BI. 4c Students know how mutations in the DNA sequence of a gene may or may not affect the expression of the gene, or the sequence of amino acids in an encoded protein. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Genetic Mutations Genetic Expression & Engineering
Genetic MutationsGenetic Expression & EngineeringBI. 4c
Students know how mutations in the DNA sequence of a gene may or
may not affect the expression of the gene, or the sequence of amino
acids in an encoded protein.
BI.4.d Students know specialization of cells in multicellular
organisms is usually due to different patterns of gene expression
rather than to differences of the genes themselves.
BI 5c Students know how genetic engineering (biotechnology) is
used to produce novel biomedical and agricultural products.
What kind of information does DNA have?How?-through Protein
synthesis!Transcription (nucleolus)Translation (ribosomes)One gene
for one organism
All types of cells in a persons body carry the same DNA .What is
genetic expression?Genes are expressed/transcribed when the cell
needs it.Each cell expresses different parts of the DNA.Lets take a
moment to look at these words. With your elbow partner, come up
with two new words by changing one letter from the previous
word.This change also happens in DNA. What is a genetic
Mutations Point mutationssingle nitrogen base change silent
mutationno amino acid changeredundancy in codemissensechange amino
acidnonsensechange to stop codon
9Sickle Cell AnemiaComplete the video guide while watching
Only one nucleotide change causes Sickle cell anemia !
What kind of mutation?Missense!
Frameshiftshift in the reading framechanges everything
downstreaminsertionsadding base(s)deletionslosing base(s)
Where would this mutation cause the most change:beginning or end
14Are mutations passed on to children?Gametes/sex cell mutations
Ex. Changes in egg and sperm cell genes due to chemicals
Somatic/body cell mutations No
Ex. Scars on your mothers hand as a result of an
accidentChanging genes artificially!
A Brave New World
Biotechnology Plasmids used to insert new genes into
bacteriagene we wantcut DNA with restriction enzymescut plasmid
DNAinsert gene we want into plasmid...glue together with ligaselike
what?insulinHuman Growth Hormone healthy genes
Cut DNA?DNA scissors? recombinant plasmid18