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Phonics and Spelling

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  • Phonics at KS2

    The basics

  • What we will cover

    Why all the fuss about phonics?

    What exactly is phonics (and what are the different phonic phases)?

    What are FS and KS1 being asked to do?

    Where does this leave KS2?

    How to get started?

    www.ks2phonics.org.uk

  • Why?

    Synthetic phonics replaces

    unsound literacy strategy

    The Times 2nd Dec 2005

    The phonics war

    isn't over yet

    The Independent 23rd March 2006

    Kelly tears up schools' reading

    policy and backs phonics approach

    The Independent 2nd Dec 2005

    Damning Ofsted report

    reveals literacy failings

    The Times 5th Oct 2005

  • Phonics out of fashionLiteracy strategy searchlights modelNot much phonics in teacher training Endless updates very confusing 1 in 5 children leave primary school unable to read properlyClackmannanshire studyRose review Letters and SoundsPhonics now top priority for Ofsted

    National picture

  • Current KS2 Cohorts

    Have not experienced post Rose Report style phonics teaching.May not have had very much phonics teaching at all.

  • You need to figure this outAssess the childrens phonics skillsReflect on what you are teaching and whenReflect on your training needsFind out what your feeder schools are doingDont panic

    School picture

  • What is phonics?

    Knowledge- 44ish phonemes (speech sounds) - 140ish graphemes ways of writing phonemes

    Skills

    - Blending

    - Segmenting

  • Merging (or synthesising)

    the phonemes c-a-t

    into the word cat

    Blending

  • Taking a spoken word (e.g. him) Identifying the individual sounds h-i-m and working out how to write each sound to create the word

    Segmenting

  • Vocabulary

    Phoneme smallest unit of speech sound

    Grapheme a written representation of a phoneme

    Digraph two letters that make one sound ch ck th ng

    Adjacent consonants two or more consonants next to each other in a word stop list CAN PROVE TRICKY

  • Articulating phonemes

    You need to take care how you say phonemes. They should be said continuously if possible or otherwise repeated. Take great care not to add an uh sound onto the end of sounds such as t j p

    For exact pronunciations see the Letters and Sounds DVD.

  • Phonic Phases

    Letters and sounds splits phonics teaching up into 6 distinct phases.

    Im going to give a very brief overview

  • Phase 1

    Explore and experiment with sounds and wordsDistinguish between different sounds in the environment and phonemesLearn to orally blend and segment sounds in words

  • Phase 1 shouldnt really come to an end. These skills should be worked on throughout Primary School.

  • Purpose of phase 2(up to 6 weeks Suggested Timetable p50)

    Learn 19 phonemes and know the graphemes that represent them.Move on from orally blending and segmenting to blending and segmenting letters to read and spell (maybe with magnetic letters) VC and CVC words Introduce two syllable words, simple captions and some tricky HFW.

  • Phase 2 letter progression

    Set 1: satp

    Set 2:Inmd

    Set 3:gock

    Set 4:ckeur

    Set 5:hbf,ffl,llss

  • Teaching HFW

    Some HFW should be taught during each phase.Many HFW are simple to work out using phonics. Some are tricky. Children need to be taught strategies for spelling and reading these words.These are similar to strategies we will look at later.

    P64-65

  • Applying

    Must have opportunities in class to read and write the words that they have been learning in phonics sessions.Guided readingShared readingCaptionsLabelsWhiteboards and pensMagnetic lettersDifferentiated literacy work

  • Purpose of phase 3(up to 12 weeks Suggested Timetable p76-78)

    Teach another 25 phonemes and graphemes to go with them.Learn letter namesContinue to practise blending and segmenting using new phonemes and two syllable words

  • 25 phonemes taught in Phase 3

    Letters

    Set 6: jvwx

    Set 7:yz,zz qu

    Consonant digraphs: ch sh thng

    Vowel digraphs: aieeigh

    oaooarorurowoi

    earairureer

  • Purpose of phase 4(4 6 weeks)

    To consolidate childrens knowledge of graphemes in reading and spelling words containing adjacent consonants and polysyllabic words

  • can blend adjacent consonants in words and apply this skill when reading unfamiliar texts, (CCVC, CVCC, CCVCC)

    step list clap grasp strap

    can segment adjacent consonants in words and apply this in spelling

    Beware Adjacent consonants are not digraphs. They make two distinct sounds.

    Phase 4

  • Adjacent consonants

    Children with speech and language difficulties find this stage tricky. Persevere they will get there.Adjacent consonants are no longer taught as blends as this can be a barrier to learning. Not everybody knows this yet.Spread the word to other peopleWatch out for old resources (and some new ones)Train children to think about mouth movements

  • Purpose of Phase 5(throughout Year One)

    Children broaden their knowledge of graphemes and phonemes for use in reading and spellingLearn new graphemes and alternative pronunciations some of which they will have already encountered in high frequency wordsLearn to choose the appropriate graphemes when spelling and begin to build up word specific knowledge

  • New graphemes for reading

  • Alternative pronunciations

  • /ee/ phoneme

    /ee/ consolidation game

  • Purpose of phase 6(throughout year two)

    Reading

    Learn some of the rarer phoneme-grapheme correspondences.

    Develop automaticity in reading. In particular, reliably recognising digraphs as representing one sound.

    Children should become fluent readers during this phase and develop a range of comprehension strategies.

  • Purpose of phase 6(throughout year two)

    Spelling

    Identifying the tricky bit in a word.

    Develop strategies for spelling longer words.

    Develop guidelines for making choices between spelling alternatives.

    Begin to explore spelling conventions e.g. when using the past tense, adding suffixes etc. Route to spelling

  • Beyond Phase 6

    Note that the teaching of spelling cannot be completed in Year 2 it needs to continue rigorously throughout primary school and beyond if necessary.

    Letters and Sounds

  • Phonics teaching in FS & KS1

    15 minutes a dayEvery single dayAt the appropriate phase for the class.

    FAST

    FUN

    SYSTEMATIC

  • Reflect

  • Getting a whole school picture

    Take your timeGet the feel of where your class areBuild up a detailed whole school picture.

  • Things to try with your class

    For your own interest try playing GPC Flashcards and Quickwrite Graphemes with your class. This is a good way for you to learn how to say the phonemes carefully too.Do they know all the letters of the alphabet? Assume nothing!Ideas for more detailed assessments are on the website and in Letters and Sounds.

  • Whole school assessment

    Unaided writing analysis:

    Nursery rhyme or short poem (learn orally first)

    - Any unaided writing.

    Spend a staff meeting looking through for evidence that they are applying skills from each phase.Decide which phase each child is working atModerateReflect on where the children in your class are

  • Unaided writing assessment

    I now a funy little man

    as quit as a mouse

    he duse the migef that is dune

    in evrybodys howse

    thow no one ever seas hes fhas

    it is trou we all agry

    that evry plat we brak was krakt

    by mr nobody

    he put the damp wood on the fier

    so kettles will not bolle

    hes are the feet that bring in mud

    and find slim and grim and soil

  • Unaided writing assessment

    I now a funy little man

    as quit as a mouse

    he duse the migef that is dune

    in evrybodys howse

    thow no one ever seas hes fhas

    it is trou we all agry

    that evry plat we brak was krakt

    by mr nobody

    he put the damp wood on the fier

    so kettles will not bolle

    hes are the feet that bring in mud

    and find slim and grim and soil

    Phase 4

  • Unaided writing assessment

    I now a funy little man

    as quit as a mouse

    he duse the migef that is dune

    in evrybodys howse

    thow no one ever seas hes fhas

    it is trou we all agry

    that evry plat we brak was krakt

    by mr nobody

    he put the damp wood on the fier

    so kettles will not bolle

    hes are the feet that bring in mud

    and find slim and grim and soil

    Phase 5

  • Look at the

    phases that

    children

    are working at

    Find the 60%

    mark

  • Whole class teaching

    Pitch at the 60% mark.If this is phase 1-5, then teach the whole class 15 mins per day focussed phonics teaching See Letters and SoundsIf this is phase 6 or beyond you can probably move onto KS2 learning intentions but it is still important to include a fast track introduction to phonics and then lots of revision.Build differentiation into your planning to support children above and below the 60% mark.

  • FAST TRACK INTRODUCTION

    Phase 1/2 Loads of oral blending and segmenting games.Phase 3 Teach what phonemes, graphemes, digraphs, trigraphs are.

    Learn to blend for reading and segment for writing.

    Phase 4 Practise blending and segmenting adjacent consona