Spelling Phonics and Word Recognition
OverviewWhat are phonics, word study, and word recognition?How do spelling and word recognition knowledge typically develop?What are some instructional techniques for teaching word study?What does research say about effective phonics instruction?
Phonics The study of the relationships between letters (graphemes) and the sounds (phonemes) they represent; instruction that teaches sound-symbol correspondence.
Word Recognition The process of determining the pronunciation and some degree of meaning of a word in written form.
Word Recognition Includes:
Letter-by-Letter Decoding: The sounding out of each letter and the blending of letter sounds to generate pronunciations of written words.Letter-pair-by-Letter-pair Decoding: The sounding out of familiar letter combinations/letter patterns and the blending of letters and letter patterns to generate pronunciations of written words.Recognizing Sight Words: The words students recognize instantly when they see them in print.Monitoring for Meaning: Checking the pronunciation against the text and their memory to see if the word makes sense.
So . . . Reading instruction that includes word study (spelling) helps students develop the alphabetic principle. Once students have the alphabetic principle, or the concept that written letters represent sounds in speech, students can decode letters into sounds, blend the sounds together, check the pronunciation with what they know from memory, and connect the word with ideas they have about meaning in order to recognize the word (word recognition).
The Reading System (Adams)
Reading WritingSpeech MeaningProcessorPhonological ProcessorOrthographicProcessorContextProcessor
phocksThis false spelling illustrates a case in which the orthographic processor cannot help the reader locate a meaningful match in memory. The phonological processor, however, can make the match.
Phases of Word Learning Ehri, 19971. Prealphabetic phase: Use environmental or visual cues not related to processing letter-sound relationships. 2. Partial alphabetic phase: Look only at initial letters 3. Full alphabetic phase: Process each letter and sound in sequence4. Consolidated alphabetic phase: Process patterns rather than sound-by-sound decoding
Christopher: Late AugustEntering kindergartenNo preschoolName 0 letters0 letter sounds
Christopher: Mid October9 letter names0 letter sounds
Christopher: Mid January
23 letter names 17 letter sounds
Much better spelling!
tap for topgad for gladlid pan for planwag sap for stepbit for betran for runnit for hothip for shipvat for thatmad for mudhip for chopfad for feddig for dog
Christophers Journal Writing
Christophers Writing-March 10
Christopher: Mid Aprilpaf for pathkap for camplapjrip for droptoppop for ripkot for cut ship for shopshin for chinvanwat for wet nast for nest
gad for gladhotdigrish for richtab for tubhot for hunttis for thisyessot for trotnot for stopfishkib for cribjob
WHAT WORDY STUDY CONCEPTS DO TEACHERS NEED TO TEACH READERS?
PhonemesYou have to know what sounds are the same and what sounds are different.GraphemesYou have to know that sounds are represented with spelling patterns, and that more than one spelling pattern can represent the same sound.MorphemesYou have to know that meanings are also represented by spellings.WordsYou have to know that words are composed of at least one syllable, and that syllables take on patterns.
OnsetsConsonant or consonant blend that precedes the vowel, grape = gr is onsetRimesVowels and what comes after, grape = ape is rimeConsonantsNot vowels, b, c, d, f, . . . etc.Vowelsa, e, i, o, u, sometimes y and w
Single Consonantsb, c, d, f, . . . etc.
Beginning Blendsbl (black), cl (clap), fl (flash), pl (plug)br (brag), cr (crash), dr (dream)sc (scout), sk (skip), sm (small), sn (sneeze), sp (spell), squ (square)tw (twice), qu (quick) Ending Blendsjust, lisp, mask, gift, swept, melt, shelf, help Digraphs (2 consonants with 1 sound)thin, fish, each, when, phone
Lax, or short vowelscat, pet, pin, pot, nut Tense, or long vowelsgate, team, bike, drove, dude Diphthongs (neither short nor long vowels)oi (oil), oy (boy), ou (cloud), ow (brown)R-controlled car, for, fir, her, curlL-controlledcall, all, salt
Reading is Easier than Spelling There are many ways that one phoneme can be represented (spelled) by different graphemes.Lets take a look . . .
Syllable TypesClosedcat, camp, anthandySyllable ends with a consonant and is a short vowel, CVC always closedOpenhe, be, open,humidVowel by itself and longC-lelittle, beagleFinal syllable
Syllable TypesVowel Teamtrainer, spoilage,weigh, maintain2 vowels together, short or long, make one soundR-Controlledspurn, chart, report, Vowel and r make one soundVCecompete, inflate, despite, iceSilent e makes the vowel long
And how about meaning? How are phonemes, graphemes, and syllables combined in words to represent meaning?
Common Prefixesantiforemidpresuperdein,im,ir,ilmisretransdisin, imnonsemiunen,eminteroversubunder
Common Suffixesal, ialericive/ativeness
Principles of Word Study InstructionGood word study instruction should develop the alphabetic principle.Good word study instruction should develop phonemic awareness.Good word study instruction should provide a thorough grounding in the letters.Good wordy study instruction should not teach rules, need not use worksheets, should not dominate instruction, and does not have to be boring.
Good word study instruction provides sufficient practice in reading words, both in isolation and in stories, and in writing words, both from dictation and using invented spelling. Good word study instruction leads to automatic word recognition.Good word study instruction is one part of a reading program.
Stahl, S.A., Duffy-Hester, A.M., & Stahl, K.A.D. (1998). Everything you wanted to know about phonics (but were afraid to ask). Reading Research Quarterly, 33, 338-355.
WHAT DOES INSTRUCTION LOOK LIKE?
How should that initial knowledge of word learning be developed? Research studies: Teach the most useful letters and letter patterns early (Fry, 2004)Use groupings and differentiated, data-based instruction to teach decoding (Williams & Hufnagel, 2005)Increase decoding skills by teaching decoding systematically and explicitly (White, 2005)Practice phonics concepts while reading actual texts (Hiebert and Martin, 2002; Menon and Hiebert, 2005; Cunningham, Spadorcia, Erickson, Koppenhaver, Sturm, & Yoder, 2005)
1. Teach the most useful letters and letter patterns early (Fry, 2004)
Frequency counts support teaching:-Short vowel patterns before long -Vowel-consonant-e pattern early in instruction -Long vowels in the open-syllable pattern -R-controlled vowels b, m, sm, r, st, n, gi, p, nn, t, g m, b, t
d, h, ll, h, cf, j, wk, f, wd, l, fy, v, z
Developing understanding of the scope and sequence of instruction. The design of a system of assessment of childrens specific knowledge of concepts previously taught.
How to manage application of wordy study concepts in reading and spelling words. Several issues in providing differentiated word recognition instruction
A Possible ProgressionConsonants, beginning and ending of wordsWord Families and Short Vowels(Usually a-, i-, o-, e-, u- families, then across families, then vowels outside of families) 3. Initial blends and digraphs(bl, cl, fl, gl, pl, sl; br, cr, dr, fr, gr, pr, tr; sc, sk, sl, sm, sn, sp, st, sw) and(ch,sh,th,wh)Affricates(g, j, dr, ch, tr, ch) Final consonant blends and digraphs(-st, -ft, -mp, -nd, -nt, -sh, -th, -sh-ck, -ng, -nk, -ell)
6. Vowel-Consonant-E(-aCe, eCe, iCe, oCe, uCe)7. R-controlled vowels(ar, er, ir, or, ur)8. Other long vowel patterns (ai, ay, ee, ea, oa, ui, igh)9. Complex consonant clusters (scr, tch, kn, dge, qu)10. Abstract vowels (ou, ow, ew, oi, oy, oo, au, aw)
Letter Names and SoundsWho? Children who do poorly on Letter Name Fluency tasksHow? Make letter cards consistent with your instructional sequence; figure out which they dont know.
Rather than have the students guess, be direct. The name of this letter is ___. What name? (Students respond chorally.) The sound of this letter is ____. What sound? (Students respond chorally.) For new letters, some additional instruction might be useful. Here is a new letter. Watch me write it. The teacher demonstrates, verbalizing the strokes. Now you write it with me (in the air or on dry-erase boards). The name of this letter is ____. What name? (Students respond chorally.) The sound of this letter is ____. What sound? (Students respond chorally.)
b, m, sm, r, st, n, gi, p, nn, t, g, m, b, td, h, ll, h, cf, j, wk, f, wd, l, fy, v, zHeres a 12-Week PlanRemember that we teach these in small sets
Teaching Sounding and BlendingWho? Children who know their letter names and sounds but do poorly on word readingHow? Make word cards that review and extend the patterns that have been