• VaccinesSolution containing all /part of a harmless version of a pathogen – immune system recognizes pathogen’s surface proteins when injected – responds by making defensive proteins – antibodies – combats pathogen
• Technique that involves putting a healthy copy of a gene into the cells of a person whose copy of the gene is defective.
• Cells are removed from patient, healthy genes are inserted into cells, cells returned to patient’s body.
• Substance lacking is produced by cells with new genes• Examples: Cancer – Cystic Fibrosis
Hemophilia Rheumatoid arthritis
DNA Fingerprinting Gel Electrophoresis
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
• Needed to quickly make copies of DNA• Produce billions of DNA molecules fast!
Human Genome Project
• Chromosome map reveals locations of many genes• Improvements in diagnoses, treatments and
even cures for over 4000 genetic disorders
Genetic Engineering in Agriculture
• Crop Plants – improve favorable characteristics, yields, resistance to pests and herbicides (potatoes-soybeans-corn)
• Growth Hormone increases milk production – weight gain in livestock
• Genetically identical • 1997 – Scientists announced the first successful cloning
using differentiated cells – a lamb named DOLLY!
• Cloned and used to make
proteins that are
useful in medicine
Stem Cells• Adult (Somatic) Stem Cells;
• Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells found throughout the body that divide to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues
• The primary roles of adult stem cells in a living organism are to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found.
a. Found in tissues/organs:
b. found in Bone marrow: can generate bone, cartilage,
fat, cells that support the formation of blood, and
fibrous connective tissue. Also form all blood cells
c. adult brain: generate the brain's three major cell
• Embryonic Stem Cells1. These cells form at the blastocyst stage of development. A
blastocyst is a hollow ball of cells that is smaller than a pinhead. The
embryonic stem cells lie within this ball of cells.2. The undifferentiated embryonic stem cells are next stimulated to
differentiate into the desired type of cell. They make nerve cells, heart cells, brain cells, muscle cells and other types of cells.
3. To produce differentiated cells the researchers modify the cells by inserting specific genes