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Gene Technology Karyotyping Genetic Engineering Genetic Engineering in Medicine & Society Genetic Engineering in Agriculture

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  • Gene TechnologyKaryotypingGenetic EngineeringGenetic Engineering in Medicine & SocietyGenetic Engineering in Agriculture

  • Karyotyping: a picture of your chromosomes aligned according to size and shape starting with the longest one. A karyotype is a specialized test that is done in a specific laboratory called a Cytogenetics lab.Used to determine genetic diseases: Can see missing chromosomes or parts of chromosomes and added pieces of chromosomes or full chromosomes. You can also see defects in the chromosomesIn order to analyze chromosomes, the sample must contain cells that are actively dividing (in metaphase in mitosis)

  • Process of Making a KaryotypeIn order to study these disorders, cells from a person are grown with a chemical that stops cell division at the metaphase stageDuring metaphase, a chromosome exists as two chromatids attached at the centromere. 2. The cells are stained to reveal banding patterns and placed on glass slides.3. The chromosomes are observed under the microscope, where they are counted, checked for abnormalities, and photographed4. The photograph is then enlarged, and the images of the chromosomes are individually cut out. 5. The chromosomes are identified and arranged in homologous pairs.

  • 1. Picture of chromosomes aligned togetherAlign according to size and banding patterns

    http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/chromosomes/karyotype/

    http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/chromosomes/karyotype/

  • Genetic Engineering

    Manipulation of DNA for practical purposes

    Involves building RECOMBINANT DNA from 2 or more different organisms

    EX: Insulin protein hormone regulates sugar metabolism gene transferred to bacteria transcribed/translated

  • Steps in Genetic Engineering1 DNA is cut

    Restriction enzymes are bacterial enzymes that recognize and bind to specific short sequences of DNA, then cut the DNA between specific nucleotides within the sequences.

    Vector agent used to carry gene of interest into another cell - plasmid

  • 2 Recombinant DNA is produced Enzyme DNA ligase added to help bond DNA fragments together

    3 Gene is cloned Many copies of gene of interest are made each time host cell reproduces

    4 Cells are screened Each time cell reproduces - it makes a copy of gene of interest transcribes/translates gene to make protein coded.

  • Genetic Engineering in Medicine & SocietyMedicines Clotting Factor VIII for Hemophilia Growth FactorsInterleukins HIV, cancer, immune issuesInterferons viruses, cancerTaxol ovarian cancer

    VaccinesSolution containing all /part of a harmless version of a pathogen immune system recognizes pathogens surface proteins when injected responds by making defensive proteins antibodies combats pathogen

  • Gene Therapy

    Technique that involves putting a healthy copy of a gene into the cells of a person whose copy of the gene is defective.Cells are removed from patient, healthy genes are inserted into cells, cells returned to patients body. Substance lacking is produced by cells with new genesExamples: Cancer Cystic Fibrosis Hemophilia Rheumatoid arthritis

  • DNA Fingerprinting Gel Electrophoresis

  • Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)Needed to quickly make copies of DNAProduce billions of DNA molecules fast!

  • Human Genome ProjectChromosome map reveals locations of many genesImprovements in diagnoses, treatments and even cures for over 4000 genetic disorders

  • Genetic Engineering in AgricultureCrop Plants improve favorable characteristics, yields, resistance to pests and herbicides (potatoes-soybeans-corn)

    Growth Hormone increases milk production weight gain in livestock

    Risks?

  • CloningGenetically identical 1997 Scientists announced the first successful cloning using differentiated cells a lamb named DOLLY!

  • Transgenic AnimalsCloned and used to make proteins that are useful in medicine

  • Stem CellsAdult (Somatic) Stem Cells; Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells found throughout the body that divide to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissuesThe primary roles of adult stem cells in a living organism are to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found.a. Found in tissues/organs: b. found in Bone marrow: can generate bone, cartilage, fat, cells that support the formation of blood, and fibrous connective tissue. Also form all blood cellsc. adult brain: generate the brain's three major cell

  • STEM CELLSEmbryonic Stem CellsThese cells form at the blastocyst stage of development. A blastocyst is a hollow ball of cells that is smaller than a pinhead. The embryonic stem cells lie within this ball of cells.The undifferentiated embryonic stem cells are next stimulated to differentiate into the desired type of cell. They make nerve cells, heart cells, brain cells, muscle cells and other types of cells.To produce differentiated cells the researchers modify the cells by inserting specific genes