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Genetic Engineering: Redesigning Life 8.3. Genetic Engineering

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Text of Genetic Engineering: Redesigning Life 8.3. Genetic Engineering

  • Genetic Engineering:Redesigning Life8.3

  • Genetic Engineering

  • Heirloom Varieties

  • Biopharming

  • Biopharminggenetically engineered host organisms are used to make pharmaceuticals or other medically-important proteins

    proteins can be isolated from milk (e.g., cows, goats) or seeds (e.g., safflowers) and used

  • Transgenic Organisms

    Why transgenic (GM) animals and plants?usually cheaper to maintain than transgenic bacteriahave the ability to produce larger more complex proteins

  • Transgenic PlantsGM canola and other field crops are usually engineered to resist herbicides, reducing the farmers costs

    great potential to provide food in developing countries, but cost of seeds can be prohibitive

  • Knockout Miceengineered to have at least one gene turned off

    useful for studying effects of specific genes on human health

  • Societal Concerns?

    interbreeding and/or competition with native plants or animalsmay contain toxins that harm consumers (e.g., GM safflower)regulation? patents?

  • Biotechnology & Health8.4

  • Genetic Screening

  • Ontario Newborn Screeningmetabolic disordersendocrine disordersblood disorderscystic fibrosis

  • Hereditary Disordersearly identification of some hereditary disorders can help to allow for treatment to minimize symptoms through:controlled dietproviding missing proteinssurgery

  • Gene Therapy

    offers the possibility of correcting the genetic defect

    germ-line gene therapysomatic gene therapy

  • Image from: http://algaeforbiofuels.com/genetic-engineering-brief-overview/Image from: http://www.encognitive.com/node/10284

    Interesting imageswhat do you think?

    Images from (clockwise from top left):http://www.anh-usa.org/genetically-engineered-foods-and-new-action-alert/http://palmbeachorganics.org/wordpress/?p=658http://www.myessentia.com/blog/blog/tag/gmo-food/http://www.flickr.com/photos/frozen_photon/2383190926/

    Image from: http://journal.livingfood.us/2009/08/02/roasted-heirloom-tomato-soup/Image from: http://www.indyposted.com/10087/frankenfood-for-a-hungry-planet/Image from: http://www.crystalinks.com/transgenicplants.htmlImage from: http://www.ka-pets.bravehost.com/Mice/mice.html

    p53 is tumour-suppressing gene in humansknockout mice got cancersImage from: http://onmentoring.blogspot.ca/2012/04/5-questions-to-ask-new-mentees.html

    Why are so many people resistant to GM foods?Image from: http://www.ontario.ca/en/initiatives/progressreport2011/ONT05_039149.htmlImage from: http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/292/19/2325.shortHave a look at the website for the complete list of conditions screened for:http://www.newbornscreening.on.ca/bins/content_page.asp?cid=7-21

    Parent information: http://www.newbornscreening.on.ca/bins/content_page.asp?cid=6-18&lang=1Image from: http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v6/n6/fig_tab/nrg1619_F5.html