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KEY CONCEPT Genetic Engineering is about changing the ... 9.4 Genetic Engineering Genetic Engineering Technique #1: Entire organisms can be cloned. • A clone is a genetically identical

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  • 9.4 Genetic Engineering

    KEY CONCEPT

    Genetic Engineering is about changing the DNA

    sequences of organisms.

  • 9.4 Genetic Engineering

    Genetic Engineering Technique #1:

    Entire organisms can be cloned.

    • A clone is a genetically identical copy of a gene or of

    an organism.

    CC, short for Copy

    Cat, is the first

    successfully cloned

    Cat.

    The original

    cat

  • 9.4 Genetic Engineering

    • Cloning occurs in nature.

    – bacteria (binary fission)

    – some plants (from roots)

    – some simple animals (budding, regeneration)

  • 9.4 Genetic Engineering

    • Mammals can be cloned through a process called nuclear

    transfer.

    – nucleus is removed from an egg cell

    – nucleus of a cell from the animal to be cloned is

    implanted in the egg

  • 9.4 Genetic Engineering

    One of first mammals to be successfully cloned was a sheep.

  • 9.4 Genetic Engineering

    The adult sheep is Dolly,

    the first mammal cloned

    from an adult cell.

    The lamb is Dolly’s

    offspring, called Bonnie.

  • 9.4 Genetic Engineering

    • Cloning has potential benefits.

    – organs for transplant into humans

    – save endangered species

    • Cloning raises concerns.

    – low success rate

    – clones “imperfect” and less healthy than original animal

    – decreased biodiversity

  • 9.4 Genetic Engineering

    Genetic Engineering Technique #2: Recombinant DNA

    New genes can be added to an organism’s DNA.

    • Genetic engineering involves changing an organism’s

    DNA to give it new traits.

    • Genetic engineering is based on the use of

    recombinant DNA.

    • Recombinant DNA contains genes from more than

    one organism.

    (bacterial DNA)

  • 9.4 Genetic Engineering

    • Process involves:

    – Bacterial plasmids are often used to make

    recombinant DNA.

    – Steps:

    1. plasmids are loops of

    DNA in bacteria

    2. restriction enzymes cut

    plasmid and foreign DNA

    3. foreign gene inserted

    into plasmid

  • 9.4 Genetic Engineering

    Genetic Engineering Technique #3: GMO’s

    A GMO = a “Genetically Modified Organism”

    • A “GMO” or transgenic organism has one or more

    genes from another organism inserted into its genome.

  • 9.4 Genetic Engineering

    • GMO (Transgenic) bacteria can be used to produce

    human proteins.

    – gene inserted into plasmid

    – plasmid inserted into bacteria

    – bacteria express the gene

    • GMO (Transgenic) plants are common in agriculture.

    – transgenic bacteria

    infect a plant

    – plant expresses

    foreign gene

    – many crops are now

    genetically modified

    (GM)

  • 9.4 Genetic Engineering

    Examples of how transgenic bacteria and plants are

    being used:

    1. Transgenic Bacteria

    Now make insulin, growth hormone, and clotting

    factor cheaply and in great abundance)

    2. Transgenic Plants

    52% of soybeans and 25% of corn are transgenic

    Different varieties are resistant to disease,

    produce their own insecticide, resist weed-killing

    chemicals, and/or have increased vitamin content

  • 9.4 Genetic Engineering

    • GMO (Transgenic) animals are used to study

    diseases and gene functions.

    – Ex. transgenic mice used to study development

    and disease

    – gene “knockout mice” used to study gene function

    Knockout mouse on left lacks gene for protein leptin,

    which helps to control food intake. Used in obesity studies.

  • 9.4 Genetic Engineering

    • Can Genetic Engineering be used to bring back extinct

    species or save endangered species?

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=68QhIQLeVUA

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=68QhIQLeVUA

  • 9.4 Genetic Engineering

    • Cloning: National Geographic Video

    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dfqwUlnsGvY

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dfqwUlnsGvY

  • 9.4 Genetic Engineering

    • Scientists have concerns about some uses of genetic

    engineering.

    – possible long-term health effects? of eating GM foods

    – possible effects of GM plants on ecosystems and

    biodiversity ?

  • 9.4 Genetic Engineering

    Place in Science Fiction

    • Jessica Alba as “Max” in the SciFi TV series

    “Dark Angel”

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:MaxGuerera-DarkAngel.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:MaxGuerera-DarkAngel.jpg