Click here to load reader

Genetic Mutations Genetic Expression & Engineering

  • View
    50

  • Download
    3

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

BI. 4c Students know how mutations in the DNA sequence of a gene may or may not affect the expression of the gene, or the sequence of amino acids in an encoded protein. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Genetic Mutations Genetic Expression & Engineering

Genetic Mutations Genetic Expression & Engineering

Genetic MutationsGenetic Expression & EngineeringBI. 4c Students know how mutations in the DNA sequence of a gene may or may not affect the expression of the gene, or the sequence of amino acids in an encoded protein.

BI.4.d Students know specialization of cells in multicellular organisms is usually due to different patterns of gene expression rather than to differences of the genes themselves.

BI 5c Students know how genetic engineering (biotechnology) is used to produce novel biomedical and agricultural products.

What kind of information does DNA have?How?-through Protein synthesis!Transcription (nucleolus)Translation (ribosomes)One gene for one organism

All types of cells in a persons body carry the same DNA .What is genetic expression?Genes are expressed/transcribed when the cell needs it.Each cell expresses different parts of the DNA.Lets take a moment to look at these words. With your elbow partner, come up with two new words by changing one letter from the previous word.This change also happens in DNA. What is a genetic mutation?

Mutations Point mutationssingle nitrogen base change silent mutationno amino acid changeredundancy in codemissensechange amino acidnonsensechange to stop codon

9Sickle Cell AnemiaComplete the video guide while watching

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2CsgXHdWqVs

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9UpwV1tdxcs

Only one nucleotide change causes Sickle cell anemia !

What kind of mutation?Missense!

11Mutations

Frameshiftshift in the reading framechanges everything downstreaminsertionsadding base(s)deletionslosing base(s)

Where would this mutation cause the most change:beginning or end of gene?

12Cystic Fibrosis (CF)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VxhQAQYgrKY&NR=1

14Are mutations passed on to children?Gametes/sex cell mutations Yes

Ex. Changes in egg and sperm cell genes due to chemicals

Somatic/body cell mutations No

Ex. Scars on your mothers hand as a result of an accidentChanging genes artificially!

A Brave New World

Biotechnology Plasmids used to insert new genes into bacteriagene we wantcut DNA with restriction enzymescut plasmid DNAinsert gene we want into plasmid...glue together with ligaselike what?insulinHuman Growth Hormone healthy genes

Cut DNA?DNA scissors? recombinant plasmid18