Developing Spelling Skills Through PhonicsAdvisory Teaching Team NET Section, CDI, EDB6 and 7 March, 2012
Objectives:To identify students strengths and weaknesses in spellingTo understand the importance of applying Phonics Skills in spelling as one of the major learning strategiesTo explore and to plan activities for students to practise Phonics Skills for spelling
Dictation Task One (seen)Study the dictation passage. You have 3 minutes to prepare and familiarise yourself with the text.
Dictation Task Two (unseen)Write the passage as it is read aloud to you.
Teachers reflectionDiscuss in pairs possible problems students would have in doing both seen and unseen dictation. Are the problems the same? Why/why not?
Did you encounter any difficulties completing either task? What were the difficulties? Discuss in pairs.
How do most students prepare for dictation?Look at the word and spell it, letter by letter.Copy the spelling words numerous times to help memorise the shape of the word.
Student Weaknesses in SpellingLack of phonics skills (e.g. recognition of letter-sound relationships, encoding skills)Inability to identify contextual clues to decide upon the correct spelling (e.g. bare, bear)Lack of opportunities to apply the spelling skills in writing for communication
What is Phonics?Phonics is the relationship between letters and their soundsPhonics usually refers to a way of teaching reading and spelling
According to the English Language Curriculum Guide 2004:-Phonics usually refers to a useful strategy in the learning and teaching of reading. It involves supporting learners to recognise basic letter-sound relationships in English words and to apply this knowledge in reading and spelling. English Language Curriculum Guide (2004) P.171
Why Teach Phonics?To develop phonological awarenessTo provide strategies to decode and read unknown wordsTo provide strategies to encode and spell unknown words To help readers make approximate pronunciations of wordsTo provide skills that impact positively on English reading, writing, spelling and vocabulary building
Phonological awareness helps readers:decode unknown words for reading andencode unknown words for spelling
Why do students need spelling skills?The ability to spell easily and automatically enables students to become more efficient writers
Learning to spell is not simply memorising lists of words. It is a developmental process of learning to apply different phonics skills appropriately, so that the writer can spell correctly the words he/she writes.
How can teachers support students in the development of effective spelling skills?Be aware that students will go through different stages in developing spelling skills
Stage 1The Child:Relies heavily on the most obvious sound in a word, e.g. KT (kitten), WT (went), BE, (baby)Represents a whole word with one, two or three letters. Uses mainly consonants, (e.g. KGR(kangaroo), BT (bit)Recognises some sound-symbol relationships in context, e.g. points to ship and says sh or recognises first letter of name.
Stage 2The Child:Chooses letters on the basis of sound without regard for conventional spelling patterns, e.g. kaj (cage), tabl (table)Chooses letters on the basis of sound e.g. pepl (people)Represents all the essential sounds of a word, e.g. spidr (spider), kitn (kitten)
Stage 2The Child:Uses common English letter sequences, when attempting to spell unknown words, e.g. thousend (thousand), cort (caught), doller (dollar)Uses letters to represent all vowel and consonant sounds in a word, placing vowels in every syllable, e.g. holaday (holiday), gramous (grandmas)Is beginning to use visual strategies, such as knowledge of words, e.g. silent letters, double letters
Later StageThe Child:Is aware of the many patterns and rules that are characteristic of the English spelling system, e.g. common English letter patterns; relationship between meaning and spelling.Uses a multi-strategy approach to spelling Is able to recognise when a word doesnt look right, and to think of alternative spellings.Analyses and checks work, editing, writing and correcting spelling.
Where do we start?What do we teach?How do we teach it?
Knowledge and skills to teachLetter-sound relationshipSound blendingSound segmentationSyllable segmentation (Syllabification)Phonics/Spelling generalizations
Letter-Sound RelationshipThe English language is composed of 44 soundsSome sounds have more than one way of being written
Phonograms for /f/ sound/f/ as in fish/ff/ as in off/gh/ as in laugh/ph/ as in phone
Steps of teaching phonicsHear & discriminate the general sounds, speech sounds & patterns
Hear the phoneme in the initial position
Hear the phoneme in the final position be aware of onset & rime
Steps of teaching phonics (Cont.)Hear a short vowel sound in the medial position onset & rime
CVC segmenting & blending onset & rime
CCVC segmenting & blending long vowel sounds
CVC segmenting & blending with digraphs and trigraphs long vowel sounds
Sound blendingStudents need to develop an understanding of how letters are blendedCluster-2 or more consonants produced together but each making a separate sound, e.g. /grab/, /black/, /school/Digraph- 2 letters that represent 1 sound, e.g. /chick/, /easy/Diphthong A vowel sound made up from two adjoining and identifiable vowel sounds in the same syllable, both of which contribute to the sound produced, e.g. how /ow/, oyster/oy/
Sound segmentationListen for sounds in words to spell
Each sound in a word is represented by a phonogram i.e cat /c/ /a/ /t/, shop - /sh/ /o/ /p/
Each sound can be written
Syllable segmentationFirst, teach closed syllable of monosyllabic words (CVC), i.e. cat, dog
Next, teach two syllable words made up of closed vowel pattern syllables i.e. pup/pet, ban/dit, pic/nic
After that, introduce long vowel sound patterns i.e. go, ta/ken, tea, name
Spelling RulesSpelling rules that involve consonants are usually reliable Generalizations:-When a word begins with kn, the k is silent. i.e. know
-When a word begins with wr, the w is silent. i.e. wrong
-The letter c followed by o or a is pronounced /K/ as in camp
Phonics Generalisations (cont)i before e except after c. -receive- When two vowels go walking, the first one does the talking. -each***Phonics generalizations that involve vowels tend to be much less reliable***
We need to teach:
Phonemic awarenessBlending spoken sounds into wordsSegmenting spoken words into soundsSyllabificationHigh frequency wordsOnset & rime Explicitly sound spelling correspondences
Good readers have:
Phonemic awarenessAbility to decode simple wordsPhonological awarenessAbility to rapidly name letters, words, objects and colours quicklyA good memory and are able to repeat sentences, words, digits accurately.
Dont Forget..Good readers practice their phonics skills through miles and miles of reading. A Phonics programme should provide students with the opportunity to use all 4 language skills.
Phonics work should be set within a broad and rich language curriculum that takes full account of developing the four interdependent strands of language; speaking, listening, reading and writing and enlarging childrens stock of words.
A key finding of the Rose Review. (2009)
Teach phonics in contextWord attack skills need to be practiced and applied when reading.Use authentic texts (examples include poems, stories and other relevant texts)Phonics should be included throughout all English lessons (part of the G.E. programme)
Lets take a break!
Guest SpeakerDermot Creagh - CUHK FAA Thomas Cheung School.
ActivityKeeping in mind what you have learned from Mr. Creagh, create a 5-10 minute activity that you could use in your classroom.
What we know about spelling/final thoughts The ability to spell easily and automatically enables us to become more effective writers. The less energy and thought we have to put into thinking about spelling, the more thought we can put into what is said.
(J. Rivalland 1990, Spelling Zoom Notes)
What we know about spelling/final thoughts Spelling is only one aspect of effective writing.
Good spellers are self-monitoring and self-regulatory. They take responsibility for getting spelling correct. They look for their own errors.
The English language is not a regular language, but it is systematic and patterned. Learning to spell is a process of working out the patterns and systems of the English language, then applying these understandings to new words as we encounter them.
(J. Rivalland 1990, Spelling Zoom Notes)
Please, please, pleaseTake the information and skills that you have learned today and implement them in your school-based phonics programme
Special thanks to Mr. Dermot Creagh and CUHK FAA Thomas Cheung School.
Invite comments on preparationTell teachers they will not prepare for the task as students would.Allow 3 mins. For teachers to prepare. Then collect the papers.Read the dictationOne participant from each table shares their thoughts
**Why did they have problem