues that both positive and negative genetic engineering is morally permissible. He employs the philosophical argument of Robert Nowzick, a libertarian. Most libertarians are against any government interference in the private affairs of citizens, but Nowzick recognizes the inherent dangers in genetic engineering and suggest a system of government regulation at the "genetic supermarket".
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  • Government Regulation. Most libertarians are against any government interference in the private affairs of citizens, but Nowzick recognizes the inherent dangers in genetic engineering and suggest a system of government regulation at the "genetic supermarket".
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  • Genetic Supermarket In the genetic supermarket parents would have a limited voice in opting for genetic engineering of both positive and negative features. The government would simply ensure that no dangerous modifications were made.
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  • The Council for Responsible Genetics (CRG) Opposes the use of germ-line therapy in humans. Further any changes made to an organism at an embryonic stage have the potential to be passed on to future generations, like Germline therapy. The goal of cleansing the gene pool of recessive genes and to improve the human organism would take thousands of years. Further such benefits would only be realized by families, and not by the population as a whole.
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  • Cloning
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  • Evolution and Science Many feel that evolution is wrong or false. Science, such a genetics, helps to confirm evolution of life on our planet on a daily basis.
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  • Evolution Darwins Theory of Natural Selection, Evolution of Species. Charles Darwin Published the Origin of Species in 1859
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  • Chimpanzee and human ancestors may have interbred. Genetic analysis suggests a messy split between the two lineages. The evolutionary split between humans and our nearest evolutionary cousins, chimpanzees, may have occurred more recently than we thought, according to a new comparison of the respective genetic sequences.
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  • A Bizarre Love Triangle Our two sets of ancestors may have interbred many thousands of years after first parting company.
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  • Our earliest ancestor? Previous estimates put the split at as much as 7 million years ago meaning that Touma, a fossil dating from at least 6.5 million years ago in Chad and assigned to the species Sahelanthropus tchadensis, was hailed as the earliest- known member of the line that gave rise to modern humans.
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  • Harvard Med says Researchers led by David Reich of Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts, now calculate that the split may have occurred no more than 6.3 million years ago, and possibly as recently as 5.4 million. That would make Touma older than the time of the split.
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  • How do they know? The researchers make their claim after comparing the genetic codes of humans, chimpanzees, gorillas and other primates in unprecedented detail more than 20 million DNA 'letters' in all. By checking the differences between different species' DNA sequences, they were able to estimate the time since they first diverged.
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  • We share an X. Reich and his team explain in their study, published online in Nature. Different sections of the genome differ by different amounts, suggesting that they parted ways at different times. The divorce period between the two species, the data suggest, could have lasted a million years. The region bearing the most similarity is the X chromosome. This is exactly what one might expect if the two lineages had continued to interbreed after first starting to separate.
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  • Hybrids If a hybrid population did exist, the question remains as to whether it died out, or whether modern humans or chimpanzees (or both) are its descendants.
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  • Whos related to whom? It's very difficult to say, admits Reich. "The fossil data suggest, very tenuously, that it may have been humans who are descended from the hybrid population." Human-like fossils far outnumber chimpanzee-like ones in the fossil record, making it difficult to see exactly who was sleeping with whom at the time. (Nature)
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  • Evolution Evolutionary theory is as true as any other scientific theory. Natural selection or survival of the fittest has been confirmed by evidence from the world. It is a way of organizing our experiences of the world, not unlike any other scientific law.
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  • Poster boy atheism Who needs God? Evolution Explains the world without positing a higher power or deity.
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  • Darwin is a Theist! But with regard to the material world, we ca at least go so far as this- we can perceive that events are brought about not by insulated interposition of Divine power, exerted in each particular case, but by the establishment of general laws- Whewell: Bridgewater Treatise Prologue, Darwins Origin of Species
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  • Evolution H1- Random H2- Designer H3- Evolution H4- Evolution + Designer Evolution does not rule out the possibility of intelligent design for the universe.
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  • Dolly the Sheep In 1997 Scientist in Scotland cloned the first mammal- Dolly the sheep. Not everyone was pleased. In 2003 Dolly passed away from complications related to her cloning.
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  • $50,000 to clone your cat! In 2002 scientist cloned the worlds first cat. In 2004 a woman paid $ 50,000 to have her dead cat cloned.
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  • Choose the sex of your Baby!
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  • PGD In vitro Fertilization has been used for years to help couples have babies. PGD- Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis can be used to sort embryos before they are implanted.
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  • Choose your Trait Eyes Skin Color Hair Weight Height Sex
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  • Splicing Splicing is a method where genes from one organism are spliced into the DNA of another organism. This is the most common method of genetic engineering.
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  • Splicing in Plants Glowing plants
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  • Spliced Pigs Gene splicing improves pork farm waste In the last few years, scientists at Ontario's University of Guelph have created Enviropigs, a line of transgenic pigs containing both mouse and bacterial chromosomes; the pigs cost less to feed and produce less noxious manure.
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  • USDA Organic The USDA now certifies all food that has an organic label to be tested.
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  • What it means: Organic food is produced without using most conventional pesticides Fertilizers made with synthetic ingredients or sewage sludge; Bioengineering; (genetic Engineering.) Ionizing radiation.
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  • To get the seal Before a product can be labeled "organic," a Government-approved certifier inspects the farm where the food is grown to make sure the farmer is following all the rules necessary to meet USDA organic standards.
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  • Organic food contaminated A variety of foods marked organic or GM- free sold in the United Kingdom have been found to contain genetically modified (GM) ingredients. Researchers found that out of 25 organic or health food products that should have been GM-free, 10 contained GM soy.
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  • Mix and Match Crops The United States and Argentina, two of the largest soy producers in the world, produce mostly GM soy, and GM-free crops are often mixed with GM crops after harvesting. Further