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    Universitatea Spiru Haret Bucuresti

    Facultatea de Stiinte Juridice si Stiinte Economice, Constanta

    Departamentul Stiinte Juridice

    LIMBA ENGLEZĂ

    (Culegere de texte şi exerciţii)

    THE U.K. AND ITS LEGAL SYSTEM

    SINTEZE (NOTE DE CURS)

    AN I, SEMESTRUL II

    Lector univ. dr. Anca Magiru

    2018

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    INTRODUCTION

    A knowledge of the English and American legal systems is important for our full-time

    law students at Spiru Haret School of Law and Economics, Constanţa. The coursebook, which is

    a collection of authentic legal texts and also an anthology of grammar exercises, gathered and

    compiled from different law textbooks and English grammar exercise books, provides an

    introduction to the English and American legal systems and the means to develop the language

    and analytical skills which form an essential part of the legal study. The book will be used for the

    law students of Spiru Haret University and, therefore, the book is not for sale in book stores,

    except Spiru Haret University book stores. The double purpose of this coursebook is: 1.to

    provide factual knowledge by exploring legal texts, and 2.to develop the necessary language and

    analytical skills for part-time law students of English to whom it specifically addresses.

    Information is given on basic grammatical areas which arise from texts and on

    vocabulary (word formation and use of legal vocabulary). Activities concentrate on reading,

    writing and study skills with some work on oral functions. In gathering the texts for this

    coursebook, the author took into account the requirements laid down in the Analytical Program

    for the part-time law students at Spiru Haret University School of Law and Public

    Administration.

    The coursebook comprises 14 units each unit dealing with an individual subject. The

    broad subject-matter of each unit is broken down into two parts to provide a structured approach

    to the subject.

    The factual content, in VOLUME I, THE FIRST YEAR OF STUDY, is presented

    through extracts from authentic texts, in the Reading Section, which is followed by

    comprehension questions and exercises included in the Assessment and/or Self-assessment Tests

    Section. Part One introduces some general features of the English law and legal system which will provide a background to the following topics: 1.The British Constitution and

    Government, 2.The British Legal System, 3.The English Criminal Courts, 4.The English

    Civil Cases, 5.The Legal Professionals (I). Lawyers, 6.The Legal Professionals (II).

    Magistrates and Judges, 7.The Legal Professionals (III). The Crown Prosecution

    Service.Tribunals. Ombudsmen. This Section is followed by the Grammar Section containing

    a set of activities meant to brush up the students’ English grammar.

    VOLUME II, THE SECOND YEAR OF STUDY is concerned with legal texts about the

    American law and legal system. The Reading Section of this Part also introduces some general

    features of the American law and legal system which will provide a background to the following

    topics: 1.The U.S. Constitution. The Role of the Constitution, 2.The U.S. Legal System. The U.S.

    Legal Professionals, 3.The U.S. Department of Justice, 4.The U.S. Courts, 5.Trials Procedures,

    6.Interrogations and Confessions. Miranda Warnings, 7.The Law and the Civil Liberties.The Bill

    of Rights. This Section is followed by the Grammar Section containing a set of activities meant to

    brush up the students’ English grammar, as well. Both PARTS, as far as grammar is concerned,

    focus on tenses, modal verbs, moods, conditionals, passive voice, in short, a revision of the

    English verb.

    The book also contains a list of irregular verbs, a list of language notes, grammatical

    terms, and vocabulary, and the bibliography used.

    The author hopes that her effort to have this coursebook published will be fully

    appreciated and successfully used by the part-time students who really take an interest in English

    for Law.

    The Objectives of the Coursebook

    The main objectives of this coursebook are:

    1.to provide factual knowledge by exploring authentic legal texts;

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    2.to develop the necessary language and analytical skills for part-time law students of English to

    whom it specifically addresses;

    3.to improve their grammar, expand their vocabulary, refine their pronunciation;

    4.to help students to speak naturally.

    The Competences of the Coursebok

    At the end of this coursebook, the students will be able to develop their abilities and practical

    skills in English. They are expected:

    1. to use correctly the English verb (tenses, moods, voice, modal verbs), in writing and speaking;

    2.to apply grammar rules and notions to ensure the correctness of speaking, writing, translating,

    explaining;

    3.to understand the English and American legal content;

    4. to understand the language content;

    5.to get familiar with all the topics discussed;

    6.to read, translate, comment on different types of legal documents.

    7.to get familiar with the basic history of the U.S.A., the U.K.; to learn more about their cultures,

    lives and civilizations.

    Means and Teachings Aids

    The main working instrument will be the coursebook. The author would like to mention that

    the following means and teaching aids are not only necessary but compulsory. There follows two

    lists:

    1. a list of compulsory materials for students such as: an English-English law dictionary, a

    Romanian-English, English-Romanian dictionary of law terms, the Romanian Constitution, a

    PC/laptop; Constantin Paidos, Gramatica limbii engleze, Teorie şi practică, volumes I,II,III,

    Institutul European, Iaşi, 1995.

    2.and a list of materials for instructors, such as: laptop, internet, the flags of the U.S.A., of

    the U.K., and of Romania, the Constitution of the U.S.A., some British constitutional texts, the

    Holy Bible, books on American and British law, life, culture, civilization; American and British

    newspapers containing articles on different types of crimes; books containing American and

    English case studies, real and hypothetical; the maps of U.S.A. and of the U.K.; books containig

    humouristic articles on law and/or law quotations; detective short stories, films and

    documentaries on crimes.

    The Structure of the Coursebook

    The coursebook contains two parts, (corresponding to the first year of study, and

    respectively, to the second year of study), and 7 learning units, each:

    YEAR 1: THE U.K. AND ITS LEGAL SYSTEM

    Part One: The U.K. and Its Legal System

    Learning Unit # 1.

    1st YEAR: SEMESTER I THE BRITISH CONSTITUTION AND

    GOVERNMENT ( 8 classes)

    Learning Unit # 2.

    THE BRITISH LEGAL SYSTEM (8 classes)

    Learning Unit # 3.

    THE ENGLISH CRIMINAL COURTS (8 classes )

    Learning Unit # 4.

    1st YEAR: SEMESTER II THE ENGLISH CIVIL CASES (8 classes)

    Learning Unit # 5.

    THE LEGAL PROFESSIONALS (I). LAWYERS (8 classes)

    Learning Unit # THE LEGAL PROFESSIONALS (II)

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    6. MAGISTRATES AND JUDGES (8 classes) Learning Unit #

    7. THE LEGAL PROFESSIONALS (III). CROWN

    PROSECUTION SERVICE. TRIBUNALS. OMBUDSMEN (OPTIONAL)

    Part Two: The U.S. and Its Legal System:

    Learning Unit # 1.

    2nd YEAR , SEMESTER I THE U.S. AND ITS LEGAL SYSTEM THE U.S. CONSTITUTION. THE ROLE OF THE

    CONSTITUTION (8 classes)

    Learning Unit # 2.

    THE U.S. LEGAL SYSTEM. THE U.S. LEGAL PROFESSIONALS (8 classes)

    Learning Unit # 3.

    THE U.S. COURTS (8 CLASSES)

    Learning Unit # 4.

    2nd YEAR SEMESTER II THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (8 classes)

    Learning Unit # 5.

    THE U.S. CIVIL AND CRIMINAL TRIALS AND THEIR STAGES (8 classes)

    Learning Unit # 6.

    INTERROGATIONS AND CONFESSIONS. MIRANDA WARNINGS (8 classes)

    Learning Unit # 7.

    THE LAW AND THE CIVIL LIBERTIES. THE BILL OF RIGHTS (OPTIONAL)

    Assignments

    The students are given assignments after each Learning Unit. They are supposed to solve all the

    assessment and self-assessment tests by themselves making use of the answer section and also

    write and present and/or speak of the following topics after each Learning Unit, namely:

    Volume One / The First Year of Study

    1.The Constitution of the U.K..The British Cabinet

    2.Statute Law. Common Law. The European Union Law

    3.Magistrates’ Courts. Crown Courts. Criminal Offences

    4.The English Civil Cases. The English Civil Courts

    5.The English Lawyers: a. Barristers; b.Solicitors; c. Paralegals

    6.The English Magistrates.The English Judges

    7.The Crown Prosecution Service (CPS). Tribunals. Ombudsmen

    Volume Two / The Second Year of Study

    1.The U.S. Constitution. The Roel of the Constitution

    2.The U.S. Judges. The U.S. Jury. The U.S. Attorneys

    3.The Attorney General. The Solicitor General. FBI

    4.The Federal Courts. The State Courts. The Supreme Courts

    5.The Civil Trials. The Criminal Trials

    6.Miranda Warnings

    7.The Bill of Rights. The American Civil Liberties

    Compulsory Bibliography

    Lister, Ronald, Klemens Veth, (2010), Dicţionar juridic, englez-român, român-englez, Bucuresti:

    Ed. Niculescu

    Magiru, Anca, (2013), Limba engleză, (Curs în tehnologie ID/IFR), Bucureşti: Editura Fundaţiei

    România de Mâine;

    Magiru, Anca, (2011), English for Law Students, Bucuresti, Ed. Universitara;

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    Magiru, Anca, (2011), English for Public Administration Students, Bucuresti, Ed. Universitara;

    Magiru, Anca, (2010), American Criminal Law, An Introduction for Law Students of English,

    Bucuresti: Ed. Universitara.

    Optional Bibliography

    Paidos, Constantin, (1995), Gramatica limbii engleze, Teorie şi practică, vol. I,II,III Iaşi:

    Institutul European;

    Voiculescu, Cecilia, (2005), Dicţionar juridic, englez-român, român-englez, & terminologia UE-

    SUA, Bucureşti: Ed.Niculescu.

    Brookes, Michael, Christiane Treutenare, (2002), 1000 de cuvinte in Drept, Bucuresti: Compania;

    Champion, Dean J., (1998), Dictionary of American Criminal Justice. Key Terms and Major

    Supreme Court Cases, Minot State University, London, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers;

    Constitutia Romaniei, (2004), Bucuresti: Ed. All Beck;

    The Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence, Reprinted 2001 by

    the Supreme Court Historical Society, 2001;

    Galateanu, Georgiana, Ecaterina Comisel (f.a.), Gramatica limbii engleze pentru uz scolar,

    Bucuresti: Ed. Didactica si Pedagogica;

    Martin, Elizabeth A., 2003, A Dictionary of Law, Oxford: Oxford University Press;

    Hanga, Vladimir, Rodica Calciu, (1994/2007), Dictionar juridic englez-roman si roman-englez,

    Bucuresti, Ed. Lumina Lex.

    Assessment Methods

    The final examination is an electronic multiple choice test. The instructor will also take into

    account the students’ seminar activities and also the assessments during the academic terms.

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    CONTENTS INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………………………..

    PART ONE, THE FIRST YEAR OF STUDY: THE U.K. AND ITS LEGAL SYSTEM

    SEMESTER II

    Learning Unit # 4

    THE ENGLISH CIVIL CASES

    4.1. Introduction 4.2. The Objectives and Competences of Learning Unit # 4 – time assigned 4.3. The Contents of Learning Unit # 4:

    A.Reading Section: The English Civil Cases

    4.3.1.The Civil Cases

    4.3.2. The Civil Courts

    B.Grammar Section: Tense Revision

    4.3.3.The Past Perfect Simple Tense and the Past Perfect Continuous Tense

    4.4. Key Answer Guide for Self- assessment Activities

    4.4.1.Compulsory Bibliography

    4.4.2.Bibliographical References

    Learning Unit # 5

    THE LEGAL PROFESSIONALS (I). LAWYERS 5.1. Introduction 5.2. The Objectives and Competences of Learning Unit #5 – time assigned 5.3. The Contents of Learning Unit # 5:

    A.Reading Section: The Legal Professionals (I). Lawyers

    5.3.1.The Legal Professionals (I). Lawyers

    B.Grammar Section: Tense Revision

    5.3.2.Expressing Future Time (I)

    5.4. Key Answer Guide for Self-assessment Activities 5.4.1.Compulsory Bibliography

    5.4.2.Bibliographical References

    Learning Unit # 6

    THE LEGAL PROFESSIONALS (II). MAGISTRATES AND JUDGES

    6.1. Introduction 6.2. The Objectives and Competences of Learning Unit # 6 – time assigned 6.3. The Contents of Learning Unit # 6:

    A.Reading Section: The Legal Professionals (II). Magistrates and Judges

    6.3.1.The Legal Professionals (II). Magistrates and Judges

    B.Grammar Section: Tense Revision

    6.3.2.Expressing Future Time (II)

    6.4. Key Answer Guide for Self-assessment Activities

    6.4.1.Compulsory Bibliography

    6.4.2.Bibliographical References

    Learning Unit # 7(OPTIONAL)

    THE LEGAL PROFESSIONALS (III). CROWN PROSECUTION SERVICE.

    TRIBUNALS. OMBUDSMEN (OPTIONAL)

    7.1 Introduction 7.2 The Objectives and Competences of Learning Unit # 7 – time assigned

  • 7

    7.3 The Contents of Learning Unit # 7: A.Reading Section: The Legal Professionals (III). Crown Prosecution Service. Tribunals.

    Ombudsmen

    7.3.1. The Legal Professionals (III). Crown Prosecution Service. Tribunals. Ombudsmen

    B.Grammar Section: Tense Revision:

    7.3.2.Expressing Future Time (III)

    7.4. Key Answer Guide for Self-assessment Activities

    7.4.1.Compulsory Bibliography

    7.4.2.Bibliographical References

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    CONTINUT CURS SI SEMINAR. CURSUL ESTE MARCAT CU ROSU

    Learning Unit # 4

    THE ENGLISH CIVIL CASES

    Four things belong to a judge: to hear

    courteously, to answer wisely, to consider

    soberly, and to decide impartially. Socrates, Greek philosopher

    4.1. Introduction

    4.2. The Objectives and Competences of Learning Unit # 4

    4.3. The Contents of Learning Unit # 4:

    A.Reading Section: The English Civil Cases

    4.3.1. Civil Cases

    4.3.2. Civil Courts

    B.Grammar Section: Tense Revision

    4.3.3. The Past Perfect Simple Tense and the Past Perfect Continuous Tense

    C.PRACTICE SECTION:4.4. Key Answer Guide for Self-assessment Activities

    4.4.1.Compulsory Bibliography

    4.4.2.Bibliographical References

    4.1. Introduction

    Civil Court. A court exercising jurisdiction over civil rather than

    criminal cases. In England, the principal civil courts of first instance

    are the county courts and the High Court. Magistrates’ Courts have

    limited civil jurisdiction, mainly confined to matrimonial

    proceedings. (Definition from Oxford Dictionary of Law, fifth edtion,

    edited by Elizabeth A. Martin, Oxford University Press)

    4.2. The Objectives and Competences of Learning Unit # 4

    The Objectives of Learning Unit # 4:

    O1 to understand the legal content: O1a.to provide a factual account of the structure of the English civil courts;

    O1b.to test the students’ legal knowledge

    O2 to understand the language content:

    O2a.:to revise the form and use of the Past Perfect SimpleTense and the

    Past Perfect Continuous Tense

    O2b.to test the students’ grammar knowledge

    O2c.: to rise the students’ interest in working with a good law dictionary.

    The Competences of Learning Unit # 4:

    C1. getting familiar with the structure of the English civil courts;

    C2. using correctly the Past Perfect Simple Tense and the Past Perfect

    Continuous Tense in writing and speaking; applying grammar rules and

    notions to ensure the correctness of speaking, writing, translating;

    C3. reading, translating, commenting different types of legal documents. The time assigned for Unit # 4: 8 classes

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    4.3. The Contents of Learning Unit # 4

    A.READING SECTION:

    The English Civil Cases

    4.3.1. Civil Cases

    Read and learn the following language notes, grammatical terms

    and vocabulary:

    to bring, brought, brought a case/an action = a intenta

    proces/acţiune

    individual = (n) individ, om, persoană fizică

    claimant = (n) reclamant, parte vătămată

    defendant = (n) inculpat, acuzat, pârât

    to sue, -d, -d = (v) a da/a acţiona pe cineva în judecată, a urmări

    în justiţie pe cineva, a intenta proces cuiva

    to breach, -ed, -ed a contract = (v) a încălca prevederile unui

    contract

    tort = (n) delict civil, ofensă, act prejudicial, răspundere

    civilă, faptă ilicită; daună, prejudiciu

    The legal term tort comes from a medieval French word meaning

    wrong or injustice. It is a principle of the legal system that people

    have a right to security of their persons and property, If that right is

    infringed, then they are entitled to compensation. Another principle

    is that if by my actions I injure another person or their property

    then they have the right to claim compensation from me. The

    commonest forms of tort are:1.negligence, 2.defamation,

    3.trespass, 4. nuisance.

    tort law = dreptul răspunderii civile (delictuale)

    1.negligence = (n) neglijenţă, neatenţie, dezinteres, scăpare,

    omisiune

    It is a type of tort caused by failure in the duty of care. If you hurt

    someone or damage their property becauase you haven’t sufficient

    care, then they may sue you for damages (repairs to their goods or

    compensation for their injuries). If the failure in the duty of care

    was very great, then the offence is referred to as gross negligence.

    If a person is killed as a result of gross negligence, the charge is

    manslaughter.

    gross negligence = neglijenţă gravă

    manslaughter = omucidere, crimă, omor

    A killing that is not a murder but which was against the law and

    was not accidental. There are two types of manslaughter: voluntary

    and involuntary.

    involuntary manslaughter = omor/ucidere din culpă

    Involuntary manslaughter covers cases where the death by gross

    negligence or is the result of a criminal action that was likely to

    lead to danger to the victim.

    voluntary manslaughter = omor cu circumstanţe atenuante (în

    legitimă apărare, din cauza unor probleme mintale)

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    Voluntary manslaughter covers actions which would be murder, but

    the circumstances mean that the severy of the crime is reduced (for

    example: diminished responsibility, and suicide pacts).

    suicide pact = pact de sinucidere; înţelegere între două sau mai

    multe persoane de a se sinucide în acelaşi timp şi uneori în acelaşi

    loc;

    2.defamation = (n) defăimare, calomniere, insultă; denigrare,

    discreditare

    If A makes public a statement that damages B’s reputation, B may

    sue A for defamation. A has harmed B personally (which is a tort)

    and B may require recompense in the form of damages; B will also

    want the truth made public.

    3.trespass = (n) delict, contravenţie, violare/încălcare a legii;

    (în dreptul penal) trespass to the person = infracţiune contra

    persoanei;

    trespass to goods = infracţiune contra bunurilor/patrimoniului;

    trespass to land = violare de proprietate, faptă ilicită constând în

    intrarea intenţionată/pătrunderea ilegală pe terenul/proprietatea

    cuiva (în Marea Britanie, nu este o infracţiune care să fie

    sancţionată)

    The word trespass comes from an Old French word meaning

    passing across, passage. A useful substitute word for its legal

    meaning might be interference. In English law it comes in three

    forms:

    trespass to land: if you pass across a person’s land without their

    permission

    trepass to goods: if you remove a person’s property without

    permission or if you damage it;

    trepass to person: if you injure a person physically (battery) or

    make them fear such injury (assault), or restrict their freedom of

    movement (false imprisonment = arestare). In all these situations

    you can sue for damages.

    4.nuisance = (n) prejudiciu, contravenţie, daună, pagubă; în dreptul

    penal: common/public nuisance = tulburarea liniştii/ordinii

    publice; încălcare a normelor de drept, în sistemul common law,

    care afectează întreaga comunitate; în dreptul civil, private

    nuisance = neplacere/prejudiciu adus/ă cuiva; tulburarea posesiei şi

    folosinţei unui teren

    Nuisance is a form of tort or crime in which someone interferes with

    another person’s life. For example, if you live next door to me, in a

    residential area, and set up a workshop in your garden and then use

    noisy machinary in the middle of the night, I can reasonably

    complain that you are interfering with my enjoyment of my property,

    part of which is the assumption that at night it will be peaceful

    enough for me to get a decent night’s sleep. Common forms of

    nuisance are: noise, smells, air pollution. There are two types of

    nuisance: private nuisance and public nuisance. Private nuisance

    is a tort and public nuisance is a crime.

    Read and translate the following text into Romanian:

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    Civil Cases

    Civil cases can be brought by individuals, companies,

    organizations. The individual bringing the action is referred to as the

    claimant and the individual defending it as the defendant. The

    majority of civil cases in which one individual sues another fall into

    two categories: breach of contract and tort. Torts include assault,

    negligence and defamation.

    Court cases are expensive, so claimants and defendants will

    often seek to resolve their disputes without actually going to court. (Adapted and abridged from: Law in Everyday Life, John Seely,

    Oxford University Press, 2003)

    4.3.2Civil Courts

    Read and learn the following language notes, grammatical terms

    and vocabulary:

    licence = (n) licenţă, autorizaţie, permis

    pub = (n) cârciumă, bodegă, tavernă, han

    maintenance payment = întreţinere a copiilor/familiei; susţinere;

    finanţare

    welfare = (n) ajutor social; asistenţă socială; bunăstare,

    securitate socială, prosperitate

    County Court = instanţă locală/regională; tribunal local/regional

    The local courts which hear civil case. A large number of cases are

    conducted in the County Court, including personal injuries, debt,

    racial and sexual discrimination, and undefended divorce cases.

    personal injury = vătămare corporală

    undefended = fără/lipsit de apărare, neprotejat, neocrotit

    High Court (of Justice) = Curtea Supremă de Justiţie în

    Anglia şi Tara Galilor (cu trei departamente)

    The main court for civil cases. It has three divisions: Chancery

    Division, Family Division, Queen’s Bench Division

    Family Division (of the High Court) = complet al Inaltei Curţi

    specializat în dreptul familiei

    probate = (n) autentificarea/legalizarea unui testament; procedură

    judiciară de atestare a valabilităţii unui testament

    Queen’s Bench (Division)(QBD) = instanţă de judecată în

    sistemul “common law”, care este competentă în cauzele referitoare

    la delicte civile, răspundere contractuală şi calomnie

    It is the division of the High Court that deals with larger cases

    concerning tort and contract law. It also deals with requests for

    judicial review.

    claim = (n) cerere/pretenţie financiară legală; reclamaţie;

    revendicare

    compensation = (n) despăgubire, compensare; compensaţie

    judicial review = analiză jurisprudenţială; revizuire

    judiciară

    Chancery Division = secţie a Curţii Supreme de Justiţie care este

    competentă să soluţioneze cauzele de dreptul afacerilor

  • 12

    Chancery Division of the High Court. The part of the High Court of

    Justice that deals with wills, the ownership of real estate, trusts,

    companies, and intellectual property.

    bankrupcy = (n) bancrută, faliment, incapacitate de plată

    Inland Revenue = Fiscul; Garda Financiară; Administraţia

    Financiară

    rule = regulă, normă, principiu

    Read and translate the following text into Romanian:

    Civil Courts

    4.3.3.Magistrates’Court

    Certain civil cases are heard in Magistrates’ Courts. These

    include failure to pay taxes: the licensing of pubs and clubs, a

    variety of family cases including maintenance payments, and the

    welfare of children.

    County Court

    A large number of cases are heard in the County Court such as:

    personal injuries, debt, racial and sexual discrimination,

    undefended divorce cases.

    High Court

    More serious civil cases go to the High Court. This court

    has three Divisions:

    Family Division, Queen’s Bench Division, Chancery

    Division.

    Family Division

    This part of the High Court deals with family cases and

    some probate cases.

    Queen’s Bench Division

    The most important cases heard in this court are those

    concerned with defamation. It also handles serious compensation

    claims and judicial reviews.

    Chancery Division

    It deals with contested wills, bankrupcies and cases in

    which tax payers have a major disagreement with the Inland

    Revenue.

    Civil cases are heard by a judge without a jury, taking into

    account the Civil Procedure Rules, which aim to produce a fair,

    efficient, and economic administration of justice. This often means

    avoiding a formal hearing. (Adapted from:Law in Everyday Life, John Seely, Oxford University Press,

    2003; Bebeşelea, Mihaela, (2010), Fluxul financiar-contabil al impozitelor

    şi taxelor în România, Cluj-Napoca: Ed. Alma Mater; Bebeşelea, Mihaela,

    (2009), Gestiunea financiară a instituţiilor publice, Ed. a II-a revizuită şi

    îmbunătăţită, Constanţa: Europolis)

  • 13

    B.GRAMMAR SECTION:

    Tense Revision & Consolidation

    4.3.4.The Past Perfect Simple Tense and the Past Perfect

    Continuous Tense

    THE PAST PERFECT SIMPLE TENSE

    Form

    The Past Perfect Simple Tense tense is formed with HAD and the

    PAST PARTICIPLE.

    to play, played, played

    Affirmative

    S+ HAD+IIIrd FORM

    Long form Short form

    I had played I’d played = mă jucasem; m-am jucat

    You had played You’d played

    He had played He’d played

    She had played She’d played

    It had played It’d played

    We had played We’d played

    You had played You’d played

    They had played They’d played

    Interrogative

    HAD + S + IIIrd FORM

    Had I played?

    Had you played?

    Had he played?

    Had she played?

    Had it played?

    Had we played?

    Had you played?

    Had they played?

    Negative

    S+ HAD +NOT+IIIrd FORM

    Long form Short form

    I had not played I hadn’t played

    You had not played You hadn’t played

    He had not played He hadn’t played

    She had not played She hadn’t played

    It had not played It hadn’t played

    We had not played We hadn’t played

    You had not played You hadn’t played

    They had not played They hadn’t played

    Use

  • 14

    The Past Perfect is the past equivalent of the Present Perfect.

    It is used to:

    1.indicate an action in the past that happened before a past

    moment or before another action in the past.

    E.g.:

    1.The train had already left when she arrived at the station.

    2.The play had begun and we couldn’t enter.

    3.When I arrived, David had just left.

    4.I had seen the film but I went with my husband to keep him

    company.

    5.They had finished their lessons by 5 p.m.

    2.with the negative adverbs: HARDLY/BARELY/SCARCELY

    … WHEN, and NO SOONER … THAN, to show that a past

    action had finished just a little time before another past action:

    E.g.:

    1.I had hardly entered the house when the phone rang.

    Note! Another form may also occur:

    E.g.:

    1.Hardly had I entered the house when the phone rang.

    2.No sooner had I entered the house than the phone rang.

    THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

    Form

    The Past Perfect Continuous Tense is formed with HAD BEEN +

    the +ING form (present participle).

    to play-played-played

    Affirmative

    S+ HAD BEEN+V+ING

    Long form Short form

    I had been playing I’d been playing = mă jucam

    You had been playing You’d been playing

    He had been playing He’d been playing

    She had been playing She’d been playing

    It had been playing It’d been playing

    We had been playing We’d been playing

    You had been playing You’d been playing They had been playing They’d been playing

    Interrogative

    HAD+S+BEEN+V+ING

    Had I been playing?

    Had you been playing?

    Had he been playing?

    Had she been playing?

    Had it been playing?

    Had we been playing?

    Had you been playing?

    Had they been playing?

    Negative

  • 15

    S+ HAD +NOT +BEEN +V+ING

    Long form Short form

    I had not been playing I hadn’t been playing

    You had not been playing You hadn’t been playing

    He had not been playing He hadn’t been playing

    She had not been playing She hadn’t been playing

    It had not been playing It hadn’t been playing

    We had not been playing We hadn’t been playing

    You had not been playing You hadn’t been playing

    They had not been playing They hadn’t been playing

    Use

    It is used to emphasize:

    a past action in progress up to a past action or to a past

    moment: E.g.:

    1.They had been walking for 10 minutes when it started to

    rain.

    4.4. C.PRACTICE SECTION:

    Key Answer Guide for Self-assessment Activities

    The Synthesis of Learning Unit # 4 through Self-assessment Tests:

    A.READING SECTION:

    Activity 1.Self-assessment Test on Legal Knowledge. Civil Cases.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    1.By whom are civil cases brought?

    a.They are brought by individuals, companies, organizations.

    b.They are brought by individuals, men, women.

    c.They are brought by families, companies, organizations.

    2.Who is “the claimant”?

    a.The “claimant” is the individual who defends himself.

    b.The “claimant” is the individual who brings an action.

    c.The “claimant” is the individual who claims.

    3.Torts include:

    a.assault, negligence and defamation.

    b.assault, theft and defamation.

    c.assault, roberry and defamation.

    2.Self-assessment Test on Legal Knowledge. Civil Courts.

    Activity 2. Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    1.Name the civil courts in England.

    a.Magistrates’ Court, County Court, High Court

    b. Family Division, County Court, High Court

    c.Family Division, Chancery Division, Queen’s Bench Division

    2.Name the three divisions of the High Court.

    a.Magistrates’ Court, County Court, High Court

    b.Family Division, Queen’s Bench Division, Chancery Division

    c.Family Division, Chancery Section, Queen’s Division

  • 16

    B.GRAMMAR SECTION:

    Tense Revision & Consolidation

    3.Self-assessment Test on Grammar Knowledge. The Past Perfect Simple Tense and the

    Past Perfect Continuous Tense.

    Activity I.Combine each of the following pairs of sentences using the past perfect tense and

    the clues provided.

    1.You left. They woke up at 7:30. (already … when)

    2.The plane took off. They got to the airport. (just … when)

    3.Kenneth finished the job. Amy walked into the office. (already … before)

    4.I moved to San Francisco. Maria moved to Washington D.C.. ( … before)

    5.Michael finished the book. Becky started it. (already … before)

    6.Did you hear the news? Did you see it on TV? (already … when)

    7.Ralph drank two glasses of wine. The waitress offered him a third. (already … when)

    8.They sold the house. The detective called and asked about it. (before) (Adapted and abridged from: English for the Real World, Andrea Penruddocke, Christopher A. Warnasch,

    A Random House Company, 2004)

    Keywords to be remembered: Magistrates’ Court, County Court, High Court, Civil Courts,

    Civil Cases, the Past Perfect Simple Tense, the Past Perfect Continuous Tense

    Comprehension Check:

    Answer the following questions:

    1.What do torts include?

    2.What are the English Civil Courts?

    3.What are the three divisions of the High Court?

    Topics for presentation:

    1.The English Civil Cases

    2.The English Civil Courts

    Assessment and Self-assessment Test

    Activity 1.

    Translate the following sentences into English:

    1.Poliţiştii m-au întrebat de ce am venit acasă atât de tarziu.

    2.Când m-am întâlnit cu avocatul, el mă aştepta de 10 minute.

    3.A vrut să ştie unde am fost între 9 şi 11 seara.

    4.Când am sunat la sonerie, el studia cazul de o jumătate de oră.

    5.Avionul zbura de o oră când a fost deturnat.

    6.După ce a văzut filmul poliţist, a citit romanul Agathei Christie.

    7.Nici nu au ajuns bine la munte, că poliţiştii i-au si prins.

    8.Poliţia îi căuta de trei ore când au ieşit în oraş.

    9.Deşi se străduise să înveţe toate amănuntele cazului, pe dinafară, nu putea să îşi amintească nici

    măcar numele criminalului. (Adapted and abridged from: English Practical Course, Camelia Boarcăş, Anca Magiru, Europolis,

    Constanţa, 2002)

  • 17

    REVISION I = TERM ASSESSMENT TEST 1 (EVALUARE 1)

    Learning Unit # 4 : THE ENGLISH CIVIL CASES

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    1.By whom are civil cases brought?

    a.They are brought by individuals, companies, organizations.

    b.They are brought by individuals, William, Jane.

    c.They are brought by the Browns, the Popescus, organizations.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    2.Who is “the claimant”?

    a.The “claimant” is Elizabeth.

    b.The “claimant” is the individual who brings an action.

    c.The “claimant” is Kitty.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    3.Torts include:

    a.assault, Sean and Vicky.

    b.assault, father and mother.

    c.assault, negligence and defamation.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    4.Name the civil courts in England.

    a.Magistrates’ Courts, County Courts, the High Court.

    b.The Brown Family, My Court, the High Court.

    c.Family Division, Chancery Division, Queen’s Bench Division.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    5.Name the three divisions of the High Court.

    a.Family Department, Queen’s Bench Department, Chancery Department.

    b.Family Division, Queen’s Bench Division, Chancery Division.

    c.Family Section, Chancery Section, Queen’s Section.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    6.You left. They woke up at 7:30. (already … when)

    a.Ralph had already left when they woke up at 7:30.

    b.Harry had already left when they woke up at 7:30.

    c.You had already left when they woke up at 7:30.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    7.The plane took off. They got to the airport. (just … when)

    a.The plane had just taken off when they got to the airport.

    b.The plane had just taken off when Ann and Dana got to the airport.

    c.The plane had just taken off when Helen and Mary got to the airport.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    8.Kenneth finished the job. Amy walked into the office. (already … before)

    a.Vincent had already finished the job before Jill walked into the office.

    b.Kenneth had already finished the job before Amy walked into the office.

    c.Becky had already finished the job before Charles walked into the office.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    9.I moved to San Francisco. Maria moved to Washington D.C.. ( … before)

    a.I had moved to San Diego before Carmen moved to Austin.

    b.I had moved to Los Angeles before Nick moved to San Antonio.

    c.I had moved to San Francisco before Maria moved to Washington, D.C..

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    10.Poliţiştii m-au întrebat de ce am venit acasă atât de tarziu.

    a.The policemen asked me why I had come back home so late.

    b.My parents asked me why I had come back home so late.

  • 18

    c.My wife asked me why I had come back home so late.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    11.Când m-am întâlnit cu avocatul, el mă aştepta de 10 minute.

    a.When I met Simon, he had been waiting for me for 10 minutes.

    b.When I met my lawyer, he had been waiting for me for 10 minutes.

    c.When I met Laura, she had been waiting for me for 10 minutes.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    12.A vrut să ştie unde am fost între 9 şi 11 seara.

    a. He wanted to know where I had been between 7 and 11 p.m..

    b. He wanted to know where I had been between 8 and 11 p.m..

    c. He wanted to know where I had been between 9 and 11 p.m..

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    13.Când am sunat la sonerie, el studia cazul de o jumătate de oră.

    a.When I rang the doorbell, he had been studying the case for half an hour.

    b.When I rang the doorbell, he had been studying the Bible for half an hour.

    c.When I rang the doorbell, he had been studying the Shakespearean plays for half an hour.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    14.Avionul zbura de o oră când a fost deturnat.

    a.The plane had been flying for 8 hours when it was hijacked.

    b.The plane had been flying for an hour when it was hijacked.

    c.The plane had been flying for 9 hours when it was hijacked.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    15.După ce a văzut filmul poliţist, a citit romanul Agathei Christie.

    a.After he had seen the detective film, he read Raymond Chandler’s novel.

    b.After he had seen the detective film, he read James Cain’s novel.

    c.After he had seen the detective film, he read Agatha Christie’s novel.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    16.Nici nu au ajuns bine la munte, că poliţiştii i-au şi prins.

    a.Hardly had they got to the mountains when the policemen caught them.

    b.Hardly had they got to Paris when the reporters asked them questions.

    c.Hardly had they got to Washington, D.C. when the F.B.I. agents caught them.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    17.Poliţia îi căuta de trei ore când au ieşit în oraş.

    a.Alice had been looking for Mary for three hours when she saw her in the street.

    b.The police had been looking for them for three hours when they got out.

    c.Romeo had been loking for Juliet for three hours when he met her in the garden.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    18.Deşi se străduise să înveţe toate amănuntele cazului, pe dinafară, nu putea să îşi amintească nici măcar

    numele criminalului.

    a.Although George had done his best to learn all the details of the case, by heart, he could not remember even the

    murderer’s name.

    b.Although Sarah had done her best to learn all the details of the case, by heart, she could not remember even the

    murderer’s name.

    c.Although he had done his best to learn all the details of the case, by heart, he could not remember even the murderer’s

    name.

    ANSWERS

    LEARNING UNIT #4: THE ENGLISH CIVIL CASES

    4.4.Key Answer Guide for Self-assessment Activities

    A.READING SECTION:

    1.Self-assessment Test on Legal Knowledge. Civil Cases 1.a; 2.b; 3.a

    2.Self-assessment Test on Legal Knowledge. Civil Courts

  • 19

    1.a; 2.b

    B.GRAMMAR SECTION:

    3.Self-assessment Test on Grammar Knowledge

    Activity I.1.You had already left when they woke up at 7:30. 2.The plane has just taken off when they got to the

    airport. 3.Kenneth had already finished the job before Amy walked into the office. 4.I had moved to San Francisco

    before Maria moved to Washington, D.C.. 5.Michael had already finished the book before Becky started it. 6.Had you

    already heard the news when you saw it on TV? 7.Ralph had already drunk two glasses of wine when the waitress

    offered him a third. 8.They had sold the house before the detective called and asked about it.

    Comprehension check

    Activity 1. 1.assault, negligence, defamation; 2.Magistrates’c Court, County Court, High Court; 3.Family Division,

    Queen’s Bench Division, Chancery Division

    Assessment and Self-assessment Test

    Activity I. 1.The policemen asked me why I had come back home so late. 2.When I met my lawyer, he had been

    waiting for me for 10 minutes. 3.He wanted to know where I had been between 9 and 11 p.m.. 4.When I rang the

    doorbell, he had been studying the case for half an hour. 5.The plane had been flying for an hour when it was hijacked.

    6.After he had seen the detective film , he read Agatha Christie’s novel. 7.Hardly had they arrived in/got to the

    mountains when the policemen caught them../ No sooner had they arrived in /got to the mountains than the policemen

    caught them./They had hardly/barely/scarcely arrived in/got to the mountains when the policemen caught them. 8.The

    police had been looking for them for three hours when they got out. 9.Although he had done his best / he had tried hard

    to learn all the details of the case, by heart, he could not remember even the murderer’s name.

    4.4.1.Compulsory Bibliography

    1. Lister, Ronald, Klemens Veth, (2010), Dicţionar juridic, englez-român, român-englez, Bucuresti: Ed. Niculescu

    2. Magiru, Anca, (2013), Limba engleză, (Curs în tehnologie ID/IFR), Bucureşti: Editura Fundaţiei România de Mâine;

    3. Magiru, Anca, (2011), English for Law Students, Bucuresti, Ed. Universitara;

    4. Magiru, Anca, (2011), English for Public Administration Students, Bucuresti, Ed. Universitara;

    5. Magiru, Anca, (2010), American Criminal Law, An Introduction for Law Students of English, Bucuresti: Ed.

    Universitara.

    Optional Bibliography

    1. Paidos, Constantin, (1995), Gramatica limbii engleze, Teorie şi practică, vol. I, II, III Iaşi: Institutul European;

    2. Voiculescu, Cecilia, (2005), Dicţionar juridic, englez-român, român-englez, & terminologia UE-SUA, Bucureşti:

    Ed.Niculescu.

    3. Brookes, Michael, Christiane Treutenare, (2002), 1000 de cuvinte in Drept, Bucuresti: Compania;

    4. Champion, Dean J., (1998), Dictionary of American Criminal Justice. Key Terms and Major Supreme Court Cases,

    Minot State University, London, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers;

    5. Constitutia Romaniei, (2004), Bucuresti: Ed. All Beck;

    6. The Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence, Reprinted 2001 by the Supreme Court

    Historical Society, 2001;

    7. Galateanu, Georgiana, Ecaterina Comisel (f.a.), Gramatica limbii engleze pentru uz scolar, Bucuresti: Ed. Didactica

    si Pedagogica;

    8. Martin, Elizabeth A., 2003, A Dictionary of Law, Oxford: Oxford University Press;

    9. Hanga, Vladimir, Rodica Calciu, (1994/2007), Dictionar juridic englez-roman si roman-englez, Bucuresti, Ed.

    Lumina Lex.

    4.4.2.Bibliographical References:

    1.Boarcăş, Camelia, Anca Magiru,(2002) , English Practical Course, Constanţa: Europolis;

    2.Gălăţeanu-Fârnoagă, Georgiana, (1987), Sinteze de gramatică engleză, Bucureşti: Ed. Albatros;

    3.Dumitrescu, Dan, (2009), Dicţionar juridic, englez-român, Bucureşti: Ed. Akademos;

    4.Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, (c.1995), Longman Dictionaries;

    5. Oxford Dictionary of Law, (c.2003), Ed. by Elizabeth A. Martin, Oxford University Press; 6.Paidos, Constantin, (1995), Gramatica limbii engleze, volumul I, Iaşi, Institutul European;

    7.Penruddocke, Andrea, Christopher A. Warnasch, (2004), English for the Real World, A Random House Company;

    8.Ronald Lister, Klemens Veth, 2010, Dicţionar juridic, englez-român, român-englez, Bucureşti: Ed. Niculescu;

    9.Seely, John, (2003), Law in Everyday Life, Oxford University Press;

    10. Voiculescu, Cecilia, (2005), Dicţionar juridic, englez-român, român-englez, & terminologia UE-SUA, Bucureşti,

    Ed. Niculescu.

  • 20

    CONTINUT CURS SI SEMINAR. CURSUL ESTE MARCAT CU ROSU

    Learning Unit # 5

    THE LEGAL PROFESSIONALS (I). LAWYERS

    A lawyer is someone who makes

    sure he gets what’s coming to you. Anonymous (USA)

    5.1. Introduction

    5.2. The Objectives and Competences of Learning Unit # 5

    5.3. The Contents of Learning Unit # 5:

    A.READING SECTION: The Legal Professionals (I). Lawyers

    5.3.1.The Legal Professionals (I). Lawyers

    B.GRAMMAR SECTION: Tense Revision

    5.3.2.Expressing Future Time (I)

    C.PRACTICE SECTION: 5.4.Key Answer Guide for Self-assessment Activities

    5.4.1.Compulsory Bibliography

    5.4.2.Bibliographical References

    5.1. Introduction

    Legal profession. The legal profession includes: lawyers, judges

    and other people who work in courts of law or advise people about

    legal problems.

    Lawyer.Someone whose job is to advise people about laws, write

    formal agreements, or represent people in court. (Adapted and abridged from: Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, 1995, London,

    Longman) 5.2. The Objectives and Competences of Learning Unit # 5

    The Objectives of Learning Unit # 5:

    O1 to understand the legal content:

    O1a.to provide a factual account of the English Legal Professionals with

    special reference to lawyers (barristers, solicitors, paralegals)

    O1.b.to test the students’ legal knowledge

    O2 to understand the language content:

    O2a.:to revise the form and use of the Future Simple Tense, the Future

    Continuous Tense, to be going to (Near Future), the Future Perfect

    Simple Tense, the Future Perfect Continuous Tense

    O2b:to test the students’ grammar knowledge

    O2c.:to rise the students’ interest in working with a good law

    dictionary. The Competences of Learning Unit # 5:

    C1. getting familiar with the English legal professionals: lawyers

    C2. using correctly the Future Simple Tense, the Future Continuous Tense,

    to be going to (the Near Future), the Future Perfect Simple Tense, the Future

    Perfect Continuous Tense in writing and speaking; applying grammar rules

    and notions to ensure the correctness of speaking, writing, translating;

    C3. reading, translating, commenting different types of legal documents.

    The time assigned for Unit # 5: 8 classes

  • 21

    5.3. The Contents of Learning Unit # 5

    A.READING SECTION

    5.3.1.The Legal Professionals (I). Lawyers

    Read and learn the following language notes, grammatical terms

    and vocabulary:

    barrister = (n) (UK) avocat pledant (avocaţii sunt membrii ai “Inns

    of Court”)

    Inns of Court = Baroul londonez, organizaţie profesională a

    avocaţilor pledanţi din Londra (este alcătuit din patru şcoli de

    drept/de avocatură: Gray’s Inn, Lincoln’s Inn, Inner Temple,

    Middle Temple

    established = (adj) consacrat, recunoscut, respectat, apreciat

    pupil = (n) stagiar pe lângă un avocat

    junior barrister = avocat care nu are dreptul de a pleda în Consiliul

    Reginei

    Queen’s Counsel = avocat emerit; consilierul reginei

    solicitor = (n) notar, avocat, consilier juridic

    paralegal = (n) asistent juridic/legal; persoană care lucrează într-un

    cabinet de avocatură, dar care nu este membru al unei organizaţii

    profesionale din domeniu

    conveyancing = (n) transfer, cesiune (de imobile, proprietăţi

    funciare)

    lawyer = (n) avocat, jurist, consilier juridic

    practising solicitor = avocat practicant

    to call to the bar = a primi pe cineva în barou; a angaja pe cineva

    ca avocat

    claim = (n) cerere financiară, pretenţie, revendicare

    Read and translate the following text into Romanian:

    The Legal Professionals (I)

    The Lawyers

    In English law there is a traditional distinction between the

    two main types of lawyers you could consult: the barristers and the

    solicitors.

    Barristers

    A barrister is someone who pleads at the bar, the place

    where cases are heard. Before being called to the bar, they will have

    spent three years at a university studying for a law degree. Then

    they spend some time as the pupil of an established barrister, before

    gaining a position as a junior barrister. After increasing in

    experience and reputation they may be selected as a Queen’s

    Counsel (QC). QCs are barristers with at least ten years’ experience

    and are chosen by the Lord Chancellor.

    Solicitors

    Individuals and organizations who need legal advice

  • 22

    normally go first to a solicitor. Like barristers, solicitors spend three

    years at university leading to a law degree. They then do a year’s

    legal practice course, leading to an examination. After that they

    spend a further period employed under a training contract before

    becoming fully qualified solicitors.

    In England and Wales there are approximately 85,000

    practising solicitors compared to 9,000 barristers. They could act as

    advocates working independently or with a barrister. They may not

    appear in the higher courts.

    Paralegals

    Increasingly firms of solicitors are using the services of

    paralegals, who have a legal training, commonly a law degree, but

    have not yet qualified as solicitors. Paralegals will focus on their

    own area of expertise, for example, conveyancing (the legal side of

    selling property) or personal injury compensation claims. Some will

    later go on to qualify as solicitors, while others will prefer to remain

    as paralegals. (Adapted and abridged from Law in Everyday Life, John

    Seely, Oxford University Press, 2003)

    B.GRAMMAR SECTION: TENSERevision & Consolidation

    5.3.2.Expressing Future Time:

    1.The Future Simple Tense

    2.The Future Continuous Tense

    3.To Be Going To (The Near Future)

    4.The Future Perfect Simple Tense

    5.The Future Perfect Continuous Tense

    Expressing Future Time (I)

    Future actions can be expressed by:

    1. THE FUTURE SIMPLE TENSE Form: shall/will + short infinitive

    Affirmative

    Long form Short form SHALL=’LL

    WILL =’ LL

    I shall/will play =mă voi juca I’ll play

    You will play You’ll play

    He will play He’ll play

    She will play She’ll play

    It will play It’ll play

    We shall/will play We’ll play

    You will play You’ll play

    They will play They’ll play

    Interrogative Negative-Interrogative

    Shall/Will I play? Shall/Will I not play?

    Will you play? Will you not play?

    Will he play? Will he not play?

  • 23

    Will she play? Will she not play?

    Will it play? Will it not play?

    Shall/Will we play? Shall/Will we not play?

    Will you play? Will you not play?

    Will they play? Will they not play?

    Negative

    Long form Short form

    I shall not/will not play I shan’t play/I won’t play

    You will not play You won’t play

    He will not play He won’t play

    She will not play She won’t play

    It will not play It won’t play

    We shall not/will not play We shan’t/won’t play

    You will not play You won’t play

    They will not play They won’t play

    Use

    As a rule, shall is used with the first person singular and plural, and

    will with the second and third person, in British English. The

    American English uses only „will” with all persons to express

    future activities. It usually occurs in formal style, although in every

    day speech, the forms we’ll, I’ll, etc are used. The Future Simple

    Tense expresses:

    1.A “neutral” future event, a prediction about the future:

    e.g.:

    1.We shall go on a trip next month. He’ll be late for school today.

    2.John and Ann will write a good book this year.

    2.A future action in the main clause of conditional and temporal

    sentences:

    e.g.:

    1.We shall read the book if Ted gives it to us.

    2.If the rain stops, we’ll play in the park.

    3.Mary will feel better if she takes her medicine regularly.

    4.The doctor will examine them when they go to the office again.

    3.Opinions or assumptions about the future with verbs of

    opinion: assume, believe, hope, expect, etc. e.g.:

    1.We hope Amber will come to visit us later.

    2.That’ll be the postman at the door. (This means that we suppose it

    is the postman.)

    4.Habitual actions that are likely to take place in the future:

    e.g.:

    1.In Nobember John and Anne will go toFreiburg.

    2.In January, we’ll go back to the University.

    5.A sequence of events (a narrative) in the future:

    e.g.:

    1.William will call the office to reserve theater tickets.

    2.The next day Mary will pick up the tickets.

    6.The subject’s intention at the moment of decision:

    e.g.:

  • 24

    1.Mrs. Magiru: We’ve run out of instant coffee.

    2.Mr. Magiru: I’ll buy some.

    7.WILL + YOU + VERB?- invitation or request for something:

    e.g.:

    1.Will you come to the concert with us?

    2.Will you clear the table?

    8.SHALL + I/WE + VERB? – offer to do something or ask for

    instructions, advice or suggestion:

    e.g.:

    1.Shall I help you wash the dishes?

    2.Where shall we meet?

    3.Shall I buy that dictionary? (Adapted from Gramatica limbii engleze, volumul I, Constantin Paidos,

    Institutul European, Iaşi, 1995)

    2. THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE Form: shall/will + be + verb +ing

    Affirmative Interrogative

    I shall/will be playing =mă voi juca Shall/Will I be playing?

    You will be playing Will you be playing?

    He will be playing Will he be playing?

    She will be playing Will she be playing?

    It will be playing Will it be playing?

    We shall/will be playing Shall/Will we be playing?

    You will be playing Will you be playing?

    They will be playing Will they be playing?

    Negative

    Long form Short form

    I shall/will not be playing I shan’t/won’t be playing

    You will not be playing You won’t be playing

    He will not be playing He won’t be playing

    She will not be playing She won’t be playing

    It will not be playing It won’t be playing

    We shall/will not be playing We shan’t/won’t be playing

    You will not be playing You won’t be playing

    They will not be playing They won’t be playing

    Use

    It is used:

    1.to express a future activity or state that will be in progress at a

    certain moment in the future:

    e.g.:

    This time tomorrow we shall be watching Mary Poppins.

    2.to indicate that an activity or state will extend over a whole

    future period:

    e.g.:

    Jane will be sending e-mails all day long.

  • 25

    3.to express future events that are planned:

    e.g.:

    We shall be spending our next holiday in the Greek Island,

    Zakynthos.

    3. TO BE GOING TO (“THE NEAR FUTURE”) (A AVEA DE GȂND SĂ...)

    Form

    Affirmative Interrogative

    I am going to play Am I going to play?

    You are going to pay Are you going to play?

    He is going to play Is he going to play?

    She is going to play Is she going to play?

    It is going to play Is it going to play?

    We are going to play Are we going to play?

    You are going to play Are you going to play?

    They are going to play Are they going to play?

    Negative

    Long form Short form

    I am not going to play I’m not going to play

    You are not going to play You aren’t going to play/You’re not…

    He is not going to play He isn’t going to play/He’s not…

    She is not going to play She isn’t going to play/She’s not…

    It is not going to play It isn’t going to play/It’s not…

    We are not going to play We aren’t going to play/We’re not…

    You are not going to play You aren’t going to play/You’re not…

    They are not going to play They aren’t going to play/They’re

    not…

    Use

    It is used to express:

    1.A neutral future event in colloquial English as a substitute for

    the simple future. The GOING TO FUTURE is preferred in

    colloquial English; the SHALL/WILL future is more common

    in formal written English.

    e.g.:

    1.You’re going to see a lot of movies in San Antonio, Texas.

    2.Helen is going to move to San Diego, California, so Cesar is

    telling her what life is like there.

    2.An event taking place in the immediate or near future.

    e.g.:

    1.I’m going to make some tea in a moment.

    2.I’m going to fill the kettle with water.

    3.The subject’s present intention to perform a future action.

    The simple future tense can also express intention, but it is the

    subject’s intention at the moment of decision.

    e.g.:

    1.A:The phone is ringing. B:I’ll get it.

  • 26

    2. We are going to visit our uncle and aunt next week.

    3.What sites are you going to visit in Freiburg?

    4.We are going to visit Munster Cathedral.

    4.A future action which appears likely or inevitable due to

    present causes/circumstances.

    e.g.:

    1.It’s going to rain. Just look at the clouds.

    2.A:That coat is too thin for this time of the year. You’re going to

    catch a cold.

    B:Thank you. I’ll take a warmer coat then.

    5.In association with time clauses (as soon as, after, when, while,

    until) to emphasize the subject’s intention.

    e.g.:

    I’m going to write a book about academic life at St.Mary’s

    University School of Law, San Antonio, Texas, as soon as we come

    back to Romania.

    4.THE FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE TENSE

    Form: shall/will + have + Past Participle

    Affirmative

    I shall/will not have played = mă voi fi jucat

    You will have played

    He will have played

    She will have played

    It will have played

    We shall/will have played

    You will have played

    They will have played

    Interrogative

    Shall/Will + S+ have + past participle (the 3rd form of the verb)

    Shall/Will I have played?

    Will you have played?

    Will he have played?

    Will she have played?

    Will it have played?

    Shall/Will we have played?

    Will you have played?

    Will they have played?

    Negative

    S+ shall/will + not + have +past participle

    I shall not/ will not have played

    You will not have played

    He will not have played

    She will not have played

    It will not have played

    We shall not/will not have played

    You will not have played

    They will not have played

    Use

    The Future Perfect Simple is used to indicate:

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    1.an action which will be finished before a certain moment or

    another action in the future. In this case, it is usually associated

    with the preposition by in such constructions as: by Monday/by that

    time/by the end of, etc.

    e.g.:

    It is 9 o’clock. I’m sure my nieces will have written their

    homework by 12 o’clock.

    2.the duration up to a certain time in the future:

    e.g.:

    On Tuesday they will have been on holidys for one week.

    3.possibility or assumption:

    e.g.:

    If Flavia has taken a taxi, she will have arrived at the airport in

    time. (I assume that she has arrived./It is likely that she has

    arrived.)

    5.THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

    Form: S+ shall/will + have + been + Present Participle

    Affirmative

    I shall/will have been playing = Mă voi fi jucat

    You will have been playing

    He will have been playing

    She will have been playing

    It will have been playing

    We shall/will have been playing

    You will have been playing

    They will have been playing

    Interrogative

    Shall/will + S + have + been + present participle

    Shall/Will I have been playing?

    Will you have been playing?

    Will he have been playing?

    Will she have been playing?

    Will it have been playing?

    Shall/Will we have been playing?

    Will you have been playing?

    Will they have been playing?

    Negative

    S+ shall/will + not +have +been + present participle

    Long form Short form

    I shall/will not have been playing I shan’t/won’t have been playing

    You will not have been playing You won’t have been playing

    He will not have been playing He won’t have been playing

    She will not have been playing She won’t have been playing

    It will not have been playing It won’t have been playing

    We shall/will not have been playing We shan’t/won’t have been

    playing

    You will not have been playing You won’t have been playing

    They will not have been playing They won’t have been playing

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    Use

    The Future Perfect Continuous is used to express:

    the duration of an action up to a certain moment in the future:

    e.g.:

    At 6 o’clock, your husband will have been sleeping for two hours.

    C.PRACTICE SECTION :

    5.4. Key Answer Guide for Self-assessment Activities

    The Synthesis of Learning Unit # 5 through Self-assessment Tests:

    A.READING SECTION:

    1.Self-assessment Test on Legal Knowledge. The Legal Professionals (I). Lawyers

    Activity 1

    Answer the following questions:

    1.How many types of lawyers could you consult in England?

    2.Define the word “barrister”.

    3.What is a Queen’s Counsel (QC)?

    4.By whom is a Queen’s Counsel (QC) chosen?

    5.How many practising solicitors are there in England and Wales?

    6.What is the area of expertise of a paralegal?

    B.GRAMMAR SECTION:

    Tense Revision

    2.Self-assessment Test on Grammar Knowledge. The Future Tenses.

    Activity I.

    1.Choose the correct translation for the following sentence:

    Rose îşi va cumpăra o carte.

    a.Rose will buy a book.

    b.Rose will buys herself a book.

    c.Rose shall buy herself a book.

    2.Choose the correct translation for the following sentence:

    Ele se tem că Flavia nu va ajunge la timp la aeroport.

    a.They are afraid Flavia won’t get at Frankfurt Airport in time.

    b.They are afraid Flavia won’t get to Frankfurt Airport in time.

    c.They are afraid Flavia won’t got to Frankfurt Airport in time.

    3.Choose the correct translation for the following sentence:

    Probabil că Anne şi Adelle vor reuşi să găsească un taxi.

    a.Anne and Adelle will probably manage to find a taxi.

    b.Anne and Adelle will probably manage at finding a taxi.

    c.Anne and Adelle are to find a taxi.

    4.Choose the correct translation for the following sentence:

    Sunt sigur că Harry va aduce mâine CD-ul la bibliotecă..

    a.I’m sure that Harry will bring tomorrow the CD at the library.

    b.I’m sure that Harry will brings the CD tomorrow at the library.

    c.I’m sure that Harry will bring the CD to the library tomorrow.

    5.Choose the correct translation for the following sentence:

    Sper că vor găsi bilete pentru Freiburg.

    a.I hope they’ll find tickets to Freiburg.

    b.I hope they’ll find tickets at Freiburg.

    c.I hope they’l find tickets to Freiburg.

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    6.Choose the correct translation for the following sentence:

    Vrei să mergi cu noi în Germania?

    a.Will you come to Germany with us?

    b.Do you want to come with us at Germany?

    c.Do you desire to come with us to Germany?

    7.Choose the correct translation for the following sentence:

    Vrei să îmi aduci puţină cafea?

    a.Will you bring me a little coffee?

    b.Will you bring me some coffee?

    c.Will you bring me a few coffee?

    8.Choose the correct translation for the following sentence:

    Să-ţi ajut să strângi masa?

    a.Do I help you to clear the table?

    b.Shall I help you to clear the table?

    c.Do you want me to help you clear the table?

    9.Choose the correct translation for the following sentence:

    Vreţi să ne spuneţi ceva despre acest roman?

    a.Do you want to tell us something about this novel?

    b.Will you tell us something about this novel?

    c.Will you tell us anything about this novel?

    10.Choose the correct translation for the following sentence:

    Ce zici, să ne uităm la televizor sau să citim?

    a.Shall we watch TV or read?

    b.What do you say, do we watch TV or read?

    c.Let’s go watch TV or read! (Adapted and abridged from: Exerciţii de gramatică engleză, Georgiana Gălăţeanu,Ed. Albatros,

    Bucureşti, 1979)

    Activity II. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense.

    1.This time next year we (to travel) to Chicago. 2. If they come at 6 p.m., they (to have) dinner.

    3.It (to snow) when we get there. 4. This time next year we (to study) at the Chicago University.

    5.At 7p.m. Andrew and William (to listen) to the news.

    Keywords to be remembered: lawyers, barristers, solicitors, paralegals, the Future Simple

    Tense, the Future Continuous Tense, to be going to (near future), the Future Perfect Simple

    Tense, the Future Perfect Continuous Tense

    Comprehension Check:

    Activity 1.Use the verbs in brackets in the Future Perfect Simple Tense:

    1.By the end of October, all the leaves (to fall). 2.Before we leave Washington, D.C., we (to visit)

    every museum in the National Mall. 3.By Sunday night, you (to finish) the Fulbright project.

    4.By 11 p.m. Vincent (to come) back home. 5.By this time next year, Sister Grace (to remember)

    all about this country. 6. By the end of June, Dana and Nick (to repaint) the house. 7.When we get

    home, the children (to get) there, for a long time.

    Activity 2. Use the verbs in brackets in the Future Perfect Continuous Tense:

    1.By 10.30 a.m., the professor (to write) on the board for 20 minutes . 2.I (to study) American

    English for 8 months when I finish my American project. 3.By April I (to teach) in this School for

    8 months 4. We (to listen) to the latest news on BI for 10 minutes when Violet calls us. 5. By the

    end of August Jack (to take) English lessons for two months.

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    Topics for presentation:

    1.Write/Speak about lawyers in England: a.Barristers; b.Solicitors; c.Paralegals.

    Assessment and Self-assessment Tests

    Activity 1.Translate the following sentences into English using the Future Continuous Tense:

    1.Sunt sigur că la ora 10 p.m., Bill şi Annette vor citi. 2.Sister Gretchen va scrie exerciţiile în

    franceză când va fi ora 11. 3. Marţi pe vremea asta mama va cânta la pian. 4.Dolly and Joan se

    vor juca în curte toată dimineaţa. 5.Sâmbăta viitoare, la ora 10 a.m., ne vom plimba pe malul

    Siretului. (Adapted and abridged from: Gramatica limbii engleze, volumul I, Constantin Paidos, Institutul European, Iaşi, 1995)

    Activity 2.Translate the following sentences into English using the Future Perfect

    SimpleTense:

    1.Până la sfârşitul anului universitar vom fi învăţat despre Constituţia SUA. 2.Avionul va fi plecat

    înainte de a ajunge noi la aeroport. 3.Până la ora 3p.m. Amber va fi semnat toate documentele.

    4.Sunt sigură că aceste bilete se vor vinde până luni. (Adapted and abridged from: Gramatica limbii engleze, volumul I, Constantin Paidos, Institutul European, Iaşi, 1995)

    Activity 3.Translate the following sentences into English using the Future Perfect Continuous

    Tense:

    1.De cât timp vei lucra în acest birou când se va termina bursa Fulbright? 2.La sfârşitul acestui an

    universitar, Dolly va învăţa japoneză de 2 ani. 3. Pe 5 iulie se împlinesc 3 ani de când Violet

    locuieşte în această casă. 4.Mâine la ora 9a.m., vom zbura spre Grecia de cel puţin o oră. (Adapted and abridged from: Gramatica limbii engleze, volumul I, Constantin Paidos, Institutul European, Iaşi, 1995)

    REVISION II

    TERM ASSESSMENT TEST 2 (=EVALUARE 2)

    LEARNING UNIT # 5 : THE LEGAL PROFESSIONALS (I). LAWYERS

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    1. Rose isi va cumpara o carte.

    a. Rose will buy a book.

    b. Mary will buy a book.

    c. Kate will buy a book.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    2. Ele se tem ca Flavia nu va ajunge la timp la aeroport.

    a. They are afraid that Sylvia won’t get to the airport in time.

    b. They are afraid that Flavia won’t get to the airport in time.

    c. They are afraid that June won’t get to the airport in time.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    3. Probabil ca Anne si Adelle vor reusi sa gaseasca un taxi.

    a. Anne and Adelle will probably manage to finding a taxi.

    b. Anne and Adelle are probably going to find a taxi.

    c. Anne and Adelle will probably manage to find a taxi.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    4. Sunt sigur ca Henry va adduce maine CD-ul la biblioteca.

    a. I’m sure that Henry will bring the CD to the library tomorrow.

    b. I’m sure that Henry will bring tomorrow the CD to the book-store.

    c. I’m sure that Henry will brings the CD tomorrow in the class.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    5. Sper ca vor gasi bilete de avion pentru Frankfurt.

  • 31

    a. I hope they’ll find plane tickets at Frankfurt.

    b. I hope they’ll fine plane tickets to Frankfurt.

    c. I hope they’ll find plane tickets in Frankfurt.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    6. Vrei sa mergi cu noi in Germania?

    a. Do you want to come with us in Germany?

    b. Do you desire to come with us at Germany?

    c. Will you join us to Germany?

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    7. Vrei sa imi aduci niste cafea?

    a. Will you bring me some coffee?

    b. Will you bring me a few coffee?

    c. Will you bring me any coffee?

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    8. Sa te ajut sa strangi masa?

    a. Do I help you to clear the table?

    b. Shall I help you to clear the table?

    c. Do you want me to help you to clear the table?

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    9. Vreti sa ne spuneti ceva despre acest roman?

    a. Will you tell us anything about this novel?

    b. Do you want to tell us something about this novel?

    c. Will you tell us something about this novel?

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    10. Ce zici, sa ne uitam la televizor sau sa citim?

    a. Shall we watch TV or read?

    b. What do you say, do we watch TV or read?

    c. Let’s watch TV or read!

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    11. This time, next year, we (to travel) to Chicago.

    a. This time, next year, John and Anne will be studying at Delaware University.

    b. This time, next year, we shall be travelling to Chicago.

    c. This time, next year, Vincent and Jill will be visiting the Supreme Court.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    12.By the end of October, all the first year students (come back) to Spiru Haret University.

    a. By the end of October, all the people of New York will have come back to their homes.

    b. By the end of October, all the members of his family will have come back to Israel.

    c. By the end of October, all the first year students will have come back to Spiru Haret University.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    13. I (to study) American-English for 8 months when I finish my American Fulbright project on criminal law.

    a. I will have been studying American-English for 8 months when I finish my American Fulbright project on criminal

    law.

    b. I will have been studying German for 8 months when I finish my German Fulbright project on Germans.

    c. I will have been studying Spanish for 8 months when I finish my Hispanic Fulbright project on Mexicans.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    14. Sunt sigur ca la ora 10 dimineata, Bill si Annette vor studia dreptul american.

    a. I am sure that Bill and Annette will be studying the Jewish law at 10 a.m..

    b. I am sure that Bill and Annette will be studying the American law at 10 a.m..

    c. I am sure that Bill and Annette will be studying the Roman law at 10 a.m..

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    15. Pana la sfarsitul anului universitar vom fi invatat despre Constitutia Statelor Unite.

    a. By the end of the academic year, we will have learned about the Austrian Constitution.

  • 32

    b. By the end of the academic year, we will have learned about the Jewish Constitution.

    c. By the end of the academic year, we will have learned about the U.S. Constitution.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    16. Pana la ora 3 p.m., Primul Ministru va fi semnat toate documentele.

    a. By 3 p.m., the Prime Minister will have signed all the papers.

    b. By 3 p.m., the Prime Minister will have signed all the letters.

    c. By 3 p.m., the Prime Minister will have signed all the copies of his doctoral thesis.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    17. La sfasitul acestui an, ambasadorul englez va invata romana de doi ani.

    a. By the end of this year, the English Ambassador will have been learning Japanese for two years.

    b. By the end of this year, the English Ambassador will have been learning Romanian for two years.

    c. By the end of this year, the English Ambassador will have been learning Hebrew for two years.

    Circle the correct answer. Only one answer is correct.

    18. Maine la ora 9 a.m., Presedintele Statelor Unite va zbura spre Wasington, D.C. de cel putin o ora.

    a. By 9 a.m., tomorrow, the President of Romania will have been flying to Washington, D.C. for at least one hour.

    b. By 9 a.m., tomorrow, the President of Israel will have been flying to Washington, D.C. for at least one hour.

    c. By 9 a.m., tomorrow, the President of the United States will have been flying to Washington, D.C. for at least one

    hour.

    ANSWERS

    LEARNING UNIT # 5: THE LEGAL PROFESSIONALS (I). LAWYERS

    5.4.Key Answer Guide for Self-assessment Activities

    A.READING SECTION:

    1.Self-assessment Test on Legal Knowledge. The Legal Professionals (I). Lawyers 1.There two types of lawyers; barristers and solicitors. 2.A barrister is someone who pleads at the bar. 3.He is a

    barrister with at least ten years’ experience. 4.He is chosen by the Lord Chancellor. 5.There are approximately 85,000

    practising solicitors. 6.Conveyancing or personal compensation claims.

    B.GRAMMAR SECTION:

    2.Self-assessment Test on Grammar Knowledge

    Activity I.1.A; 2.B; 3.A; 4.C; 5.A; 6.A; 7.A; 8.B; 9.B; 10.A

    Activity II.1.shall/will be travelling; 2.will be having; 3.will be snowing; 4.shall/will be studying; will be listening.

    Comprehension check

    Activity I.1.will have fallen; 2.will have visited; 3.will have finished; 4.will have come; 5.will have remembered;

    6.will have repainted; 7.will have got

    Activity II.1.will have been writing; 2.will have been studying; 3.will have been teaching; 4.will have been listening;

    5.will have been taking

    Assessment and Self-assessment Tests

    Activity I.I am sure Bill and Annette will be reading at the time. 2.Sister Gretchen will be writing the exercises in

    French when the bell strikes 11 a.m.. 3.At this time on Tuesday, mom will be playing the piano. 4.Dolly and Joan will

    be playing in the yard all morning. 5.At 10 a.m. next Saturday, we shall/will be walking on the Siret bank.

    Activity II.1.By the end of the academic year, we will have learned about the U.S. Constitution. 2.The plane will have

    taken off before we get to the airport. 3.By 3 o’clock Amber will have signed all the documents. 4.I’m sure that these

    tickets will have sold by next Monday.

    Activity III.1.How long will you have been working in this office when your Fulbright grant ends? 2.At the end of this

    academic year, Dolly will have been learning Japanese for two years. 3.On July 5, Violet will have been living in this

    house for two years. 4.By nine o’clock tomorrow we’ll have been flying to Greece for at least one hour.

    5.4.1.Compulsory Bibliography

    1.Lister, Ronald, Klemens Veth, (2010), Dicţionar juridic, englez-român, român-englez, Bucuresti: Ed. Niculescu

    2.Magiru, Anca, (2013), Limba engleză, (Curs în tehnologie ID/IFR), Bucureşti: Editura Fundaţiei România de Mâine;

    3.Magiru, Anca, (2011), English for Law Students, Bucuresti, Ed. Universitara;

    4.Magiru, Anca, (2011), English for Public Administration Students, Bucuresti, Ed. Universitara;

    5.Magiru, Anca, (2010), American Criminal Law, An Introduction for Law Students of English, Bucuresti: Ed.

    Universitara.

    Optional Bibliography

    1.Paidos, Constantin, (1995), Gramatica limbii engleze, Teorie şi practică, vol. I,II,III Iaşi: Institutul European;

    2.Voiculescu, Cecilia, (2005), Dicţionar juridic, englez-român, român-englez, & terminologia UE-SUA, Bucureşti:

    Ed.Niculescu.

  • 33

    3.Brookes, Michael, Christiane Treutenare, (2002), 1000 de cuvinte in Drept, Bucuresti: Compania;

    4.Champion, Dean J., (1998), Dictionary of American Criminal Justice. Key Terms and Major Supreme Court Cases,

    Minot State University, London, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers;

    5.Constitutia Romaniei, (2004), Bucuresti: Ed. All Beck;

    6.The Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence, Reprinted 2001 by the Supreme Court

    Historical Society, 2001;

    7.Galateanu, Georgiana, Ecaterina Comisel (f.a.), Gramatica limbii engleze pentru uz scolar, Bucuresti: Ed. Didactica

    si Pedagogica;

    8.Martin, Elizabeth A., 2003, A Dictionary of Law, Oxford: Oxford University Press;

    9.Hanga, Vladimir, Rodica Calciu, (1994/2007), Dictionar juridic englez-roman si roman-englez, Bucuresti, Ed.

    Lumina Lex.

    5.4.2. Bibliographical References:

    1. Boarcăş, Camelia, Anca Magiru,(2002) , English Practical Course, Constanţa: Europolis;

    2.Gălăţeanu-Fârnoagă, Georgiana, (1987), Sinteze de gramatică engleză, Bucureşti: Ed. Albatros;

    3.Limba engleză, Ed. Didactică şi Pedagogică, Bucureşti, 1978

    4.Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, (c.1995), Longman Dictionaries;

    5.Oxford Dictionary of Law, (c.2003), Ed. by Elizabeth A. Martin, Oxford University Press;

    6.Paidos, Constantin, (1995), Gramatica limbii engleze, volumul I, Iaşi: Institutul European;

    7.Penruddocke, Andrea, Christopher A. Warnasch, (2004), English for the Real World, A Random House Company;

    8.Ronald Lister, Klemens Veth, 2010, Dicţionar juridic, englez-român, român-englez, Bucureşti: Ed. Niculescu;

    9.Seely, John, (2003), Law in Everyday Life, Oxford: Oxford University Press;

    10. Voiculescu, Cecilia, (2005), Dicţionar juridic, englez-român, român-englez, & terminologia UE-SUA, Bucureşti,

    Ed. Niculescu.

  • 34

    CONTINUT CURS SI SEMINAR. CURSUL ESTE MARCAT CU ROSU

    Learning Unit # 6

    THE LEGAL PROFESSIONALS (II). MAGISTRATES AND JUDGES

    He taught me housekeeping; when I

    divorce, I keep the house. American film star Zsa Zsa Gabor of her fifth husband

    6.1. Introduction

    6.2. The Objectives and Competences of Learning Unit # 6

    6.3. The Contents of Learning Unit # 6:

    A.READING SECTION: The Legal Professionals (II). Magistrates and Judges

    6.3.1. The Legal Professionals (II). Magistrates and Judges

    B.GRAMMAR SECTION: Tense Revision

    6.3.2. Expressing Future Time (II)

    C.PRACTICE SECTION: 6.4. Key Answer Guide for Self-assessment Activities

    6.4.1.Compulsory Bibliography

    6.4.2.Bibliographical References

    6.1. Introduction

    Magistrate. (n) A justice of the peace sitting in a

    magistrates’ court. Most magistrates are lay persons and have no

    formal legal qualifications: they receive no payment for the services

    but give their time voluntarily. There are, also, however, district

    judges (magistrates’ court) (formarly called stipendiary magistrates)

    in London and other major cities.

    Justice of the Peace (JP). A person holding a commission

    from the Crown to exercise certain judicial functions for a particular

    commission area. JPs are appointed on behalf of and in the name of

    the Queen by the Lord Chancellor and may be removed from office

    in the same day. On reaching the age of 70 they are placed on a

    supplemental list and cease to be able to exercise any judicial

    functions. Their principal function is to sit as magistrates in the

    magistrates’courts but they may also sit in the Crown Court when it is

    considering committals for sentence and appeals from

    magistrates’courts, sign warrants of arrest and search warrants, and

    take statutory declarations. All High Court judges are ex officio

    justices of the peace for the whole of England and Wales.

    Judge. (n) A state official with power to adjudicate on

    disputes and other matters brought before the courts for decision. In

    English law all judges are appointed by the Crown, on the advice of

    the Lord Chancellor in the case of circuit judges and High Court

    puisne judges and on the advice of the Prime Minister in the case of

    judges of the Court of Appeal and the Lords of Appeal in Ordinary.

    All judges are experienced legal practitioners, mostly barristers, but

    solicitors can be appointed if they possess the relevant advocacy

    qualification