Phonological Awareness Phonics Spelling. Melinda Carrillo. Best Predictors of Reading Success. Letter Knowledge Phonological Awareness Knowledge About Print. Terminology. Phonological Awareness Phonemic Awareness Phoneme Phonics Morpheme. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Best Predictors of Reading Success
• Letter Knowledge
• Phonological Awareness
• Knowledge About Print
Terminology• Phonological Awareness
• Phonemic Awareness
The awareness of and the ability to manipulate language.
The understanding that speech is composed of individual sounds and the ability to manipulate those sounds.
The smallest unit of sound.
A system of teaching reading and spelling through sound-symbol relationships.
The smallest meaningful unit of language.
Letter KnowledgeA child who can recognize most letters with thorough confidence will have an
easier time learning about letter sounds and word spellings than a child who also has to work at distinguishing
the individual letters.Adams, 1990
Phonemic AwarenessPhonemic awareness is more highly related to learning to read than are tests of general intelligence, reading
readiness, and listening comprehension.
Phonemic AwarenessIt is unlikely that children lacking phonemic
awareness can benefit fully from phonics instruction since they do not understand what letters and spellings are suppose to
Juel, Griffith, & Gough, 1986
Phonological Awareness Activities
Phoneme CountingSyllable Counting
Phoneme SegmentationPhoneme Change
Read AloudsNursery Rhymes
Sentence Completion“I see a frog,
sitting on a ____.”
Put the sounds together/c/ /a/ /t/ = cat
Break the sounds apartCat = /c/ /a/ /t/
Lake = /l/ /a/ /k/
All OralDrop a sound
Say “cat”.Now drop the /c/.
What do you have?
All OralDrop a sound and add a sound.
Say “dog”.Drop the /d/ and add a /l/.Drop the /g/ and add a /t/.
5 Tasks of Phonemic Awareness
• Knowledge of nursery rhymes• Compare and contrast sounds• Orally blend words• Orally segment words• Phonemic manipulation tasks
Knowledge About Print
How books work.
Text flows from left to rightRead the page top to bottom
Line sweepConcept of word
Phonics and Decoding
English Language44 Phonemes (sounds)
25 Consonant Phonemes19 Vowel Phonemes
Over 200 ways to spell 44 sounds!
DecodingPoorly developed word
recognition skills are the most pervasive and
debilitating source of reading difficulty.
Phonics Instruction Should…Be daily
Be completed by the end of 2nd grade
Be built on a foundation of phonemic awareness
Be systematic and explicit
Provide practice with decodable texts
Include regular assessment
Provide for intervention
Systematic Explicit Phonics Instruction
• Phonemic warm-up• Teach sound/symbol• Practice blending• Apply to decodable text• Dictation and spelling• Word work
4 Ways To Read Words• Decoding – Reading words that are unfamiliar in print
• Analogy – Recognizing how spelling is similar to known words
• Prediction – Guess what the word might be
• Sight – Using memory to read words that have been read before
Types of Literature forBeginning Readers
• Decodable Text
• High Quality Trade Books
• Predictable Texts
Instructional Modifications for English Learners
Decodables – with visual supportpreceded by ELDcommon vocabulary
Student/Teacher Generated Textpractice sound/symbolreinforce phonics
High Quality Trade Booksbuild academic language
What To Do If They Don’t Get It?
Re-teach 3 years of phonics?
Focus on exactly what they need to learn and teach it!