Spelling Phonics and Word Recognition. Overview. What are phonics, word study, and word recognition? How do spelling and word recognition knowledge typically develop? What are some instructional techniques for teaching word study? What does research say about effective phonics instruction?. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Phonics and Word Recognition Development
Spelling Phonics and Word Recognition
1OverviewWhat are phonics, word study, and word recognition?How do spelling and word recognition knowledge typically develop?What are some instructional techniques for teaching word study?What does research say about effective phonics instruction?
3Phonics The study of the relationships between letters (graphemes) and the sounds (phonemes) they represent; instruction that teaches sound-symbol correspondence.
4Word Recognition The process of determining the pronunciation and some degree of meaning of a word in written form.
5Word Recognition Includes:Letter-by-Letter Decoding: The sounding out of each letter and the blending of letter sounds to generate pronunciations of written words.Letter-pair-by-Letter-pair Decoding: The sounding out of familiar letter combinations/letter patterns and the blending of letters and letter patterns to generate pronunciations of written words.Recognizing Sight Words: The words students recognize instantly when they see them in print.Monitoring for Meaning: Checking the pronunciation against the text and their memory to see if the word makes sense.6So . . . Reading instruction that includes word study (spelling) helps students develop the alphabetic principle. Once students have the alphabetic principle, or the concept that written letters represent sounds in speech, students can decode letters into sounds, blend the sounds together, check the pronunciation with what they know from memory, and connect the word with ideas they have about meaning in order to recognize the word (word recognition).7phocks9phocksThis false spelling illustrates a case in which the orthographic processor cannot help the reader locate a meaningful match in memory. The phonological processor, however, can make the match.10Development
11Phases of Word Learning Ehri, 19971. Prealphabetic phase: Use environmental or visual cues not related to processing letter-sound relationships. 2. Partial alphabetic phase: Look only at initial letters 3. Full alphabetic phase: Process each letter and sound in sequence4. Consolidated alphabetic phase: Process patterns rather than sound-by-sound decoding
12Recall from Ages and Stages:Pre: For example, they might easily read names of products when they are presented within logos, or they might read the names of their classmates by remembering something about their visual configuration. Partial: Once children learn their letter names and sounds, they tend to recognize words by looking only at initial letters a child named Keira might think that kangaroo and kiss are all Kiera. Full: When alphabet knowledge is more developed, children enter a full alphabetic phase. During this phase of word learning, they process each letter and sound in sequence, they can sound out all regular consonant-vowel-consonant words Consolidated: readers are not locked into sound-by-sound decoding; now they can process patterns. Move all children through these phases by the end of first grade.Christopher: Late AugustEntering kindergartenNo preschoolName 0 letters0 letter sounds
13Christopher: Mid October9 letter names0 letter sounds
fanpetrugsitmop14Christopher: Mid January23 letter names 17 letter sounds
Much better spelling!
tap for topgad for gladlid pan for planwag sap for stepbit for betran for runnit for hothip for shipvat for thatmad for mudhip for chopfad for feddig for dog
15Christophers Journal Writing
16Christophers Writing-March 10
17Christopher: Mid Aprilpaf for pathkap for camplapjrip for droptoppop for ripkot for cut ship for shopshin for chinvanwat for wet nast for nest
gad for gladhotdigrish for richtab for tubhot for hunttis for thisyessot for trotnot for stopfishkib for cribjob
18What Wordy Study Concepts Do teachers need to teach Readers?
19PhonemesYou have to know what sounds are the same and what sounds are different.GraphemesYou have to know that sounds are represented with spelling patterns, and that more than one spelling pattern can represent the same sound.MorphemesYou have to know that meanings are also represented by spellings.WordsYou have to know that words are composed of at least one syllable, and that syllables take on patterns.20OnsetsConsonant or consonant blend that precedes the vowel, grape = gr is onsetRimesVowels and what comes after, grape = ape is rimeConsonantsNot vowels, b, c, d, f, . . . etc.Vowelsa, e, i, o, u, sometimes y and w 21Single Consonantsb, c, d, f, . . . etc.
Beginning Blendsbl (black), cl (clap), fl (flash), pl (plug)br (brag), cr (crash), dr (dream)sc (scout), sk (skip), sm (small), sn (sneeze), sp (spell), squ (square)tw (twice), qu (quick) Ending Blendsjust, lisp, mask, gift, swept, melt, shelf, help Digraphs (2 consonants with 1 sound)thin, fish, each, when, phone 22Lax, or short vowelscat, pet, pin, pot, nut Tense, or long vowelsgate, team, bike, drove, dude Diphthongs (neither short nor long vowels)oi (oil), oy (boy), ou (cloud), ow (brown)R-controlled car, for, fir, her, curlL-controlledcall, all, salt23Reading is Easier than Spelling There are many ways that one phoneme can be represented (spelled) by different graphemes.Lets take a look . . . 24Syllable TypesClosedcat, camp, anthandySyllable ends with a consonant and is a short vowel, CVC always closedOpenhe, be, open,humidVowel by itself and longC-lelittle, beagleFinal syllable25Syllable TypesVowel Teamtrainer, spoilage,weigh, maintain
2 vowels together, short or long, make one soundR-Controlledspurn, chart, report, Vowel and r make one soundVCecompete, inflate, despite, iceSilent e makes the vowel long26Lets Practice
27 And how about meaning? How are phonemes, graphemes, and syllables combined in words to represent meaning?
29Common Suffixesal, ialericive/ative
menty30Principles of Word Study InstructionGood word study instruction should develop the alphabetic principle.Good word study instruction should develop phonemic awareness.Good word study instruction should provide a thorough grounding in the letters.Good wordy study instruction should not teach rules, need not use worksheets, should not dominate instruction, and does not have to be boring.31Good word study instruction provides sufficient practice in reading words, both in isolation and in stories, and in writing words, both from dictation and using invented spelling. Good word study instruction leads to automatic word recognition.Good word study instruction is one part of a reading program.
Stahl, S.A., Duffy-Hester, A.M., & Stahl, K.A.D. (1998). Everything you wanted to know about phonics (but were afraid to ask). Reading Research Quarterly, 33, 338-355.32What Does Instruction Look lIke?
33How should that initial knowledge of word learning be developed? Research studies: Teach the most useful letters and letter patterns early (Fry, 2004)Use groupings and differentiated, data-based instruction to teach decoding (Williams & Hufnagel, 2005)Increase decoding skills by teaching decoding systematically and explicitly (White, 2005)Practice phonics concepts while reading actual texts (Hiebert and Martin, 2002; Menon and Hiebert, 2005; Cunningham, Spadorcia, Erickson, Koppenhaver, Sturm, & Yoder, 2005)
341. Teach the most useful letters and letter patterns early (Fry, 2004)
Frequency counts support teaching:-Short vowel patterns before long -Vowel-consonant-e pattern early in instruction -Long vowels in the open-syllable pattern -R-controlled vowels b, m, sm, r, st, n, gi, p, nn, t, g m, b, t
d, h, ll, h, cf, j, wk, f, wd, l, fy, v, z
35One way to design an order for instruction is to teach the most useful letters and letter patterns early so that readers might have more chances to use their letter-sound knowledge to read and spell words. How frequently are individual spelling patterns actually represented in English words? For vowels, the five most frequent phonemes in words were short i (in), short a (at), short e (end), the r-controlled sound (her), and long o (open). For consonant graphemes, the five most frequent were r, t, n, s, and l.
Fry concluded by saying that frequency counts support the teaching of short vowel patterns before long, teaching the vowel-consonant-e pattern early in instruction, teaching long vowels in the open-syllable pattern, and teaching r-controlled vowels. He also specifically questioned the practice of teaching letter sounds in alphabetical order; frequency data simply do not support such a practice. b, m, sm, r, st, n, gi, p, nn, t, g, m, b, td, h, ll, h, cf, j, wk, f, wd, l, fy, v, zDeveloping understanding of the scope and sequence of instruction. The design of a system of assessment of childrens specific knowledge of concepts previously taught.
How to manage application of wordy study concepts in reading and spelling words. Several issues in providing differentiated word recognition instruction 362. The design of a system of assessment of childrens specific knowledge of concepts previously taught which requires teachers to choose and use phonics and spelling inventories.
A Possible ProgressionConsonants, beginning and ending of wordsWord Families and Short Vowels(Usually a-, i-, o-, e-, u- families, then across families, then vowels outside of families) 3