Where do we go from here? . Globalization, education and the challenge of uncertainty Stephen Carney, Roskilde University. Framing Uncertainty. Modernity intensifying & spreading ( Giddens , Beck, Friedman) Modernity diversifying ( Appadurai , Castells) Modernity unraveling - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Theorizing globalization in education policy research
Where do we go from here?
Globalization, education and the challenge of uncertainty
Stephen Carney, Roskilde University
1Framing UncertaintyModernity intensifying & spreading(Giddens, Beck, Friedman)
Modernity diversifying(Appadurai, Castells)
Modernity unraveling(Wallerstein, Hardt & Negri)
Modernity as abjection(Bauman, Ferguson)
2Some Central ConcernsThe changing role/ nature of the state
- State spatiality and reach (as potential)- Rescaling (neoliberalism as decline)
The prospects for political action
- Globalization connecting the multitude - Consumer society alienating the mass
Culture, place, locality
- Imagination and ideoscape- Cosmopolitanism and anti-membership
3Multi-level Analyses and Comparison
4Three ExperimentsPolicyscape (Denmark, Nepal, China)
Eduscape (Denmark, South Korea, Zambia)
Youth and schooling (Nepal)
Exploring flows across spaces:
Exploring flows within a single site:
5Responses to Policyscape - breaks from the legacy of methodological nationalism (Gita Steiner-Khamsi)
theoreticial innovation (Robert Cowen)
spatial fetishism! (Susan Robertson)
6A Different Type of CritiqueQuestion:
- Are we dealing with uncertainty, denying or embracing it?
What counts as data in the global cultural economy?
7Asia in MiniatureTowards an analytic of noise:
a mode of analysis that would take seriously both the fact that signifying actors might have social reasons not to establish a bond of communication but to rupture it, and the way that stylistic messages take on a social significance whether they are understood or not through a social process of construal of the partially unintelligible.
(James Ferguson, Expectations of Modernity 1999)8It is in the silences that the music is made. (Debussy)
9QuestionsWhere do we do comparative education research under conditions of profound global interconnectivity?
What counts as data in the emerging global cultural economy?
What type of progressive project is possible in such research?
11Unframing Modern Policy ResearchSubjectivity as becomingIn assemblagesAs movement
Non-state philosophy Minor literature (Deleuzes)Beyond power and production (Baudrillard)
Social/ epistemological - State and subject as investments Morality and ethics (Nietzsche)
12Beyond Northern Theory?
Am I considering global society through the lens of metropolitan society?
Is sociology (only) Northern Theory? Do we reify diverse social action through the lens of the Western concepts/ experience?
Post-Modern Origins of Globalization(Lizardo & Strand, 2009)French(The social)German(The political)British(The economic)The US(The cultural/ aesthetic)13Domesticating French theorizingPost-classical theory viewed as impractical:
- too little focus on economy, state or change Global condition defined by US/ British interests:
- class (Marx)- state (Weber)- social solidarity (Durkheim)- North now seen in South
French post theorizing lingers as (practical/ politically-aware) globalization research
Mildly accepting of the breakdown of modern certainties (Bauman, Beck, Giddens, Roland Robertson etc)
Reinvented in US through Frederick Jameson (Cultural logic of late capitalism) but refracted through lens of Young Hegelianism and Marxism
Pushed in UK policy scholarship as reinvention of capitalism serving supra-state interests that can be mapped anew as a precusor to intervention (esp. Bristol group)
Empirical work becomes a scientific project to understand:
New spatializationsNew power dynamicsNew actors
VERY LITTLE OF THE ORIGINAL FRENCH (social/ subject-oriented/ epistemological) PROJECT
14The Global Cultural EconomyScapes(ethno, media, techno, finance and ideo)
Global Flows (complex, rapid, overflowing and disjunctive)
Interconnectivity of phenomena (end of centre/ periphery distinction)
(Modernity at Large, Arjun Appadurai 1996)
15Educational PolicyscapeNeo & advanced liberalism (Mitchell Dean)
Visions and values
Management and organisation
Neo AND advanced liberalism
Visions and values
individualized skills and competencescontent and standards supporting national goals related to the global economy private/personal ones aimed at self-realization
Management and organisation
Decentralisationsite-based management, Choiceexecutive (and responsible/ accountable) leadership
learner-centered pedagogy, Classroom democracyactive learning16
Different Countries, Systems, Levels
Policy Agents Technologies
DK Uni Law Boards Contracts
Nepal Community Parents SMCs schools
China CurriculumStudents PedagogySome starting points:
No attempt to capture wholes
Resistence to coherent narratives (especially that of decline)
Awareness of contradictory effects17InterconnectivitiesState spatiality (read: state)
- Strong state/ weak state- Reaching in/ reaching out
Negotiation and enactment (read: action)
- New and old voices heard- Productive and repressive power
Locality (read: culture)
- As nationalism and protest- As tradition and changeHowever.
18State Spatiality and Encompassment (a la Ferguson and Gupta)
Nepal: decentralization (as deconcentration) empowered centre!
China: LCP enabled State to reach Tibetan souls
Denmark: co-constructs EU/ OECD Knowledge Economy discourse which extends a Danish world-view (but which comes back on itself)
New voices: students contra teachers/ professors; parents contra state
Old voices: Confucian/ capitalist state; Hindu elite;
Locality (proxi for culture)
Nepal: as centralism; discrimination but new awareness of rights (and oppression through rights!)
Denmark: as demand for local participation and collective ownership
China: as silent Chinese appropriation of Tibetan ways of knowing whilst incoroprating these subjects into regional cultural economy
Other ResponsesVertical case study (Fran Vavrus)
Multi-site ethnography(George Marcus)
Anthropology of policy(Susan Wright)19
20(Comparative) Education Paradigms
All comparative research:
Comes from a tradition with underlying values and beliefs about the world
Can be seen as a representation
Some representations dominate, becoming ways of seeing AND accepted truths!
Rationality (logic)Progress (models)Emancipation (Utopianism)
Comparative education has never been more successfulAnd yet, comparative education has never had less to say. (Carney, S. 2010)
21Uncertainty / ComplexityIn relation to:
Schooling & education institutionsTeachers and teachingKnowledge
Old certainties collapsing; new ones hard to find:
End of political will?End of metanarratives?End of theory?