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Phonics and Spelling - · PDF file©2009 University of Texas System/Texas Education Agency 1TRA: Phonics and Spelling Handout 4 (1 of 3) Guidelines for Teaching Letter-Sound Correspondences

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  • Phonics and

    Spelling

    First Grade Teacher Reading Academy

    These materials are copyrighted by and are the property of the University of Texas System and the Texas Education Agency. 2009

  • Handout 1 (1 of 17)1TRA: Phonics and Spelling

    Reprinted with permission. Copyright 1992 by Neuhaus Education Center, Bellaire, TX. All rights reserved. 1-713-664-7676. www.neuhaus.org.

    2009 University of Texas System/Texas Education Agency

    http:www.neuhaus.org

  • Handout 1 (2 of 17)1TRA: Phonics and Spelling

    2009 University of Texas System/Texas Education Agency

  • Handout 1 (3 of 17)1TRA: Phonics and Spelling

    2009 University of Texas System/Texas Education Agency

  • Handout 1 (4 of 17)1TRA: Phonics and Spelling

    2009 University of Texas System/Texas Education Agency

  • Handout 1 (5 of 17)1TRA: Phonics and Spelling

    2009 University of Texas System/Texas Education Agency

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    2009 University of Texas System/Texas Education Agency

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    2009 University of Texas System/Texas Education Agency

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    2009 University of Texas System/Texas Education Agency

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    2009 University of Texas System/Texas Education Agency

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    2009 University of Texas System/Texas Education Agency

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    2009 University of Texas System/Texas Education Agency

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    2009 University of Texas System/Texas Education Agency

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    2009 University of Texas System/Texas Education Agency

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    2009 University of Texas System/Texas Education Agency

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    2009 University of Texas System/Texas Education Agency

  • Handout 1 (17 of 17)1TRA: Phonics and Spelling

    2009 University of Texas System/Texas Education Agency

  • Handout 2 (1 of 3)1TRA: Phonics and Spelling

    2009 University of Texas System/Texas Education Agency

  • Handout 2 (2 of 3)1TRA: Phonics and Spelling

    2009 University of Texas System/Texas Education Agency

  • Handout 2 (3 of 3)1TRA: Phonics and Spelling

    2009 University of Texas System/Texas Education Agency

  • 2009 University of Texas System/Texas Education Agency

    1TRA: Phonics and Spelling Handout 3 (1 of 2)

    Model Lesson for the Alphabet Arc

    Objective: Students place three-dimensional letters in sequence around the arc. Materials: Alphabet Arc (English or Spanish); uppercase set of letters (English or Spanish)

    in a container

    Lets review the sequence of the alphabet. Say the letter as you touch it on the alphabet strip at the top of your arc. (Name letters with students.)

    Place all the letters on your desks.

    Say the letter name, find it on your desk, and place it on the arc.

    Lets do the first letter. Name it: A. Find it. Place it on the arc.

    Find the last letter. Name it: Z. Find it. Place it on the arc.

    English: Find the two middle letters. Name them: M, N. Find them. Place them on the arc. Spanish: Find the three middle letters. Name them: M, N, . Find them. Place them on the arc.

    Whats the next letter? Name it: B. Now, find it. Where do you place B on the arc?

    Thats right, place the B after the A. Finish placing the remaining letters on your arc in the correct order.

    Remember, say it, find it, and place it.

    When they have finished placing all the letters in their arcs, have them proofread by touching and naming each letter. They can use the alphabet strip at the top of the arc to help them self-check.)

    Lets put our letters back in the containers. Say the letters as you return them in sequence to the container.

  • 2009 University of Texas System/Texas Education Agency

    1TRA: Phonics and Spelling Handout 3 (2 of 2)

    Alphabet Mat Game: What Letter?

    Players: 2 Materials: 2 Alphabet Mats (English or Spanish); uppercase set of letters (English or

    Spanish) in a container

    With eyes closed, one of the students draws a letter from the container and tries to

    identify the letter by feeling its shape.

    If the student is correct, the letter is placed on its matching letter on the students Alphabet Mat.

    If the student is incorrect, the letter is correctly named and returned to the container. Shake up the letters.

    The second student takes a turn.

    Play continues until all the letters have been drawn and matched to one of the students Alphabet Mats.

    The student with the most letters at the end of the game wins.

    Variation: Use 2 Alphabet Arcs.

    Adapted from Neuhaus Education Center. (1992). Reading readiness. Bellaire, TX: Author. All rights reserved. 1-713-664-7676. www.neuhaus.org

    http:www.neuhaus.org

  • 2009 University of Texas System/Texas Education Agency

    1TRA: Phonics and Spelling Handout 4 (1 of 3)

    Guidelines for Teaching Letter-Sound Correspondences

    Because our goal is to teach all students to read connected text as quickly as possible, it is helpful to remember the following guidelines in designing letter-sound correspondence instruction, especially for struggling readers:

    Letter-sound correspondences often are introduced in a sequence based on their frequency of use in text and spelling.

    More frequently used letters and sounds are taught before less frequently used sounds and letters.

    Examples:

    In English and Spanish, the letter m is more frequently used than the letter x.

    Present the hard /k/ sound for the letter c as in can before the soft /s/sound for c as in cent.

    In Spanish, present the hard /k/ sound for the letter c as in como (how) before the soft /s/ sound for c as in cima (peak).

    The /g/ sound for the letter g as in girl is presented before the /j/ sound for g as in gym.

    In Spanish, the /g/ sound for the letter g as in gato (cat) is presented before the /j/ sound for g in genio (genius).

    If students demonstrate difficulty during guided practice, provide immediate clarification by modeling correct responses and having students give the answer on their own.

    Then repeat several of the previous tasks and the one that caused confusion.

    For example, when you ask for the sound of the letter a in cat and a student responds /i/. You model the correct response by saying /aaa/ and then check the students understanding by asking for that student to give the sound for the letter a in cat.

    There is not an established order of introduction for letter-sound correspondences, so it varies across beginning reading programs.

    Begin with letter-sound correspondences that can be combined to make words that students can read and understand.

    This helps students generalize that letters and their common sounds can be combined to make many words.

    For example, with the knowledge of the letters m, s, t, and a and their common sounds students can read words such as at, am, as, mat, sat, and Sam.

  • 2009 University of Texas System/Texas Education Agency

    1TRA: Phonics and Spelling Handout 4 (2 of 3)

    In Spanish, letters can be combined to make syllables such as la, sa, and ta. These syllables can then be combined to make words, such as tasa (cup) and lata (can).

    In English, it is important to introduce some vowels early so that words can be made and read. In Spanish, vowels are usually introduced before consonants.

    The introduction of letter sounds with auditorily similar features can be separated and introduced at different times.

    For example, /m/and /n/ and /e /and /i/.

    The first letter sound should be recognized before the second letter sound is introduced.

    Continuous sounds are usually introduced before stop (or clipped) sounds.

    Continuous vowel or consonant sounds can be prolonged or stretched out when they are pronounced and are easier to say without distortion.

    Voiced stop sounds are not as easy to pronounce in isolation without a vowel sound. The vowel sound should be clipped to make it as brief as possible.

    For example, b should be pronounced /b/ instead of /buh/ or g as /g/ instead of /guh/.

    In Spanish, b may be pronounced /b/instead of /be/ or p as /p/ instead of /pe/.

    Teaching voiced and unvoiced sounds can help some students who are having difficulty distinguishing the sounds of English.

    They can distinguish the sounds by feeling the vibrations of voiced sounds by touching their voice box with their fingertips or by covering both their ears and listening as they say the sounds.

    Small mirrors are also helpful for students who are having trouble distinguishing sounds. They can watch the position of their mouths, tongues, and teeth as they form the sounds. Be sure to model the correct formation for the letters.

    It is not necessary to teach all of the continuous sounds before introducing stop sounds.

    Introduce only a few letter-sound correspondences at a time and provide many opportunities for practice.

    The number of letter-sound correspondences introduced will vary depending on students' knowledge and skills.

    You may need to reduce the rat

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