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9.4 Genetic Engineering KEY CONCEPT Genetic Engineering is about changing the DNA sequences of organisms

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PowerPoint PresentationGenetic Engineering is about changing the DNA sequences of organisms.
9.4 Genetic Engineering
Entire organisms can be cloned.
A clone is a genetically identical copy of a gene or of an organism.
CC, short for Copy
9.4 Genetic Engineering
Mammals can be cloned through a process called nuclear transfer.
nucleus is removed from an egg cell
nucleus of a cell from the animal to be cloned is implanted in the egg
9.4 Genetic Engineering
One of first mammals to be successfully cloned was a sheep.
9.4 Genetic Engineering
the first mammal cloned
from an adult cell.
offspring, called Bonnie.
9.4 Genetic Engineering
save endangered species
Cloning raises concerns.
low success rate
decreased biodiversity
New genes can be added to an organism’s DNA.
Genetic engineering involves changing an organism’s DNA to give it new traits.
Genetic engineering is based on the use of recombinant DNA.
Recombinant DNA contains genes from more than one organism.
(bacterial DNA)
3. foreign gene inserted into plasmid
9.4 Genetic Engineering
Genetic Engineering Technique #3: GMO’s
A GMO = a “Genetically Modified Organism”
A “GMO” or transgenic organism has one or more genes from another organism inserted into its genome.
9.4 Genetic Engineering
GMO (Transgenic) bacteria can be used to produce human proteins.
gene inserted into plasmid
plasmid inserted into bacteria
bacteria express the gene
transgenic bacteria
Examples of how transgenic bacteria and plants are being used:
Transgenic Bacteria
Now make insulin, growth hormone, and clotting factor cheaply and in great abundance)
2. Transgenic Plants
52% of soybeans and 25% of corn are transgenic Different varieties are resistant to disease, produce their own insecticide, resist weed-killing chemicals, and/or have increased vitamin content
9.4 Genetic Engineering
GMO (Transgenic) animals are used to study diseases and gene functions.
Ex. transgenic mice used to study development and disease
gene “knockout mice” used to study gene function
Knockout mouse on left lacks gene for protein leptin,
which helps to control food intake. Used in obesity studies.
9.4 Genetic Engineering
possible long-term health effects? of eating GM foods
possible effects of GM plants on ecosystems and biodiversity ?