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    Universitatea Spiru Haret Bucuresti

    Facultatea de Stiinte Juridice si Stiinte Economice, Constanta

    Departamentul Stiinte Juridice

    LIMBA ENGLEZ 1

    (Culegere de texte i exerciii)

    THE U.K. AND ITS LEGAL SYSTEM

    NOTE DE CURS

    AN I, SEMESTRUL I

    Lector univ. dr. Anca Magiru

    2017

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    INTRODUCTION

    A knowledge of the English and American legal systems is important for our full-time

    law students at Spiru Haret School of Law and Economics, Constana. The coursebook, which is

    a collection of authentic legal texts and also an anthology of grammar exercises, gathered and

    compiled from different law textbooks and English grammar exercise books, provides an

    introduction to the English and American legal systems and the means to develop the language

    and analytical skills which form an essential part of the legal study. The book will be used for the

    law students of Spiru Haret University and, therefore, the book is not for sale in book stores,

    except Spiru Haret University book stores. The double purpose of this coursebook is: 1.to

    provide factual knowledge by exploring legal texts, and 2.to develop the necessary language and

    analytical skills for part-time law students of English to whom it specifically addresses.

    Information is given on basic grammatical areas which arise from texts and on

    vocabulary (word formation and use of legal vocabulary). Activities concentrate on reading,

    writing and study skills with some work on oral functions. In gathering the texts for this

    coursebook, the author took into account the requirements laid down in the Analytical Program

    for the part-time law students at Spiru Haret University School of Law and Public

    Administration.

    The coursebook comprises 14 units each unit dealing with an individual subject. The

    broad subject-matter of each unit is broken down into two parts to provide a structured approach

    to the subject.

    The factual content, in VOLUME I, THE FIRST YEAR OF STUDY, is presented

    through extracts from authentic texts, in the Reading Section, which is followed by

    comprehension questions and exercises included in the Assessment and/or Self-assessment Tests

    Section. Part One introduces some general features of the English law and legal system which will provide a background to the following topics: 1.The British Constitution and

    Government, 2.The British Legal System, 3.The English Criminal Courts, 4.The English

    Civil Cases, 5.The Legal Professionals (I). Lawyers, 6.The Legal Professionals (II).

    Magistrates and Judges, 7.The Legal Professionals (III). The Crown Prosecution

    Service.Tribunals. Ombudsmen. This Section is followed by the Grammar Section containing

    a set of activities meant to brush up the students English grammar.

    VOLUME II, THE SECOND YEAR OF STUDY is concerned with legal texts about the

    American law and legal system. The Reading Section of this Part also introduces some general

    features of the American law and legal system which will provide a background to the following

    topics: 1.The U.S. Constitution. The Role of the Constitution, 2.The U.S. Legal System. The U.S.

    Legal Professionals, 3.The U.S. Department of Justice, 4.The U.S. Courts, 5.Trials Procedures,

    6.Interrogations and Confessions. Miranda Warnings, 7.The Law and the Civil Liberties.The Bill

    of Rights. This Section is followed by the Grammar Section containing a set of activities meant to

    brush up the students English grammar, as well. Both PARTS, as far as grammar is concerned,

    focus on tenses, modal verbs, moods, conditionals, passive voice, in short, a revision of the

    English verb.

    The book also contains a list of irregular verbs, a list of language notes, grammatical

    terms, and vocabulary, and the bibliography used.

    The author hopes that her effort to have this coursebook published will be fully

    appreciated and successfully used by the part-time students who really take an interest in English

    for Law.

    The Objectives of the Coursebook

    The main objectives of this coursebook are:

    1.to provide factual knowledge by exploring authentic legal texts;

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    2.to develop the necessary language and analytical skills for part-time law students of English to

    whom it specifically addresses;

    3.to improve their grammar, expand their vocabulary, refine their pronunciation;

    4.to help students to speak naturally.

    The Competences of the Coursebok

    At the end of this coursebook, the students will be able to develop their abilities and practical

    skills in English. They are expected:

    1. to use correctly the English verb (tenses, moods, voice, modal verbs), in writing and speaking;

    2.to apply grammar rules and notions to ensure the correctness of speaking, writing, translating,

    explaining;

    3.to understand the English and American legal content;

    4. to understand the language content;

    5.to get familiar with all the topics discussed;

    6.to read, translate, comment on different types of legal documents.

    7.to get familiar with the basic history of the U.S.A., the U.K.; to learn more about their cultures,

    lives and civilizations.

    Means and Teachings Aids

    The main working instrument will be the coursebook. The author would like to mention that

    the following means and teaching aids are not only necessary but compulsory. There follows two

    lists:

    1. a list of compulsory materials for students such as: an English-English law dictionary, a

    Romanian-English, English-Romanian dictionary of law terms, the Romanian Constitution, a

    PC/laptop; Constantin Paidos, Gramatica limbii engleze, Teorie i practic, volumes I,II,III,

    Institutul European, Iai, 1995.

    2.and a list of materials for instructors, such as: laptop, internet, the flags of the U.S.A., of

    the U.K., and of Romania, the Constitution of the U.S.A., some British constitutional texts, the

    Holy Bible, books on American and British law, life, culture, civilization; American and British

    newspapers containing articles on different types of crimes; books containing American and

    English case studies, real and hypothetical; the maps of U.S.A. and of the U.K.; books containig

    humouristic articles on law and/or law quotations; detective short stories, films and

    documentaries on crimes.

    The Structure of the Coursebook

    The coursebook contains two parts, (corresponding to the first year of study, and

    respectively, to the second year of study), and 7 learning units, each:

    YEAR 1: THE U.K. AND ITS LEGAL SYSTEM

    Part One: The U.K. and Its Legal System:

    Learning Unit # 1.

    1st YEAR: SEMESTER I THE BRITISH CONSTITUTION AND

    GOVERNMENT ( 8 classes)

    Learning Unit # 2.

    THE BRITISH LEGAL SYSTEM (8 classes)

    Learning Unit # 3.

    THE ENGLISH CRIMINAL COURTS (8 classes )

    Learning Unit # 4.

    1st YEAR: SEMESTER II THE ENGLISH CIVIL CASES (8 classes)

    Learning Unit # 5.

    THE LEGAL PROFESSIONALS (I). LAWYERS (8 classes)

    Learning Unit # THE LEGAL PROFESSIONALS (II) MAGISTRATES

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    6. AND JUDGES (8 classes) Learning Unit #

    7. THE LEGAL PROFESSIONALS (III). CROWN

    PROSECUTION SERVICE. TRIBUNALS. OMBUDSMEN (OPTIONAL)

    Part Two: The U.S. and Its Legal System:

    Learning Unit # 1.

    2nd YEAR , SEMESTER I THE U.S. AND ITS LEGAL SYSTEM THE U.S. CONSTITUTION. THE ROLE OF THE

    CONSTITUTION (8 classes)

    Learning Unit # 2.

    THE U.S. LEGAL SYSTEM. THE U.S. LEGAL PROFESSIONALS (8 classes)

    Learning Unit # 3.

    THE U.S. COURTS (8 CLASSES)

    Learning Unit # 4.

    2nd YEAR SEMESTER II THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (8 classes)

    Learning Unit # 5.

    THE U.S. CIVIL AND CRIMINAL TRIALS AND THEIR STAGES (8 classes)

    Learning Unit # 6.

    INTERROGATIONS AND CONFESSIONS. MIRANDA WARNINGS (8 classes)

    Learning Unit # 7.

    THE LAW AND THE CIVIL LIBERTIES. THE BILL OF RIGHTS (OPTIONAL)

    Assignments

    The students are given assignments after each Learning Unit. They are supposed to solve all the

    assessment and self-assessment tests by themselves making use of the answer section and also

    write and present and/or speak of the following topics after each Learning Unit, namely:

    Volume One / The First Year of Study

    1.The Constitution of the U.K..The British Cabinet

    2.Statute Law. Common Law. The European Union Law

    3.Magistrates Courts. Crown Courts. Criminal Offences

    4.The English Civil Cases. The English Civil Courts

    5.The English Lawyers: a. Barristers; b.Solicitors; c. Paralegals

    6.The English Magistrates.The English Judges

    7.The Crown Prosecution Service (CPS). Tribunals. Ombudsmen

    Volume Two / The Second Year of Study

    1.The U.S. Constitution. The Roel of the Constitution

    2.The U.S. Judges. The U.S. Jury. The U.S. Attorneys

    3.The Attorney General. The Solicitor General. FBI

    4.The Federal Courts. The State Courts. The Supreme Courts

    5.The Civil Trials. The Criminal Trials

    6.Miranda Warnings

    7.The Bill of Rights. The American Civil Liberties

    Compulsory Bibliography

    Lister, Ronald, Klemens Veth, (2010), Dicionar juridic, englez-romn, romn-englez, Bucuresti:

    Ed. Niculescu

    Magiru, Anca, (2013), Limba englez, (Curs n tehnologie ID/IFR), Bucureti: Editura Fundaiei

    Romnia de Mine;

    Magiru, Anca, (2011), English for Law Students, Bucuresti, Ed. Universitara;

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    Magiru, Anca, (2011), English for Public Administration Students, Bucuresti, Ed. Universitara;

    Magiru, Anca, (2010), American Criminal Law, An Introduction for Law Students of English,

    Bucuresti: Ed. Universitara.

    Optional Bibliography

    Paidos, Constantin, (1995), Gramatica limbii engleze, Teorie i practic, vol. I,II,III Iai:

    Institutul European;

    Voiculescu, Cecilia, (2005), Dicionar juridic, englez-romn, romn-englez, & terminologia UE-

    SUA, Bucureti: Ed.Niculescu.

    Brookes, Michael, Christiane Treutenare, (2002), 1000 de cuvinte in Drept, Bucuresti: Compania;

    Champion, Dean J., (1998), Dictionary of American Criminal Justice. Key Terms and Major

    Supreme Court Cases, Minot State University, London, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers;

    Constitutia Romaniei, (2004), Bucuresti: Ed. All Beck;

    The Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence, Reprinted 2001 by

    the Supreme Court Historical Society, 2001;

    Galateanu, Georgiana, Ecaterina Comisel (f.a.), Gramatica limbii engleze pentru uz scolar,

    Bucuresti: Ed. Didactica si Pedagogica;

    Martin, Elizabeth A., 2003, A Dictionary of Law, Oxford: Oxford University Press;

    Hanga, Vladimir, Rodica Calciu, (1994/2007), Dictionar juridic englez-roman si roman-englez,

    Bucuresti, Ed. Lumina Lex.

    Assessment Methods

    The final examination is an electronic multiple choice test. The instructor will also take into

    account the students seminar activities and also the assessments during the academic terms.

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    CONTENTS

    INTRODUCTION..

    PART ONE, THE FIRST YEAR OF STUDY: THE U.K. AND ITS LEGAL SYSTEM

    SEMESTER I

    Learning Unit # 1

    THE BRITISH CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT

    1.1. Introduction 1.2. The Objectives and Competences of Learning Unit #1 1.3. The Contents of Learning Unit #1:

    A.Reading Section: The British Constitution and Government 1.3.1.The British Constitution 1.3.2.The British Government B.Grammar Section: Tense Revision 1.3.3.The Present Simple Tense and the Present Continuous Tense

    1.4. Key Answer Guide for Self-assessment Activities 1.4.1.Compulsory Bibliography

    1.4.2.Bibliographical References

    Learning Unit # 2

    THE BRITISH LEGAL SYSTEM

    2.1. Introduction 2.2. The Objectives and Competences of Learning Unit #2 2.3. The Contents of Learning Unit # 2:

    A.Reading Section: The British Legal System

    2.3.1.Statute Law

    2.3.2.Common Law

    2.3.3.European Union Law

    B.Grammar Section: Tense Revision:

    2.3.4.The Past Simple Tense and the Past Continuous Tense

    2.4. Key Answer Guide for Self-assessment Activities

    2.4.1.Compulsory Bibliography

    2.4.2.Bibliographical References

    Learning Unit # 3

    THE ENGLISH CRIMINAL COURTS

    3.1. Introduction 3.2. The Objectives and Competences of Learning Unit # 3 time assigned 3.3. The Contents of Learning Unit # 3:

    A.Reading Section: The English Criminal Courts 3.3.1.Magistrates Courts 3.3.2.Crown Courts 3.3.3.Criminal Offences

    B.Grammar Section: Tense Revision

    3.3.4.The Present Perfect Simple Tense and the Present Perfect Continuous Tense

    3.4. Key Answer Guide for Self-assessment Activities 3.4.1.Compulsory Bibliography

    3.4.2.Bibliographical References

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    PART ONE/THE FIRST YEAR OF STUDY:THE U.K. AND ITS LEGAL SYSTEM

    SEMESTER I

    Learning Unit # 1

    THE BRITISH CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT

    For every person who wants to teach,

    there are approximately thirty who dont

    want to learn ... much. W.C.Seller and R.J.Yeatman, British authors

    SUBIECTUL LECTIEI

    1.1. Introduction 1.2. The Objectives and Competences of Learning Unit #1 1.3. The Contents of Learning Unit #1:

    A.READING SECTION: The British Constitution and Government

    1.3.1. The British Constitution

    1.3.2. The British Government

    B.GRAMMAR SECTION: Tense Revision & Consolidation 1.3.3. The Present Simple Tense and the Present Continuous Tense

    C.PRACTICE SECTION: 1.4.1. Key Answer Guide for Self-assessment Activities

    1.4.2.Compulsory Bibliography

    1.4.3.Bibliographical References

    1.1. Introduction

    The rules and practices that determine the composition and

    functions of the organs of central and local government in a state

    and regulate the relationship between the individual and the state is

    called constitution. Most states have a written constitution. The

    constitution of the U.K. is largely unwritten. It consists partly of

    statutes, common law rules and constitutional conventions.

    (Adapted and abridged from Oxford Dictionary of Law, Ed. by Elizabeth

    A. Martin, Oxford University Press, c 2003)

    OBIECTIVELE LECTIEI

    1.2. The Objectives and Competences of Learning

    Unit #1

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    The Objectives of Learning Unit # 1:

    O1 to understand the legal content:

    O1a.to examine the constitutional framework of the English legal

    system;

    O1b.to provide an introduction to the concepts which form the basis

    of the system of government in the United Kingdom;

    O1c.to test the students legal knowledge

    O2 to understand the language content:

    O2a.to revise the form and use of the Simple Present Tense and the

    Continuous Present Tense;

    O2b.to test the students grammar knowledge

    O2c.to make students check the meaning of the words by using a

    law dictionary

    The Competences of Learning Unit #1:

    C1. getting familiar with the constitutional framework of the English

    legal system, namely the constitution and government;

    C2. using correctly the Present Simple Tense and the Present

    Continuous Tense in writing and speaking; applying grammar rules

    and notions to ensure the correctness of speaking, writing, translating;

    C3. reading, translating, commenting different types of legal

    documents.

    The time assigned for Unit # 1: 8 classes

    CONTINUTUL LECTIEI

    1.3. The Contents of Learning Unit # 1

    A.READING SECTION:

    The British Constitution and Government

    1.3.1. The British Constitution

    Read and learn the following language notes, grammatical terms

    and vocabulary:

    rule = (n) norm, principiu, regul

    practice = (n) practic

    to regulate, d, d = (v) a organiza, a controla, a regla

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    individual = (n) individ, om, persoan fizic

    statute = (n) statut, lege, reglementare, protocol, regulament

    statute law = jurispruden, drept statutar

    law that is enacted by legislature, Acts of Parliament;

    convention =(n) convenie, nelegere

    Head = (n) ef;

    sovereign, king, queen, prince, princess, emperor, empress, regent

    official = (n) funcionar

    Cabinet = cabinet, guvern

    the Executive = is a broad term which includes the officials of

    government departments, but in the United Kingdom, the collective

    name for the principal executive body is the Cabinet which is made

    up of ministers of the Crown; the part of the constitution with

    responsibility for administering the laws. In England, this is Her

    Majestys Government.

    legislation = (n) the body of law created by Parliament

    the legislature = the body responsible for creating statute law. In

    England, this is the two Houses of Parliament; for legislature, it is

    Parliament. Individual members of the legislature are called

    Members of Parliament.

    the judiciary = the judges who have the responsibility for

    interpreting the law and resolving disputes between litigants; all

    judges;

    puterea judectoreasc, magistrai, corpul judectoresc

    the monarch = the king or queen

    monarchy = the system in which a country is ruled by a king or

    queen; Britain is a constitutional monarchy.

    a constitutional monarchy = a monarchy where the king or queen

    has limited constitutional powers, and most power is in the hands of

    an elected legislature and the government is headed by a

    democratically elected Prime Minister.

    that is to say = ceea ce nseamn

    to be reduced to writing = a aterne ceva pe hrtie, a consemna

    ceva n scris

    further = in addition, also;

    n plus, suplimentar

    act = (n) lege, act, hotrre, edict, rezoluie a Parlamentului sau a

    justiiei

    Act of Parliament = a bill that has passed through Parliament and

    received the Royal Assent;

    act al Parlamentului; lege votat de Parlament

    to safeguard, -ed, -ed = (v) a proteja

    subject = (n) cetean, suspus

    remedy = (n) msur, remediu

    to be embodied = a fi reprezentat

    enactment = (n) lege, text de lege

    Bill of Rights = Carta/Declaraia drepturilor omului (1688 n Marea

    Britanie); Declaraia drepturilor omului (1791, cele 10

    amendamente ale Constituiei SUA referitoare la drepturile

    fundamentale ale omului)

    to set out, set out, set out = (v) a stabili

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    to lay down, laid down, laid down = (v cu participiu adverbial) a

    alctui

    to be carried = a fi aplicat

    Read and translate the following text into Romanian:

    The British Constitution

    Definition and purpose

    A constitution is a set of rules which define the relationship between

    the various organs of government and between government and

    citizens of a country. Its purpose is to set the criteria of the

    governmental power and the rights and duties of the citizens.

    Therefore, the constitution of any individual country will determine

    the system of government in that country. By organs or

    institutions of government we mean the executive, the legislative

    and the judiciary. In the United Kingdom, the monarch has an

    important constitutional role as head of state.

    The main characteristics of the British Constitution

    The British constitution is not written ; that is to say, it has never

    been wholly reduced to writing. Further, since Parliament is

    sovereign, it can, without any special procedure, and by a simple

    Act, alter any law, at any time, however fundamental it may seem to

    be. Although the British courts have always been careful to safeguard

    the rights of the subject and certain legal remedies are designed to

    protect him, yet, under the British constitution there are no

    guaranteed rights similar to the fundamental liberties safeguarded by

    the U.S. Constitution. The statement that the British Constitituion is

    not written, does not mean that the British possess no important

    constitutional documents ; it simply means that the constitution is not

    embodied in any single document, or series of documents, containing

    the British essential constitutional laws. Thus, the British have many

    enactments which are of great importance. Let us cite as examples,

    Magna Carta (1215) which is the first document with constitutional

    value, (It guaranteed the freedom of the church, restricted taxes and

    fines, and promised justice to all.) the Bill of Rights (1688), which

    sets out the principle rights gained by Parliament and the nation as

    the result of the 17th century constitutional struggles, the

    Parlamentary Act 1911 (and 1949).

    The Constitution of the United States (see Part Two, Learning Unit

    #1 : The U. S. Constitution and Government) was reduced to writing

    in 1787. The document which comprises it lays down the

    fundamental law of the America, today. Further, the U.S.

    Constitution cannot be altered easily. A constitutional amendment

    can only be carried if a very substantial majority, both in Congress

    and in the individual states, approve it.

    (Adapted and abridged from P.S.James, Introduction to English Law, Butterworths 1985, pp.115-116, in Frances Russell, Christine Locke,

    English Law and Language, An Introduction for Students of English,

  • 11

    Published by Phoenix, ELT, 1995)

    1.3.2The British Government

    Read and learn the following language notes, grammatical terms

    and vocabulary:

    Cabinet = Guvern, Cabinet, Consiliu de Minitri

    policy = (n) linie politic, diplomaie, tactic, metod, dibcie

    to carry, carried, carried into effect = a pune n aplicare/practic,

    a efectua, a realiza

    Parliament = The legislature of England and Wales; the House of

    Commons and the House of Lords under the Queen/King.

    Parliament is regarded as sovereign, which means that there is no

    higher power. This is not, however, strictly true since in certain

    areas European Union law is superior to that of Parliament.

    Read and translate the following text into Romanian:

    The British Government

    The group of people who govern a country or state is called

    government. (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, Longman

    Dictionaries, c 1995)

    The British Cabinet is a body of ministers, normally about

    20, consisting mostly of heads of chief government departments but

    also including some ministers with few or no departmental

    responsibilities. It is headed by the Prime Minister. Its function is to

    formulate government policy and to carry it into effect. All members

    should fully support Cabinet decisions. A member who disagrees

    with a decision must resign. If the government loses a vote of

    confidence, or suffers any other major defeat in the House of

    Commons, the whole Cabinet must resign. (Adapted and abridged from Oxford Dictionary of Law, Ed. by Elizabeth A. Martin, Oxford University

    Press, c 2003)

    B.GRAMMAR SECTION:

    Tense Revision & Consolidation

    1.3.3. The Present SimpleTense and the Present Continuous

    Tense

    1.THE PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE

    Form

    The Present Simple Tense has the same form as the short infinitive

    (e.g.: come, be, go, sing, etc.), but adds s or es, for the third

    person singular (meaning he, she, it)

    For the interrogative and negative forms, we use the auxiliaty verb

    to do.

  • 12

    to play, played, played = a se juca

    Affirmative Interrogative Negative

    S + V+S/ES (IIIsg.) Do/Does +S+V S+do/does+not+V

    I play = eu m joc Do I play? I do not play

    You play = tu te joci Do you play? You do not play

    He plays = el se joac Does he play? He does not play

    She plays = ea se joac Does she play? She does not play

    It plays = el/ea se joac Does it play? It does not play

    We play = noi ne jucm Do we play? We do not play

    You play = voi v jucai Do you play? You do not play

    They play =ei/ele se joac Do they play? They do not play

    The negative short form:

    do not = dont

    does not = doesnt

    Use

    The Present Simple Tense is used to express:

    1. Repeated/habitual/permanent actions (+ adverbs such as:

    often, usually, never, always, sometimes, seldom, every day, in the

    morning, on Mondays, in winter, constantly, normally, regularly,

    etc.)

    E.g.:

    1.Willy usually doesnt wake up before 10:00 in the

    morning.(habitual action)

    2.John and Anne travel a lot.(repeated action)

    3.Camelias boyfriend doesnt eat meat.(permanent)

    4.Andreea works in an office.(permanent)

    5.Grace never smoke.(habitual action)

    2.General truths or characteristics: E.g.:

    1. The Sun rises in the east.

    2. The Earth moves round the sun.

    3. Two and two makes/make/is/are four.

    4. Water boils at 100 degrees C.

    5. Birds fly.

    3. Instantaneous Simple Present (momentary actions completed

    almost at the same time they are performed in contexts such as:

    cooking, demonstrations, ceremonial utterances, stage directions,

    radio or TV commentaries, announcements, headlines).

    E.g.:

    1. The goal-keeper misses the ball.

    2. I now mix the butter and the eggs.

    3. I put the tray in the oven.

    4. Here comes our teacher!

    5. There goes our bus!

    6. Jane enters the living-room, then draws the curtains!

    7 .He pronounces them man and wife.

    4. Planned future actions, when the future action is considered part

    of an already fixed programme, with verbs of movement, such as:

    come, go, leave, leave for, arrive, begin, start, end, finish. The

  • 13

    adverbials indicating future time are obligatory.

    E.g.:

    1. They leave San Antonio at 11 a.m. next Sunday and arrive in

    Bucharest at 4 p.m. local time.

    2. Our next Spanish lesson is on Friday.

    5.In temporal and conditional clauses replacing the future tense,

    when there is a future/present/imperative in the main clause:

    E.g.:

    1. Have something to eat before you go!

    2. He will come if he has time.

    3. He will come when he has time.

    2.THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

    Form: BE + V + ING

    The Present Continuous Tense is formed with the present tense of

    the verb to be and the ing form (the present participle) of the

    main verb. (BE + V+ING)

    to play, ed, -ed = a se juca

    Affirmative Interrogative

    I am/Im playing = eu m joc. Am I playing?

    You are /Youre playing. Are you playing?

    He is /Hes playing. Is he playing?

    She is/Shes playing. Is she playing?

    It is/Its playing. Is it playing?

    We are/Were playing. Are we playing?

    You are/Youre playing. Are you playing?

    They are/Theyre playing. Are they playing?

    Negative I am not / Im not playing. You are not / arent playing.

    He is not / isnt playing.

    She is not / isnt playing.

    It is not / isnt playing.

    We are not / arent playing.

    They are not / arent playing.

    Use

    The Present Continuous Tense is used to express:

    1.An action taking place at the moment of speaking. The action

    has duration and is not complete, it lasts.

    E.g.:

    1.Look! Its snowing!

    2.Im wearing my coat as it is cold.

    2.An action that extends over a period of time, not necessarily

  • 14

    including the moment of speaking.

    E.g.:

    1.I am reading a novel by John Fowles.

    2.Mother is studying the Bible.

    3.A temporary action/behaviour (+ an adverbial phrase indicating

    limited present time.)

    E.g.:

    1.Why are you being so rude these days? Youre usually so polite.

    2.I live in Edinburgh, but I am living in Glasgow this year.

    3.He usually walks to school, but today, he is going by bus.

    4.I teach English, but this year, Im teaching Spanish.

    5.I wear red colours, but today, Im wearing blue.

    4. A frequently repeated action which annoys the speaker (+adverbs of frequency)

    E.g.:

    1.My daughter is constantly losing her keys.

    2.He is always ringing me up at 2 a.m.

    5.A definite action planned for the near future

    E.g.:

    1.Were leaving for Freiburg on Monday.

    2.What are you doing tonight? We are meeting Adina.

    3.VERBS WHICH ARE NOT NORMALLY USED IN THE

    CONTINUOUS TENSE

    They refer to:

    1.feelings and emotions (like, dislike, love, adore, desire, mind,

    hate, detest, fear, prefer, want, wish, refuse, regret, loathe, care for)

    E.g.:

    1.I like icecream.

    2.You hate soup.

    3.He loves her.

    2.thinking/believing (think, understand, know, mean, realize,

    recognize, remember, forget, remind, hope, imagine, presuppose,

    suppose, suspect, guess)

    E.g.:

    1.Remind him to bring the book tonight!

  • 15

    2.I know the truth about that family.

    3. Do you understand her now?

    Note! think may be used in the countinuous tense when no

    opinion is given:

    E.g.:

    1.Im thinking of my future Fulbright grant. (a se gndi);

    2.I think that you are right. (a crede) (this is my opinion)

    3.perception (see, hear, smell, taste, feel, notice, observe, sound)

    E.g.:

    1.I (can) see a car now!

    Note! Several of these verbs may be used in the continuous tense

    with a change of meaning:

    E.g:

    SEE

    1.Im seeing John tonight. (to meet)

    2.They are seeing the sights. (to visit)

    3.Tom is seeing to some coffee. (to make)

    4.You will be hearing from her. (You will get news from her).

    SMELL, TASTE, FEEL may be used in the continous tense when

    they denote a voluntary action. Compare the following pairs of

    sentences:

    E.g.:

    1.a.This rose smells nice. (involuntary activity)

    1.b.Im smelling the rose. (voluntary activity)

    2.a.The soup tastes nice. (involuntary activity)

    2.b.Im tasting the soup. (voluntary activity)

    3.a.The material feels rough. (involuntary activity)

    3.b.The doctor was feeling mothers hand. (voluntary activity)

    4.having and being, mixed verbs (be, have, cost, resemble, own,

    possess, belong to, include, contain, consist of, matter, deserve,

    depend on, require, apply to, concern, involve)

    E.g.:

    1.a.This book costs $4.

    1.b.But: Books are costing more and more nowadays.

    2.a.Raluca resembles Nicholas.

    2.b.But: Raluca is resembling Nicholas more and more.

  • 16

    Note! Have and Be

    HAVE may be used in the continuous tense when its meaning is

    not: to own/possess:

    E.g.:

    1.They are having dinner out. (to eat)

    2.She is having a shower. (to wash)

    BE may be used in the continuous tense to show a temporary state

    as opposed to a usual characteristic:

    E.g.:

    1.He is such a good boy but now he is being naughty.

    2.I think you are being rather mean about this.

    (Adapted and abridged from:1. Sinteze de gramatic englez, Georgiana

    Gleanu-Frnoag, Ed. Albatros, Bucureti, 1987; 2. Gramatica limbii

    engleze, volumul I,Constantin Paidos Institutul European Iai, 1995)

    1.4. C.PRACTICE SECTION:

    Key Answer Guide for Self-assessment Activities

    The Synthesis of Learning Unit #1 through Self-assessment Tests:

    INTREBARI SI TESTE DE EVALUARE SI AUTOEVALUARE

    A.READING SECTION:

    1.Self-assessment Test on Legal Knowledge. THE BRITISH CONSTITUTION.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    1.Define the term constitution.

    a. A constitution is a set of rules which define the relationship between the various organs of

    government and between government and citizens of a country.

    b. A constitution is a set of games which define the relationship between the various organs of

    government and between government and citizens of a country.

    c. A constitution is a set of jokes which define the relationship between the various organs of

    government and between government and citizens of a country.

    2.Explain the purpose of the constitution.

    a. Its purpose is to set the criteria of the governmental power.

    b. Its purpose is to set the criteria of the governmental power and the rights and duties of the

    citizens.

    c. Its purpose is to set the criteria of the rights and duties of the citizens.

    3.What will the constitution of any individual country determine?

    a. The constitution of any individual country will determine the system of education in that

    country.

    b. The constitution of any individual country will determine the medical system in that country.

  • 17

    c. The constitution of any individual country will determine the system of government in that

    country.

    4.Name the organs or institutions of government.

    a. The executive, the legislative and the judiciary.

    b. The legislative and the judiciary.

    c. The executive and the legislative.

    5.What kind of role does the U.K. monarch have?

    a. In the United Kingdom, the monarch has a republican role.

    b. In the United Kingdom, the monarch has a constitutional role.

    c. In the United Kingdom, the monarch has a presidential role.

    6.When was the American constitutio first written?

    a.1587; b.1687; c.1787

    7.Can the American constitution be changed?

    a.Yes, it can, but by a complex predetermined procedure.

    b.Yes, it cannot, but by a complex predetermined procedure.

    c.No, it cannot be changed.

    8.Does the United Kingdom have a written constitution as the US does?

    a.No, it does, although certain elements of the constitution are contained in a number of different

    documents.

    b. No, it doesnt, although certain elements of the constitution are contained in a number of

    different documents.

    c. No, it doesnt, although certain elements of the constitution are not contained in a number of

    different documents.

    9.Who can alter the rules of the British constitution?

    a.The Monarch b.The Prime Minister c. The Parliament

    2.Self-assessment Test on Legal Knowledge. THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    1.Define government.

    a. The group of people who govern a country or state is called government.

    b. The group of people who rob a country or state is called government.

    c. The group of people who lie to a country or state is called government.

    2.What is the British Cabinet?

    a. The British Cabinet is a body of liers.

    b. The British Cabinet is a body of ministers.

    c. The British Cabinet is a body of thieves.

    3.By whom is the British Cabinet headed?

    a. It is headed by the Speaker.

    b. It is headed by a Member of Parliament.

    c. It is headed by the Prime Minister.

    4.What is the function of the British Cabinet?

    a. Its function is to formulate government policy and to carry it into effect.

    b. Its function is to formulate government politics and to carry it into effect.

    c. Its function is to formulate government police and to carry it into effect.

    5.Who should fully support the British Cabinet decisions?

    a.all citizens; b.all members; c. All Americans

    6.What must do a member who disagrees with a decision of the British Cabinet?

    a. A member who disagree with a decision must resign.

    b. A member who disagrees with a decision must resigns.

    c. A member who disagrees with a decision must resign.

    7.Who must resign from the British Cabinet?

  • 18

    a. A member who disagrees with a decision must resign.

    b. A citizen who disagrees with a decision must resign.

    c. An American who disagrees with a decision must resign.

    8.What happens if the British Government loses a vote of confidence?

    a. If the government loses a vote of confidence, the Monarch must resign.

    b. If the government loses a vote of confidence, the whole Cabinet must resign.

    c. If the government loses a vote of confidence, the Prime Minister must resign.

    9.When must the whole British Cabinet resign?

    a. If a citizen loses a vote of confidence, the whole Cabinet must resign.

    b. If a tourist loses a vote of confidence, the whole Cabinet must resign.

    c. If the government loses a vote of confidence, the whole Cabinet must resign.

    B.GRAMMAR SECTION:

    Tense Revision & Consolidation

    3.Self-assessment Test on Grammar Knowledge. The Present Simple Tense and the Present

    Continuous Tense

    Activity I

    Choose the correct verb form in each of the following sentence. Remember to look for clues

    that will make your choice.

    1. Amber and Alice always (go/are going) to the parolees at the end of the week. 2. The warden (fixes/is fixing) the broken window glass now.

    3. Her pistol never (works/is working).

    4. The Dean of the School of Law (invites/is inviting) us to a party every month.

    5. The President of the U.S.A. (speak/ am speaking)! Could you please, pay attention?

    6. When (do/are) you (leave/leaving) for the police station every morning?

    7. Jane Doe (plays/is playing) in a new TV detective serial.

    8. Our Dean (writes/is writing) a report that he will submit to the board.

    9. Our Dean (writes/is writing) reports that he submits to the board. (Adapted and abridged from English for the Real World, Andrea Penruddocke, Christopher A. Warnasch,

    A Random House Company, 2004)

    Keywords to be remembered: the British constitution, the British Cabinet, the Present Simple

    Tense, the Present Continuous Tense

    Comprehension Check:

    Activity 1

    A.Read the following words and learn their meanings.

    Chancellor of the Exchequer = Ministrul de Finane

    Speaker = Preedintele Camerei Comunelor

    Ombudsman = avocatul poporului

    Home Secretary =Ministrul de Interne (B.E.); Minister for Internal Affairs (Am.E.)

    Lord Chancellor = Ministrul Justiiei, Preedintele Camerei Lorzilor

    Prime Minister = Primul Ministru

    Foreign Secretary = Ministrul de Externe

    civil servant = funcionar public

    life peer = pair pe via

    Lords Spiritual = arhiepiscopi/episcopi, membri n Camera Lorzilor, membrii de drept

    Lords Temporal/Law Lords = membrii nereligioi din Camera Lorzilor, pairi ereditari sau pe

    via

  • 19

    Lords of Appeal in Ordinary/Law Lords = membrii din Camera Lorzilor, investii cu puteri

    judectoreti, magistrai

    standing committee = comisie permanent nsrcinat cu examinarea unui vechi proiect de lege

    B.Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct. Read and translate the following

    sentences into Romanian.

    1.The minister responsible for law and order in England and Wales is ... .

    a.Home Secretary b.civil servant c.Lord Chancellor

    2.A member of the administrative and executive staff of government departments is a ... .

    a.Foreign Secretary b.civil servant c.Chancellor of the Exchequer

    3.The head of the judiciary is the ... .

    a.Speaker b.Ombudsman c.Lord Chancellor

    4.The minister in charge of dealings with other countries is the ... .

    a.Foreign Secretary b.Prime Minister c.life peer

    5.The Cabinet minister who is the political head of the Treasury and is responsible for the

    control of public finances is the ... .

    a.Law Lords b.Chancellor of the Exchequer c.standing committee

    6.The person who presides over the House of Commons is the ... .

    a.Lords Spiritual b.Lords of Appeal in Ordinary c.Speaker

    7.An independent official who investigates complaints against the malfunctioning of

    government departments is the ... .

    a.Ombudsman b.Law Lords c.Lords Temporal

    8.The head of government is the ... .

    a.Lords Temporal b.Prime Minister c.life peer

    9.A peer who may not pass on his title to his children is a ... .

    a.standing committee b.Speaker c.life peer

    C.Read and translate the following sentences into Romanian.

    1.A generic term referring to hereditary or life peers as well as the Lords of Appeal in

    Ordinary is Law Lords/Lords Temporal.

    2.A permanent committee of MPs entrusted with the examination of Bills on specific matters is a

    standing committee.

    3.Archbishops and bishops of the Church of England that sit in the House of Lords are Lords

    Spiritual.

    4.Up to 11 holders of high judicial office who carry out the judicial functions of the Upper

    House also called Law Lords are Lords of Appeal in Ordinary. (Adapted from: Brookes, Michael, Christiane Treutenare, (2002), 1000 de cuvinte-cheie n Drept,

    Bucureti:

    Compania)

    Activity 2.

    A.Read the following words and learn their meanings.

    Cabinet = Cabinet, Guvern, Consiliu de Minitrii

    Shadow Cabinet = cabinet fantom

    Bill = proiect de lege

    hereditary peerage = rang/titlu de pair/nobil ereditar; titlu nobiliar ereditar; aristocraie

    Lower House = Camera Inferioar

    Green Paper = schia unui proiect de lege (de origine guvernamental)

    White Paper = proiect de lege, raport de politic general asupra unei probleme

    delegated legislation = dispoziii/ prevederi regulamentare

    reading = citirea n Parlament a unui proiect de lege

  • 20

    recess = vacan judectoreasc/parlamentar

    Statute Book = registru cu legile din Parlament

    Hansard = jurnalul oficial al Parlamentului britanic

    B.Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct. Read and translate the following

    sentences into Romanian.

    1.A body made up of some of the members of the main opposition party meeting from time

    to time and ready to take office is the ... .

    a.shadow cabinet b.Cabinet c.reading

    2.A body of ministers (presided over by the Prime Minister) which formulates government

    policy, sees that this policy is carried out, and initiates legislation is the ... .

    a.shadow cabinet b.Cabinet c.reading

    3.The formal presentation of a Bill to the House of Commons is the ... .

    a.shadow cabinet b.Cabinet c.reading

    4.An official document issued by the government as a statement of policy is the ... .

    a.White Paper b.Bill c.recess

    5.Draft of an Act of Parliament that must be passed by both Houses before becoming law

    a.White Paper b.Bill c.recess

    6.The holiday period for MPs meaning Members of Parliament is a ... .

    a.White Paper b.Bill c.recess

    7.A compilation of law enacted in the Houses of Parliament is the ... .

    a.Statute Book b.hereditary peerage c.Green Paper

    8.A title of nobility that is passed from one generation to another is ... .

    a.Statute Book b.hereditary peerage c.Green Paper

    9.A discussion document from the government on proposals for a new law to be debated in

    Parliament is a ... .

    a.Statute Book b.hereditary peerage c.Green Paper

    C.Read and translate the following sentences into Romanian.

    1.The House of Commons is the Lower House.

    2.Orders (having the power of Acts of Parliament) which are passed by a Minister to whom

    Parliament has delegated its authority is the delegated legislation.

    (Adapted from: Brookes, Michael, Christiane Treutenare, (2002), 1000 de cuvinte-cheie n Drept,

    Bucureti: Compania)

    Topics for Presentation:

    1.The Constitution of the U.K.

    2.The British Cabinet.

    Assessment and Self-assessment Tests

    Activity I.

    Translate the following sentences into English:

    1.Ea ntotdeauna urmrete filmul serial, In mintea crimnalului. Nu tiu de ce, astzi, se uit la

    Crimele din Midsummer.

    2.Ascult! Inculpatul spune iari minciuni.

    3.Acest martor un minte niciodat. Nu-i place.

    4.Ce facei n seara aceasta? Mergem s vizitm Penitenciarul de la Poarta Alb.

    5.Ct cost aceste pistoale? Nu tiu ct cost dar am nevoie de unul bun.

    6.Ateptm avionul cu prizonieri, de la Atlanta. De obicei sosete la timp.

    7.Englezii spun mereu c dreptul lor difer de dreptul american.

    8.Vincent se uit de obicei la filmul documentar despre femei criminale, lunea.

  • 21

    9.Cu ce ajungi la secia de poliie dimineaa? (Adapted and abridged from: English Practical Course, Camelia Boarc, Anca Magiru, (2002), Constana: Europolis.)

    Activity II

    Choose the most suitable word or phrase to complete each sentence:

    1.What exactly ...?

    a. is this job involving b.does this job involve

    2.Who exactly ... ?

    a.does own this car b.does this car belong to

    3. ... that we have been here for six months already

    a.Do you realise b.Are you realising

    4.Id like to stay longer. But ... just for the weekend.

    a.I come b.Ive come

    5.This new teaching job is really difficult, but ... .

    a.I survive b.Im surviving

    6.What ... on that notice?

    a.does it write b.does it say

    7.Ladies and gentlemen, I ... this ship Queen Mary.

    a.name b.am naming

    8.Absolutely! I ... with you completely.

    a.agree b.am agreeing

    9. ... this car. Do you want to buy it?

    a.I sell b.Im selling

    REVISION I

    Learning Unit # 1

    THE BRITISH CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    1.Define the term constitution.

    a.A constitution is a set of rules which define the relationship between the various organs

    of government and between government and citizens of a country.

    b.A constitution is a set of games which define the relationship between the various

    organs of government and between government and citizens of a country.

    c.A constitution is a set of jokes which define the relationship between the various

    organs of government and between government and citizens of a country.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    2.Explain the purpose of the constitution.

    a.Its purpose is to set the criteria of the governmental game between Jane and Emma.

    b.Its purpose is to set the criteria of the governmental power and the rights and duties of

    the citizens.

    c.Its purpose is to set the criteria of the rights and duties of John and Mary.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    3.What will the constitution of any individual country determine?

    a. The constitution of any individual country will determine the system of education in Romania.

    b. The constitution of any individual country will determine the medical system in Israel.

    c. The constitution of any individual country will determine the system of government in that country.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    4.Name the organs or institutions of government.

    a. The executive, the legislative and the judiciary.

    b. The legislative and the judiciary.

    c. The executive and the legislative.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

  • 22

    5.What kind of role does the U.K. monarch have?

    a. In the United Kingdom, the monarch has a republican role.

    b. In the United Kingdom, the monarch has a constitutional role.

    c. In the United Kingdom, the monarch has a presidential role.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    6.When was the American Constitution first written?

    a.That American Museum was built in 1587.

    b.That Castle was built in 1687.

    c.The American Constitution was first written in 1787.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    7.Can the U.S. Constitution be changed?

    a.The U.S. Constitution can be changed, but by a complex predetermined procedure.

    b.You can smoke in here, but you may not.

    c.You cannot enter this territory without permission.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    8.Does the United Kingdom have a written Constitution as the U.S. does?

    a.No, you are not allowed to use this dictionary during the examination.

    b.No, it doesnt, although certain elements of the constitution are contained in a number of different documents.

    c.No, the defendants rights havent been read to him.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    9.Who can alter the rules of the British Constitution?

    a.Raymond Chandler

    b.Agatha Christie

    c.The British Parliament

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    10.Define government.

    a.The group of people who govern a country or state is called government.

    b.The group of people who rob a country or state is called government.

    c.The group of people who lie to a country or state is called government.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    11.What is the British Cabinet?

    a. The British Cabinet is a body of liers.

    b. The British Cabinet is a body of ministers.

    c. The British Cabinet is a body of thieves.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    12.By whom is the British Cabinet headed?

    a. It is headed by William and Mike.

    b. It is headed by Kitty and Lidia.

    c. It is headed by the Prime Minister.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    13.What is the function of the British Cabinet?

    a. Its function is to formulate government policy and to carry it into effect.

    b. Its function is to play tennis every day.

    c. Its function is to go shopping in the centre of London.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    14.Who should fully support the British Cabinet decisions?

    a.The British Cabinet decisions should be fully supported by all the boys and girls under 14.

    b.The British Cabinet decisions should be fully supported by all its members;

    c.The British Cabinet decisions should be fully supported by John, Anne, Amber and Freddy.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    15.What must do a member who disagrees with a decision of the British Cabinet?

    a. A member who disagrees with a decision must stand up and recite a poem.

  • 23

    b. A member who disagrees with a decision must play hide-and-seek.

    c. A member who disagrees with a decision must resign.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    16.Who must resign from the British Cabinet?

    a. A member who disagrees with a decision must resign.

    b. Charles must resign.

    c. Annette must resign.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    17.What happens if the British Government loses a vote of confidence?

    a. If Tony loses the keys of the house, Camelia will be angry.

    b. If the government loses a vote of confidence, the whole Cabinet must resign.

    c. If Henry misses the plane, he will have to come back home.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    18.When must the whole British Cabinet resign?

    a. If Lawrence loses a vote of confidence, the whole Cabinet must resign.

    b. If Ralph loses a vote of confidence, the whole Cabinet must resign.

    c. If the government loses a vote of confidence, the whole Cabinet must resign.

    ANSWERS FOR THE ASSESSMENT, SELF-ASSESSMENT TESTS, ACTIVITIES

    LEARNING UNIT # 1: THE BRITISH CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT

    1.4.Key Answer Guide for Self-assessment Activities

    A.READING SECTION:

    1.Self-assessment Test on Legal Knowledge. THE BRITISH CONSTITUTION 1A; 2B; 3C; 4A; 5B; 6C; 7A; 8B; 9C.

    2.Self-assessment Test on Legal Knowledge. THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT 1A; 2B; 3C; 4A; 5B; 6C; 7A; 8B; 9C.

    B.GRAMMAR SECTION

    3.Self-assessment Test on Grammar Knowledge

    Activity I.1.go; 2.is fixing; 3.works;4.invites; 5.is speaking; 6.do leave; 7. is playing; 9.is writing; 10 writes.

    Comprehension Check

    Activity 1

    1.A; 2.B; 3.C; 4.A; 5.B; 6.C; 7.A; 8.B; 9.C.

    Activity 2

    1.A; 2.B; 3.C; 4.A; 5.B; 6.C; 7.A; 8.B; 9.C.

    Assessment and Self-assessment Tests

    Activity I.1.She always watches the serial film, The Mentalist. I dont know why shes watching The Midsummer

    Crimes, today. 2.Listen! The defendant is telling lies again. 3.This witness never lies. He/She doesnt like it.He/She

    hates it. 4.What are you doing tonight/this evening? We are going to visit Poarta Alb Prison (B.E.)/Penitenciary

    (Am.E.) 5.How much do these pistols cost?/How much are these pistols? I dont know how much they cost/how much

    they are but I need a good one. 6.We are waiting for the plane with prisoners from Atlanta. It usually lands/arrives on

    time. 7.The English always say that their law differs from the American law. 8.Vincent usually watches the

    documentary film on criminal women, on Mondays. 9.My fiance is always bringing me plastic flowers. I hate plastic

    flowers. 10.How do you get to the police station (B.E.)/district/precinct (Am.E.) in the mornings?

    Activity II. 1.B; 2.B; 3.A; 4.B; 5.B; 6.B; 7.A; 8.A; 9.B.

    1.4.1. Compulsory Bibliography

    1. Lister, Ronald, Klemens Veth, (2010), Dicionar juridic, englez-romn, romn-englez, Bucuresti: Ed.

    Niculescu;

    2. Magiru, Anca, (2013), Limba englez, (Curs n tehnologie ID/IFR), Bucureti: Editura Fundaiei Romnia de

    Mine;

    3. Magiru, Anca, (2011), English for Law Students, Bucuresti, Ed. Universitara;

    4. Magiru, Anca, (2011), English for Public Administration Students, Bucuresti, Ed. Universitara;

    5. Magiru, Anca, (2010), American Criminal Law, An Introduction for Law Students of English, Bucuresti: Ed.

    Universitara.

    Optional Bibliography

    1. Paidos, Constantin, (1995), Gramatica limbii engleze, Teorie i practic, vol. I, II, III Iai: Institutul

    European;

  • 24

    2. Voiculescu, Cecilia, (2005), Dicionar juridic, englez-romn, romn-englez, & terminologia UE-SUA,

    Bucureti: Ed.Niculescu.

    3. Brookes, Michael, Christiane Treutenare, (2002), 1000 de cuvinte in Drept, Bucuresti: Compania;

    4. Champion, Dean J., (1998), Dictionary of American Criminal Justice. Key Terms and Major Supreme Court

    Cases, Minot State University, London, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers;

    5. Constitutia Romaniei, (2004), Bucuresti: Ed. All Beck;

    6. The Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence, Reprinted 2001 by the Supreme

    Court Historical Society, 2001;

    7. Galateanu, Georgiana, Ecaterina Comisel (f.a.), Gramatica limbii engleze pentru uz scolar, Bucuresti: Ed.

    Didactica si Pedagogica;

    8. Martin, Elizabeth A., 2003, A Dictionary of Law, Oxford: Oxford University Press;

    9. Hanga, Vladimir, Rodica Calciu, (1994/2007), Dictionar juridic englez-roman si roman-englez, Bucuresti,

    Ed. Lumina Lex.

    1.4.2. Bibliographical References

    1. Boarc Camelia, Anca Magiru, (2002) , English Practical Course, Constana: Europolis;

    2. Brookes, Michael, Christiane Treutenare, (2002), 1000 de cuvinte-cheie n Drept, Bucureti: Compania;

    3. Gleanu-Frnoag, Georgiana, (1987), Sinteze de gramatic englez, Bucureti: Ed. Albatros;

    4. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, (c.1995), Longman Dictionaries;

    5. Oxford Dictionary of Law, (c.2003), Ed. by Elizabeth A. Martin, Oxford: Oxford University Press; 6. Paidos, Constantin, (1995), Gramatica limbii engleze, volumul I, Iai: Institutul European;

    7. Penruddocke, Andrea, Christopher A. Warnasch, (2004), English for the Real World, A Random House

    Company.

    Learning Unit # 2

    THE BRITISH LEGAL SYSTEM

  • 25

    The minute you read something you

    cant understand, you can almost be

    sure it was drawn up by a lawyer. Will Rogers, American entertainer

    SUBIECTUL LECTIEI

    2.1. Introduction 2.2. The Objectives and Competences of Learning Unit # 2 2.3. The Contents of Learning Unit # 2:

    A.READING SECTION: The British Legal System

    2.3.1. Statute Law

    2.3.2. Common Law

    2.3.3.European Union Law

    B.GRAMMAR SECTION: Tense Revision 2.3.4. The Past Simple Tense and the Past Continuous Tense

    C.PRACTICE SECTION: 2.4. Key Answer Guide for Self-assessment Activities

    2.4.1.Compulsory Bibliography

    2.4.1.Bibliographical References

    2.1. Introduction

    Statute Law. The body of law contained in Acts of Parliament.

    Common Law. The part of English law based on rules developed by

    the royal courts during the first three centuries after the Norman

    Coquest in 1066 as a system applicable to the whole country, as

    opposed to local customs. (Adapted and abridged from Oxford Dictionary

    of Law, fifth edtion, edited by Elizabeth A. Martin, Oxford University Press)

    OBIECTIVELE LECTIEI

    2.2. The Objectives and Competences of

    Learning Unit # 2

    The Objectives of Learning Unit # 2:

    O1 to understand the legal content:

    O1a.to study the main types of English law: statute law, common

    law, European Union law;

    O1b. to test the students legal knowledge;

    O2 to understand the language content:

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    O2a.:to revise the form and use of the Simple Past Tense and the

    Continuous Past Tense;

    O2b. to test the students grammar knowledge;

    O2c.:to rise the students interest in working with a good law

    dictionary.

    The Competences of Learning Unit # 2:

    C1. getting familiar with the main types of the English law: statute

    law, common law, European Union Law;

    C2. using correctly the Past Simple Tense and the Past Continuous

    Tense in writing and speaking; applying grammar rules and notions

    to ensure the correctness of speaking, writing, translating;

    C3. reading, translating, commenting different types of legal

    documents.

    The time assigned for Unit # 2: 8 classes

    CONTINUTUL LECTIEI

    2.3. The Contents of Learning Unit # 2

    A.READING SECTION:

    The British Legal Sysytem

    2.3.1. Statute Law

    Read and learn the following language notes, grammatical terms

    and vocabulary:

    Statute Law = 1.Law that is enacted by the legislature, Acts of

    Parliament (Seely, John, Law in Everyday Life, 2003, Oxford University

    Press); 2.The body of Law contained in Acts of Parliament (Oxford Dictionary of Law, Ed. By Elizabeth A. Martin, Oxford University Press,

    2003); SYN. statutory law;

    drept statutar; jurispruden; lege adoptat de parlament, text

    legislativ, drept statutar, drept scris, drept legislativ

    the Legislature (n) = puterea legislativ

    to administrate ,-d, -d (v) =a aplica, a administra

    the Executive (n) = puterea executiv

    the Judiciary (n) = puterea judectoreasc

    bill (n) = act normativ; proiect de

    lege/legislativ; the wording of a law while it is passing through

  • 27

    Parliament. It does not become the law of the land until it has

    received the Royal Assent. At this point it becomes an Act.

    to draft ,-ed, -ed (v) = (d.acte, documente, contracte) a

    schia, a elabora, a concepe; a redacta, a propune

    to initiate, -d, -d (v) = a ncepe, a iniia, a inaugura

    reading (n) = lectur/prezentare a unui proiect de

    lege n parlament

    to scrutinize, -d, -d (v) = (d. persoane, fapte, obiecte, acte) a

    cerceta, a inspecta, a examina atent/minuios

    to amend, -ed, -ed (v) = (d. un act normativ, proiect, un

    document juridic), a amenda, a revizui

    to pass, -ed, -ed on (v) = (d. rezoluii, propuneri legislative) a

    vota, a adopta, a promulga, a ratifica; a da/pronuna o sentin/o

    hotrre

    royal assent = acord/consimmnt regal/prin care

    Guvernul consimte la adoptarea unei legi; aprobare regal

    (obligatorie n Marea Britanie);

    when a bill has gone through all its stages in Parliament, it has to

    be approved by the Queen (receive the Royal Assent) before it

    becomes an Act and the law of the country

    Act of Parliament = act al Parlamentului

    the law of the land = legislaia unei ri

    wording = exprimare n scris, redactare

    Read and translate the following text into Romanian:

    2.3.1.Statute Law

    The Legislature (Parliament) makes laws which are

    administered by the Executive (Her Majestys Government) and

    when there are disputes, they are decided upon by the Judiciary (the

    judges and the courts). It is an important principle that the judiciary

    is completely independent of the Executive.

    Most new laws are initiated by the Government, although a

    few come from individual Members of Parliament. A bill is drafted

    and placed before Parliament. It receives three readings in the

    House of Commons, during which it is scrutinized in detail and

    amended, before passing on to the House of Lords which examines

    it in similar detail and may reject it all or in part. If this happens, it

    returns to the Commons, which may accept the Lords decision, or

    may insist that they reconsider. The lords cannot prevent the

    Commons from passing a bill, but they can delay the process even

    to the extent that the bill is lost through lack of time. Once a bill has

    passed through all its stages in Parliament, it goes to the Queen for

    the Royal Assent. At this point it becomes an Act of Parliament and

    the law of the land. (Adapted and abridged from: Seely, John, 2003, Law in Everyday Life, Oxford University Press)

  • 28

    2.3.2.Common Law

    Read and learn the following language notes: grammatical terms

    and vocabulary:

    Common law = Law that has developed from the decisions of

    judges, also called case law. Case law is the type of law that has

    been developed over the centuries by the accumulation of decisions

    by judges and courts. It is contrasted with statute law which is law

    enacted by Parliament. (Seely, John, 2003, Law in Everyday Life, Oxford University Press);

    drept comun/cutumiar, sistem de drept practicat n Anglia bazat pe

    precedent

    to arise-arose-arisen (v) = a aprea

    dispute (n) = disput, litigiu, conflict (ntre vecini,

    respectiv ntre state), ceart, controvers

    to adjudicate, -d, -d (v) = a judeca, a pronuna o hotrre, a

    judeca un conflict; a se pronuna, a emite o sentin

    to make, made, made a judgment = a da o sentin, hotrre

    judectoreasc, decizie, verdict

    litigant (n) = parte litigant, parte n litigiu/n

    proces; someone engaged in litigation either on their own account

    or through the services of a barrister or solicitor

    litigation = (n) litigiu, proces, caz; taking leagl action

    ruling (n) = hotrre judectoreasc

    to overturn, -ed, -ed (v) = (d.decizii, hotrri) a revoca, a nula, a

    invalida; a respinge, a rsturna, a da peste cap

    statute (n) = lege, statut

    Read and translate the following text into Romanian:

    Common Law

    Much of the English constitution is unwritten, having developed in

    response to events over the centuries. Something similar is true of

    the common law. As situations have arisen in which people have

    been in dispute, judges have been asked to adjudicate. If no law

    exists covering the exact details of the case, they make a judgment

    based on cases that are comparable. These written judgments have

    accumulated to form the common law. Where a litigant is unhappy

    with the judges ruling, he/she may appeal to a higher court. If this

    makes a different judgment, then that in turn, becomes part of the

    law. A lower court cannot overturn the judgment of a higher court.

    The judgments of the highest court in the land, the House of Lords,

    are always supreme. The only way in which its judgments can be

    overturned is by the passing of a new statute by Parliament.

    (Adapted and abridged from: Seely, John, 2003, Law in Everyday Life, Oxford University Press)

    2.3.3.European Union Law

  • 29

    Read and learn the following language notes, grammatical terms

    and vocabulary:

    the Commission (n) = Comisia Uniunii Europene/Comisia

    European

    commissioner (n) = comisar;comisar european

    to obey, -ed, -ed (v) = a respecta

    to lie, lay, lain with (v) =a rezida n, a sta n puterea

    to break-broke-broken a law = a nclca o lege

    to be referred to (v) = a fi deferit, a fi trimis

    guidance (n) = conducere, cluzire

    regulation (n) = regulament

    Read and translate the following text into Romanian:

    European Union Law

    In 1972 the United Kingdom entered the European Union.

    European Union law is superior to national law, namely to the

    legislation passed by Parliament.

    European Institutions

    There are four E.U. institutions involved in European law:

    The Commission, The European Parliament, The Council of

    Ministers, The European Court of Justice.

    The Commission

    It is the E.U.s civil service. It is headed by twenty four

    Commissioners appointed by the member states. Each

    Commissioner takes responsibility for a particular department. The

    Commissions role is to prepare legislation for debate and decision

    by the Council of Ministers. The Commission also has

    responsibility for checking that member states obey E.U. laws.

    The European Parliament

    Members of Parliament are elected by the citizens of the

    E.U. The Parliament is consulted about proposed legislation by the

    Council of Ministers, but it has very limited power to change

    legislation. It has power to accept or reject the annual budget.

    The Council of Ministers

    The real power lies with the Council of Ministers which

    debates and passes legislation. Each member state appoints a

    minister to represent it at its meetings, normally, but not always, the

    foreign minister. States have a number of votes proportionate to

    their size.

    The European Court of Justice

    If states break E.U. law they can be referred to the

    European Court of Justice. The Court makes judgments in disputes

    between European institutions, between these institutions and

    member states, and between member states. It also provides

    guidance to the courts of individual states on matters of European

    law.

    European Law

  • 30

    It is the court of the European Community which hears cases relaing to E.U. law. European Union law is superior to the law

    of individual member states; in other words, if there is a conflict

    between the law of a state and that of the E.U., then the E.U. has to

    be obeyed. European law can take four forms: Treaties,

    Regulations, Directives, Decisions of the European Court of Justice.

    (Adapted and abridged from: Seely, John, 2003, Law in Everyday Life, Oxford University Press)

    B.GRAMMAR SECTION:

    Tense Revision & Consolidation

    2.3.4. The Past Simple Tense and the Past Continuous

    Tense

    THE PAST SIMPLE TENSE

    Form

    The Past Simple Tense of the regular verbs is formed by adding ED

    to the short infinitive. Irregular verbs vary considerably in their

    simple

    past forms and must be learnt by heart.

    to play- played-played

    to see-saw-seen

    Affirmative Interrogative

    S+V+ED/II FORM DID+S+SHORT INFINITIVE

    I played. I saw. = M-am jucat. Am vzut.

    Did I play? Did I see?

    You played. You saw. Did you play? Did you see?

    He played. He saw. Did he play? Did he see?

    She played. She saw. Did she play? Did she see?

    It played. It saw. Did it play? Did it see?

    We played. We saw. Did we play?Did we see?

    You played. You saw. Did you play?Did you see?

    They played. They saw. Did they play?Did they see?

    Negative

    S+DID + NOT + SHORT INFINITIVE

    I did not play. I did not see. I didnt play/see

    You did not play. You did not see. You didnt play/see

    He did not play. He did not see. He didnt play/see

    She did not play. She did not see. She didnt play/see

    It did not play. It did not see. It didnt play/see

    We did not play. We did not see. We didnt play/see

    You did not play. You did not see. You didnt play/see

    They did not play. They did not see. They didnt play/see

    Use

    The Past Simple Tense is used:

    1.when both actions and time are finished.

  • 31

    E.g.:

    1.They arrived here at 10 a.m. yesterday.

    2.It took them twenty minutes to get there.

    3.They e-mailed their papers yesterday.

    4.He wrapped her present in paper.

    5.We didnt talk at all last night.

    2.You dont use did for questions or the negative of be:

    E.g.:

    1.He wasnt at the office yesterday.

    2.Werent you two best friends?

    3.The Past with Used to + short infinitive

    USED TO can introduce an action that was habitual, regular, or

    customary in the past.

    E.g.:

    1.Ralph used to share a room with his brother when he was a boy.

    2.When they lived in Texas, the Johnsons used to drive a lot more

    that they do now.

    3.I think it used to snow more when a I was a kid.

    4.They used to walk to school every day.

    Note! The question and the negative forms of this construction are:

    use to

    E.g.:

    1.Did you use to share a room when you were a boy?

    2.They didnt use to drive more when they lived in Texas.

    3.It didnt use to snow more when you were a kid.

    4.Did they use to walk to school every day or take the bus?

    4.The Past with Would+short infinitive

    Another way to talk about habitual past, especially when you want

    to talk about repeated actions, is to use WOULD:

    E.g.:

    1.Every day she would walk into the office with a big smile and say

    Good morning! to all of us.

    2.Every Christmas my brothers and I would try to stay awake to see

    Santa Claus. (Adapted and abridged from: English for the Real World, Andrea Penruddocke, Christopher A. Warnasch, A Random House

    Company, 2004)

    THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

    Form: BE + V + ING

    The Past Continuous Tense is formed by the past tense of the verb

    BE and the ING form (present participle) of the main verb.

    to play, played, played

    Affirmative Interrogative

    I was playing = m jucam Was I playing?

    You were playing Were you playing?

    He was playing Was he playing?

    She was playing Was she playing? It was playing Was it playing?

  • 32

    We were playing Were we playing?

    You were playing Were you playing?

    They were playing Were they playing?

    Negative

    Long form Short form

    I was not playing I wasnt playing

    You were not playing You werent playing

    He was not playing He wasnt playing

    She was not playing She wasnt playing

    It was not playing It wasnt playing

    We were not playing We werent playing

    You were not playing You werent playing

    They were not playing They werent playing

    Use

    The Past Continuous Tense is used to express an action in progress

    in the past, whose exact limits are not known and are not

    important.

    It expresses:

    1.activities in progress at a particular time in the past (at two

    oclock, (at) this time yesterday, all night, etc.):

    E.g.:

    1.He was playing tennis at this time yesterday.

    2.She was reading a magazine at two p.m. yesterday.

    3.They were talking when the phone rang.

    2.continuous activities during a definite period of time

    (temporary past):

    E.g.:

    1.We were playing tennis from 10 a.m. till noon.

    2.She was having a bath between 9 a.m. and 10 a.m.

    3.parallel continuous actions in the past:

    E.g.:

    1.I was listening to music while my mother was cooking dinner.

    2.The students were writing something down and talking at the

    same time.

    4.definite future arrangements made in the past:

    E.g.:

    1.She put on an elegant dress as she was meeting the president at

    seven.

    2.Our friends refused the invitation because they were leaving for

    Vienna tomorrow.

    5.Other uses:

    a.Polite inquiries: e.g.:

    I was wondering whether you could give me a lift.

    b.Reapeted annoying actions: e.g.:

    When I worked here, I was always making mistakes.

    c.Incomplete actions in the past: e.g.:

    They were reading about it somewhere recently.

    d.Casual past actions: e.g.:

    I was talking to mom the other day.

  • 33

    2.4. C.PRACTICE SECTION:

    Key Answer Guide for Self-assessment Activities

    The Synthesis of Learning Unit # 2 through Self-assessment Tests:

    INTREBARI SI TESTE DE EVALUARE SI AUTOEVALUARE

    A.READING SECTION:

    1.Self-assessment Test on Legal Knowledge. Statute Law.

    Activity I

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    1.The Legislature makes laws which are administered by:

    a.the Executive and by the Judiciary. b.the Executive c.the Judiciary

    2.Most new laws are initiated by:

    a.the Queen b.the Speaker c.the Government

    3.A bill drafted and placed before Parliament receives:

    a.two readings b.three readings c.four readings

    4.A bill goes to the Queen for:

    a.Royal Assent b.Royal Approval c.Royal Thanks

    2.Self-assessment Test on Legal Knowledge. Common Law.

    Activity II

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    1.Common law is the type of law that has developed over the centuries by:

    a. the accumulation of decisions by judges and courts.

    b. the accumulation of sentences.

    c.the accumulation of litigants.

    2.The written judgments have accumulated to form:

    a.the common law b.the civil law c.equity

    3.The highest court in England is:

    a.the House of Commons b.the House of Lords c.the Court of Appeal

    3.Self-assessment Test on Legal Knowledge. European Union Law

    Activity III

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    1.European Union Law is:

    a.superior to national law. b.inferior to national law. c.inferior to Parliament.

    2. There are E.U. institutions involved in European law

    a.three b.four c.five

    3. European Union Law is to the law of individual member states

    a.equal b.inferior c.superior

    B.GRAMMAR SECTION:

  • 34

    Tense Revision & Consolidation

    4.Self-assessment Test on Grammar Knowledge. The Past Simple Tense and the Past

    Continuous Tense.

    Activity I.

    Rewrite the following sentences in the past tense. For example, if you see, I go to the movies,

    youd rewrite the sentences as I went to the movies:

    1.Jill thinks about her life in prison.

    2.The advertising department spends a lot of money on commercials with criminals.

    3.Harry e-mails ex-convict about the trip.

    4.They do community service for nine hours.

    5.Annette takes the bus to go to the Government headquarters.

    6.Julie starts working in that prison on Tuesday.

    7.We dont take the bus to Law School every day.

    8.Annette sees this prisoner a lot.

    9.Emily does her shopping in the shopping area near the Houses of Parliament.

    10.Charles Dickens describes the obscure legal system in his time in his novel Bleak House. (Adapted from: English for the Real World, Andrea Penruddocke, Christopher A. Warnasch, A Random

    House Company, 2004)

    Activity II.

    Answer each of the following questions using the cues provided.

    1.Would you wake up early to work every morning on the farm? (Yes )

    2.Did you use to live in a house or an apartment? (house)

    3.Where did you use to go to school when you were a kid? (Kennedy Elementary School)

    4.Did he use to see his friends every weekend? (No )

    5.Where did you use to go on vacation as children? (to the beach)

    6.What would your professor wear to class every day? (the same hat)

    7.Did you use to live in a small town or a city before you came here? (small town)

    8.What would they eat for breakfast every day? (cereal)

    9.When did she use to wake up before she got a job? (10:00)

    10.When did they use to go for a walk together? (every morning) (Adapted from: English for the Real World, Andrea Penruddocke, Christopher A. Warnasch, A Random

    House Company, 2004)

    NOTIUNI CHEIE

    Keywords to be remembered: Statute Law, Common Law, European Union Law, the Past

    Simple Tense, the Past Continuous Tense

    Comprehension Check:

    Activity 1.

    Put the verbs in brackets into the Simple Past or Past Continuous:

    1.We in our house when the phone . (work, ring)

    2.Vincemt the book and to read. (open, start)

    3.Jude and Sue the film when suddenly the electricity off. (watch, go)

    4.When I the doorbell, I downstairs. (hear, run)

    5.Everyone quietly. Suddenly the door open. (talk, burst)

    6.She at over 100 mph when the fatal accident . (drive, happen)

    7.The burglers while we . (break in, sleep)

    8.I in C&A in Basel when I my purse. (shop, lose)

    9.John tennis and he his wrist. (play, break)

    10.Someone our clothes while we in the lake. (steal, swim)

  • 35

    (Adapted from English Practical Course, Camelia Boarc, Anca Magiru, Constana: Europolis, 2002)

    Topics for presentation:

    1.Statute Law.

    2.Common Law.

    3.The European Union Law.

    Assessment and Self-assessment Test

    Activity 1.

    Translate the following sentences into English:

    1.Fceam o prjitur cnd s-a stins lumina. A trebuit s o termin pe ntuneric.

    2.Ea nu vroia sa se ntlneasc cu Robert, aa c atunci cnd el a intrat n camer, ea a plecat.

    3.Sora mea fcea baie cand a sunat soneria. Foarte nervoas, ea a ieit din baie i s-a dus s

    rspund la u.

    4.In timp ce traversa strada, Jill a clcat pe o coaj de banan i a czut.

    5.Unchiul meu era foarte politicos. De cte ori soia lui intra n camer, el se ridica n picioare. (Adapted and abridged from: English Practical Course, Camelia Boarc, Anca Magiru, Constana:

    Europolis, 2002)

    REVISION II:

    Learning Unit # 2: THE BRITISH LEGAL SYSTEM

    I. TEST YOUR LEGAL KNOWLEDGE Revise: A.READING SECTION

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    1.The Legislature makes laws which are administered by:

    a.the Executive and the Judiciary

    b.the Executive and William

    c.the Judiciary and Mary

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    2.Most new laws are initiated by:

    a.the Spanish boy

    b.the Government

    c.the teacher of German

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    3.A bill drafted and placed before Parliament receives

    a.three boxes of chocolates

    b.three blouses

    c.three readings

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    4.A bill goes to the Queen for:

    a.Royal Assent

    b.Royal Bank of Scotland

    c.Royal Thanks

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    5.Common law is the type of law that has developed over the centuries by

    a.the accumulations of flowers.

    b.the accumulations of decisions by judges and courts.

    c.the accumulations of law books on the benches in parks.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    6.The written judgments have accumulated to form

    a.a house

    b.a university

  • 36

    c.the common law

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    7.The highest court of England is:

    a.the House of Lords

    b.my house

    c.a schoolyard

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    8.European Union Law is

    a.inferior to any national law

    b.superior to any national law

    c.inferior to Parliament

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    9.There are E.U. institutions involved in European law:

    a.flowers

    b.letters

    c.four

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    10.European Union Law is to any national law.

    a.superior

    b.equal

    c.inferior

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    11.Jill thought about her life in prison, .

    a.now

    b.at this time, yesterday

    c.tomorrow

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    12.Faceam o prajitura cand s-a stins lumina.

    a.You and Amber baked a cake when the light went off.

    b.John and Harry were baking some cakes when the light went off.

    c.I was baking a cake when the light went off.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    13.A trebuit sa termin prajitura pe intuneric.

    a.I had to finish the cake in the dark.

    b.You and Amber had to finish the cake in the dark.

    c.John and Harry had to finish the cake in the dark.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    14.Ea nu vroia sa se intalneasca cu Robert, asa ca atunci cand ea a intrat in camera, el a plecat.

    a.Susan didnt want to meet William, therefore, when he entered the room, she left.

    b.She didnt want to meet Robert, therefore, when he entered the room, she left.

    c.Celia didnt want to meet Billy, therefore, when he entered the room, she left.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    15.Sora mea facea baie cand a sunat soneria.

    a.My mother was having a bath when the doorbell rang.

    b.My father was having a bath when the doorbell rang.

    c.My sister was having a bath when the doorbell rang.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    16.In timp ce traversa strada, Jill a calcat pe o coaja de banana si a cazut.

    a.While Jill was crossing the street, she stepped on a banana skin and fell.

    b.While Willy was crossing the street, he stepped on a banana skin and fell.

    c.While Roger was crossing the street, he stepped on a banana skin and fell.

  • 37

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    17.De cate ori sotia lui intra in camera, el se ridica in picioare.

    a.Whenever his mother entered the room, he used to stand up.

    b.Whenever his wife entered the room, he used to stand up.

    c.Whenever his father entered the room, he used to stand up.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    18.Obisnuiam sa beau ceai cu lapte cand locuiam in Scotia.

    a.I used to drink tea and milk while I was living in Israel.

    b. I used to drink tea and milk while I was living in Texas.

    c.I used to drink tea and milk while I was living in Scotland.

    ANSWERS

    LEARNING UNIT # 2: THE BRITISH LEGAL SYSTEM

    2.4.Key Answer Guide for Self-assessment Activities

    A.READING SECTION:

    1.Self-assessment Test on Legal Knowledge. Statute Law 1.a; 2.c; 3.b; 4.a

    2.Self-assessment Test on Legal Knowledge. Common Law 1.a; 2.a; 3.b

    3.Self-assessment Test on Legal Knowledge. The European Union Law 1.a; 2.b; 3.c

    B.GRAMMAR SECTION:

    Activity I. 1.Jill thought about her life in prison. 2.The advertising department spent a lot of money on commercials

    with criminals.3.Harry e-mailed that ex-convict about the trip.4.They did community service for nine hours.5.Annette

    took the bus to go to the Government headquarters. 6.Julie started working in that prison on Tuesday.7.We didnt take

    the bus to Law School every day. 8.Annette saw this prisoner a lot.9.Emily did her shopping in the shopping area near

    the Houses of Parliament. 10.Charles Dickens described the obscure legal system, in his time, in the novel, Bleak

    House.

    Activity II. 1.Yes, I would wake up