TEKTONSKA geomorfologija skripta

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    Prirodno-matematiki fakultet u Sarajevu

    SKRIPTA IZ PREDMETA

    TEKTONSKA GEOMORFOLOGIJA

    SARAJEVO 2014. godina

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    POJAM, PREDMET I ZADATAK GEOMORFOLOGIJE

    Izaz !g"o#o$o%ogi&a' (o)i*" od g*+i i&"*igeo- z"#%&a, morphe- o%i+ ilogosna/+a. P"#a )o#", g"o#o$o%ogi&a &" na/+a o o%i+/ Z"#%&".G"o#o$o%ogi&a &" dio $izi*+" g"oga$i&". o+i/ $izi*+" g"oga$i&" (o)o&i (")$"a +o&" *in" g"oga$+i o#o)a*, a )o /3 %i)o$"a, a)#o$"a, ido$"a,

    io$"a i ("do$"a. Li)o$"a &" +a#"ni o#o)a*. Poin+i %o& %i)o$"" &"("d)a%&"n "%&"$o#. R"%&"$ na)a&" d&"%oan&"# /n/)an&i i an&+i i%a.O)a%i )"#ini za $izi*+/ g"oga$i&/3 ooga$i&a, $izioga$i&a, g"o#o$og"ni&a i)d.P"d#") (o/*aan&a g"o#o$o%ogi&" &" n"(o"dno "%&"$ Z"#%&in" (oin".Zada)a+ (o/*aan&a &" za+oni)o) (o)an+a 5g"n"za6, azi)+a #o$o%o+""o%/7i&", )" "%&"$ / 7&"%ini.R"%&"$ ("d)a%&a " anin" i n"anin" na Z"#%&ino& (oini. Pozi)in"

    "%&"$n" $o#" / /zi"n&a 5da, "8/%&7i, (%anin"6, a n"ga)in" $o#" //d/%&"n&a. Eozi&a i a+/#/%a7i&a d&"%/&/ na "%&"$. Ini7i&a%ni "%&"$ &" ona+a+a+a &" (o)ao.

    Di#"nzi&" "%&"$a3 #a+o, #"zo i #i+o o%i7i "%&"$a. Ma+o o%i7i / na&"9i5+on)in"n)i i o+"an+i az"ni6. Mi+o o%i7i / #a%i o%i7i 5+a#"ni7", +a("6.S" iz#":/ / #"zo o%i7i 5++o (o%&"6.

    Unutranje (endogene) sileZ"#%&ina )o(%o)a i i%a )"8" izazia&/ )i )" (o+")a3 )"+)on+" (o+")",

    /%+aniza# i "iz#iza#.

    #ag#a z"#%&o)"i

    T"+)on+i (o+")i " )aa&/ / )"+)oni+/. Di&"%" " na "(iog"n" i oog"n".E(iog"ni (o+")i / (oi i d/go)a&ni (o+")i +o&i#a na)a&/ na&"9i o%i7i na

    2

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    Z"#%&i 5+on)in"n)i i o+"an+i az"ni6. Oog"ni (o+")i / zi i na8ni (o+")i+o&i#a na)a&" (%anina 5g*.oo - (%anina6 Oog"ni (o+")i " di&"%" naoizon)a%n" 5o"6 i ")i+a%n" 5a&"dan&"6.

    /%+aniza# 5iz%ian&" #ag#" na (oin/ Z"#%&"6Mag#a)iza# (%/)oniza# 5+")an&" #ag#" / /n/)an&o)i Z"#%&"6

    S"iz#iza#3 z"#%&o)"i i )/oi

    Vanjske (egzogene) sileTo / S/n7" i n&"goa )o(%o)a. Ka&n&i 7i%& oi i%a &" /anaan&" Z"#%&in"

    (oin" )&. aplanacija. G"o#o$o%o+i ag"ni / /zo*ni7i #o$og"n")+og

    "ozinog (o7"a i n&"go" odgoaa&/9" "ozi&". G"o#o$o%o+i ag"ni /3oda 5#o+a, &"z"+a, i&"*na i %"d6, &")a 5 "o%+i "%&"$6...

    Denicije geomorfologijeJ. Cviji3 !G"o#o$o%ogi&a (o/*aa +a+o " )aao i #i&"n&ao "%&"$ Z"#%&""n"gi&o# /n/)an&i, )"")i*+i i o%ani i%a i n&ioi# +o#inoani#d"&)o#.'

    K. K. Markov3 !G"o#o$o%ogi&a (o/*aa &"dn/ od +o#(on"na)a g"oga$+""din" - "%&"$.'

    J. S. Edeltejn3 !G%ani zada)a+ g"o#o$o%ogi&" " a)o&i / o&an&aan&/(oi&"+%a i azi)+a o%i+a / "%&"$/.'Savremena definicija3 !G"o#o$o%ogi&a &" na/+a o (o)an+/ 5g"n"zi6 i azi)+/5#o$o%o+o& "o%/7i&i6 o%i+a az%i*i)i +a)"goi&a "%&"$a Z"#%&in" (oin".

    Pomone geomorfoloke cjeline! #o$oga$i&a 5o(iian&" o%i+a "%&"$a6 #o$o%ogi&a 5g"n")+a +%ai$i+a7i&a o%i+a / "%&"$/6 #o$o#")i&a 5/):ian&" #")i*ni i&"dno)i o%i+a6

    #o$og"n"za 5/):ian&" na*ina (o)an+a, (oi&"+%a i #o$o%o+""o%/7i&" az%i*i)i o%i+a / "%&"$/6 #o$oono%ogi&a 5/):ian&" )ao)i "%&"$a i n&"goi o%i+a6.

    Podjela geomorfologijeZaino od )oga da %i / o%i7i / "%&"$/ (o)a%i d&"%oan&"# )"+)on+i (o+")a i

    (o"#"9a&a i%i (od d&"%oan&"# (o%&an&i i%a, g"o#o$o%ogi&a " di&"%i natektonsku i erozivnu. T"+)on+a g"o#o$o%ogi&a (o/*aa "%&"$ na)ao/n/)an&i# i%a#a. O%i7i )"+)on+og "%&"$a ("d)a%&a&/ +"%") "%&"$a

    Z"#%&in" (oin". To / +/(ni - #a+o o%i7i i oni ("d)a%&a&/ (i#ani i%iini7i&a%ni "%&"$, / +o#" 9" " +ani&" odi&a)i az%i*i)i "ozini g"o#o$o%o+i

    ;

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    (o7"i. T"+)on+a g"o#o$o%ogi&a " zo" &o i )/+)/na. Eozinag"o#o$o%ogi&a na)a&" d&"%oan&"# an&+i i%a, a +a&n&i 7i%& &" /anaan&"Z"#%&in" (oin".

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    Z"#%&ina )o(%o)a " ona%&a d&"%oan&"# "#i&+i i adioa+)ini (o7"a.

    T"8" #a" id/ ("#a &"zg/, a %a+" ("#a (oiniVertikalna struktura zemlje

    1.&"zgo 2.don&a #an)i&a ;.gon&a #an)i&a 4.%i)o$"a =.Z"#%&ina +oa 5(oin+i %o& %i)o$"" =0>200#6

    T"oi&a ("#a Go%d#i)/3 Z"#%&ino &"zgo 5ai$"a6 S/%$idno - o+idni o#o)a* E+%ogi)+i o#o)a* 5ga:"n od azi*ni i%i+a)a6 Li)o$"a 5do 120 +#6

    Poin+i dio &" nazao Sial5i%i7i&/# i a%/#ini&/#6, a dio i(od n&"ga Sima5i%i7i&/# i #agn"zi&/#6. Sia%/ ("o%a:/&/ +i"%", a / Si#a zoni aza%)n")i&"n". Sia% ("d)a%&a *)/ Z"#%&in/ +o/ *i&a &" d"%&ina na&"9a / ("d&"%/+on)in"na)a, a naan&a i(od o+"an+i az"na. I(od Si#a zon" izda&a " zonaa "9i# (o7"n)o# o#a -"rofesima, i(od n&" o#o)a* a "9i# (o7"n)o#ni+%a -#ifesima. I(od

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    Kontinentalna kora" a)o&i od )i %o&a. Pi &" gon&i i%i "di#"n)a7ioni 5%o&

    na +o&"# 8ii#o6. On &" na&)an&i, a gad" ga g%in", (i&"7i, %&/n7i, +"*n&a+,"di#"n)n" )i&"n". oo# %o&/ " na%az" %"8i)a /da i "n"g"na)a. Oog %o&an"#a na G"n%and/, na di&"%oi#a S+andinai&", na A+i*+i# o)i#a, a /n"+i# di&"%oi#a ga i#a #nogo 5d"%)a i&"+" Gang i ?a#a(/)a - do 1= +#6.S"dn&i 5gani)ni6%o& &" %o& (o&"*n" d"%&in" od 1= +#. I(od io+i (%anina5i#a%a&i, A%("6 d"%&ina &" ;0 - 40 +#. Don&i 5aza%)ni6 %o& &" (o&"*n"d"%&in" 1= - 20 +#. Ma+i#a%na d"%&ina +on)in"n)a%n" +o" &" = +#, a#ini#a%na 4= +#.

    Okeanska kora&" &"dno)ani&" ga:" 5;>10 +#6.

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    $P*&"$' P&%*$# &1,2E(iog"ni (o+")i / (oi (o+")i o7i%ian&a i +o%"an&a iz#":/ +on)in"n)a%ni

    %o+oa i o+"an+i az"na. E(iog"n"za &" (o7" (oog zao:ian&a+on)in"na)a i /gian&a o+"an+i az"na. Ta&" +oz d/8a g"o%o+a azdo%&a io/a)a *i)a/ Z"#%&in/ (oin/. Sod ("d)a%&a +on)in"n)", a /giio+"an+" az"n".

    Po%&"di7a "(iog"n"z" &" (o#i&"an&" oa%n" %ini&" / di&" ai&an)".)ransgresija 56, (%a%&"n&" i%i nadian&" )aa " / +a)"goi&/ "(iog"ni

    (o+")a (/)an&a, )&. +on)in"n)i " (/)a&/, )" do%azi do izdizan&a #oa.

    *egresija 5>6, (o%a*"n&", /gian&" i%i (/)an&" #oa i o+"ana /a&a " /"(iog"n" (o+")" izdizan&a, )&.do%azi do izdizan&a +on)in"na)a, )" do (o%a*"n&a

    od".

    'aleogeografija(o/*aa a(o"d +o(na i #oa / g"o%o+o& (o%o)i +ao i

    )adan&" $izi*+o - g"oga$+" /%o". P"#a )o#", "(iog"ni# (o+")i#a ")aa&/3

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    odoi i%i )i)oi - ogo#na i(/(*"n&a / "%&"$/. Oni / ("d)a%&"ni+ao g"oan)i+%ina%" odnono +on)in"n)a%n" #a"

    /gii i%i /%"gn/9a 5o+"an+i az"ni6 - g"oin+%ina%".

    A > an)i+%ina%a S > in+%ina%a G.A. > g"oan)i+%ina%a G.S. > g"oin+%ina%a

    E(iog"n" (o+")" di&"%i#o na /ni"za%n" i %o+a%n". +niverzalni "(iog"ni

    (o+")i izazia&/ (o#i&"an&" oa%n" %ini&" io# i&")a. ,okalni " &a%&a&//n/)a +on)in"na)a, #an&i / az#&"a i (o)an)aa.

    Utvr3ivanje e0irogeni/ 0okretaE(iog"ni (o+")i " /):/&/ na ono/ di&" onon" #")od"3

    1. g"o%o+" #")od"2. g"o#o$o%o+" #")od"

    %eoloke metode/ #an&" ig/n" #")od". Po/*aa&/ di+oda7i&/ %o&"a +ao

    (o%&"di7a )ang"i&" i "g"i&". Kod )ang"i&" " (o)o&"9i #o+i "di#"n)i("+ia&/ "di#"n)i#a d/%&i $a7i&a 5"di#"n)i "9i d/ina6. Kod "g"i&" "("+o "di#"na)a d/o+o #o+i $a7i&a )a%o8" %o&"i oa%nog (o&aa, )o &"na&*"9" %&/na+ i (i&"a+. Kad " )o /)di onda " za (i#&" naodi /):ian&""(iog"ni (o+")a.%eomorfoloke metode / ig/ni&" #")od". Zania&/ " na (o/*aan&/#o$o%o+i (o"#"9a&a / "%&"$/ +ao (o%&"di7a d&"%oan&a "(iog"ni (o+")an(. (o"#"9a& #ain+i )"aa. Kod oi #")oda / "%&"$/ Z"#%&" " izda&a&/zon"3

    zon" "(iog"ni izdizan&a 5S+andina+o (o%/o)o, G"n%and, I%and,Za(adna oa%a Jadana6 zon" "(iog"ni (/)an&a 5oa%" o%andi&", J/8na Kina, S&""na A$i+a,

    I)o*na oa%a Jadana6

    Dokazi tonjenja okeanski/ 4azenaPi#&" / d/o+o (/)"na /9a (od#o+i do%ina +o&" ("d)a%&a&/

    (od/8"n&" i&"*ni do%ina (od #o"#.S%i*an do+az )on&"n&a o+"an+i az"na &" (o%o8a& +oa%&ni 5+oa%+i6 +o%oni&a

    na "%i+i# d/ina#a. Koa%&n" +o%oni&" na)a&/ / )o(+i# #oi#a gd&" /#ini#a%n" )"#("a)/" od" do 20H i a%ini)")a 2 - ; @. To / *i)o

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    )&"noi)a )%a, i )ada / +o%oni&" na d/ini od =0 #")aa. (o&"dini# di&"%oi#aTiog o+"ana o)a7i +oa%&ni +o%oni&a " na%az" i na d/ina#a od 1200 #")aa.o*"no &" )on&"n&" na A)o%i#a 5Koa%&na o)a6, J/8ni Pa7i$i+ i Indi&+i o+"an.

    E(iog"n"zi /i&"+ )"a doda)i %o+a%n" oog"n" (o+")" oan&a i a&"dan&a.&*&"$' P&%*$# &1,2

    gr&. oros - planina

    rogeni pokreti / "%a)ino zi )"+)on+i (o+")i "%i+og in)"nzi)")a +o&idood" do (o"#"9a&a %o&"a i (o)o&"9" )"+)on+" )/+)/". Oni )aa&/no" )/+)/" i #o$o%o+i " #ani$")/&/ / "%&"$/ Z"#%&in" (oin".

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    Aksijalna ravan&" aan +o&a /(ano i&"*" o/ d/8 oi an)i+%ina%", #o8" i)i/(ana i%i +oo nagn/)a. A+o &" a+i&a%na aan ")i+a%na, o" di&"%i#o na3

    normalne (ore

    izokline (ore

    lepezaste (ore

    S)"("n nagn/)o)i &" (o%&"di7a in)"nzi)")a i )a&an&a (o)i+a. A+o &" a+i&a%naaan nagn/)a, o" di&"%i#o na3 uspravne

    kose

    polegle

    10

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    prevrnute

    zagnjurene

    (iodi &" *") %/*a& da " na "%i+i# an)i+%ina%a#a i in+%ina%a#a &a%&a&/

    #an&i "+/ndani naoi. To /slo!ene (ore 5an)i+%inoi&/# i in+%inoi&/#6.

    Prekrilne borena)a&/ +ada " / (a7/ (o)i+a na%azi n"+a n"(o+")na #aa )"" (o%"g%a oa +ida i%i (/7a i do%azi do na%a*"n&a.

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    (i%i8aa)i. Ta+a (o&aa " nazia amigdaloida. P/8an&" nizoa #o8" "#&")i#i*no ("+ida)i )a+o da " naani di&"%oi #&"n&/&/ n"naani#. Oa

    (o&aa " nazia intermitentno na(iranje.

    Geo%inklinale("d)a%&a&/ izd/8"na /d/%&"n&a ogo#ni di#"nzi&a / %ai%ni#di&"%oi#a Z"#%&in" +o" / +o&i#a / #&")"ni o+"an+i i #o+i az"ni.

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    Po a)an&/ o do)ano# (o)i+/, / "din&"# di&"%/ g"oin+%ina%" na%azi "n"(o+")na "zi)"n)na #aa +o&a " nazia me1ugorje.

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    a6 #"di)"an+a g"oin+%ina%a &" "doz"#na zona #%a:i &"na*ni(%anina. (o*")+/ &" i#a%a /#&""n&" za(ad - i)o+, a onda &"(o#&""no / &""oza(ad - &/goi)o+. M"di)"an+a g"oin+%ina%a*ini *i)a niz (%anin+i i)"#a3 Piin"&i, A%(i, Ka(a)i, Dinaidi,

    "%"nidi, T/+" (%anin", Ka+az, Ian+" (%anin", indo+/,Pa#i, i#a%a&i, (%anin" J/goi)o*n" Azi&", (%anin"

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    Ki%a a&"dan&a 5K6 di&"%oi a&"da a &"dn" i d/g" )an" ani a&"dan&a.Kod +oi a&"da (/)"no +i%o " nazia (odin+o, a izdign/)o (o%a)no.S+o+ a&"da 56 izno (/)an&a i%i izdizan&a %o+oa.od a&"dan&a 5n6 izno o*nog az#i7an&a iz#":/ da izdign/)a %o+a.

    Dislokacije/ a&"di "%i+i a(o)an&"na i zna)ni d/ina. Kod n&i izno+o+a #o8" iznoi)i i" d"")ina i )o)ina #")aa.Fleksura&" o%i+ +o&i na)a&" +ad n"#a ")i+a%nog a&"dan&a, "9 " +o%&"na)"("na)o izi&a&/.

    Vrste rasjeda!1. normalni rasjedi +i%o &"dnog %o+a &" (/)"no, a d/go / (oi)no#

    (o%o8a&/. To / n"ga)ini adi&a%ni (o+")i

    2. reversni rasjedi +i%o &"dnog %o+a izdign/)o, d/8 a&"dn" (oin", ad/go &" / (oi)no# (o%o8a&/ 5(ozi)ini adi&a%ni (o+")i6;. horizontalni rasjedi (i/)no a#o oizon)a%no +")an&".

    U slo9ena rasjedanja s0adaju!

    horst ili timor

    tektonski rov ili gre(en

    (or% #" )/+/ni o%i+ na)ao o*ni# a&"dan&"# &"dnog %o+a (i *"#/ &"n&"go 7"n)a%ni dio zao)ao na (oi)no& iini. Za o) " +a8" da ("d)a%&ao)o*n" (%anin" za)o )o izg%"da (o(/) o)o+a / #o/, &" " &a%&a / ani7a#a.Pi#&"3 Kozaa i Ma&"i7a, Mo)a&i7a i Pooa, V/*&a+ i T"aa, a7a%d iVog"zi i)d.

    Tekon%ki rov ili gre)en&" )/+)/ni o%i+ na)ao (/)an&"# %o+oa d/8 da(aa%"%na a&"da.

    1=

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    V"%i+i )"+)on+i o i%i g""n i)o*n" A$i+" &" d/g 000 +#, a )"+)on+i o

    &"z"a Tangan&i+a &" d/g 00 +#, a io+ B= +#. Eo(i &" na&"9i )"+)on+io i&"+" Ra&n".

    E%kar&*ani / ("7i$i*ni od&"7i / "%&"$/ "%i+i di#"nzi&a na)a%ia&"dan&"#. Pi#&"3 Z%a)na oa%a / A$i7i i O"gon+a &"z"a i S&""no&A#"i7i.V")i+a%ni# (o+")i#a na)a&/ a&"dn" i%i go#adn" (%anin". Razgani*"n" /a&"ni# od&"7i#a.

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    #! ju$na ili australna he"isfera

    4fri&ka plo&a - o/a)a / A$i+/ iz/z" (%anin" A)%a na&""/ i Ka(+i (%anina na &/g/. In)"nzini )"+)on+i (o"#"9a&ii (o+")i do"%i / do oda&an&a Madaga+aa od a$i*+og

    +on)in"n)a 4ustralijska plo&a- o/a)a za(adni dio A/)a%i&".

    A$i*+a, Indi&+a i A/)a%i&+a (%o*a / o)a7i )aog +o(na Gondana.

    *$,j$+ 6$,j$"n)a +o(n"n" "#i$"" &" /9" i&"+" Loa" / A)%an)+i o+"an [email protected]"n)a od"n" "#i$"" &" / %izini o)o*&a An)i(od +od 110;4 #6. Po&"*naiina +o(na &" B0 #. Po&"*na iina Azi&" B0 # i )o &" na&ii +on)in"n).Po&"*na iina E/o(" i A/)a%i&" &" ;40 #. 200 #.n.. - nizi&" 50>100 (a" nizi&" i%i zaan&"ni (o)oi 100>200a*%an&"n" nizi&"6

    2. 200>00 #.n.. - (o:" 5(o)o iz#":/ nizi&a i (%anina6;. 00 i i" #.n.. - (%anin" 500>1000 ni+" (%anin" i%i go" 1000>2000

    (%anin" "dn&i iina 2000 i i" io+" (%anin"6

    Ni-i#e %"(o)ani i /an&"ni di&"%oi Z"#%&in" (oin" #a%i# a(o%/)ni# i"%a)ini# iina#a, #a%i# nagio# i #a%o# "n"gi&o# "%&"$a. ii+a,

    1

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    Kin"+a, Indi&+" nizi&", M"o(o)a#i&a, "n)a%noa#"i*+a... Rani7" / #an&"nizi&" / "%&"$/. P"#a )/+)/i, g"n"zi i #o$o%o+o& "o%/7i&i az%i+/&/ "3

    1. )/+)/n" 5zaani / ozon)a%ni# i%i %ago nagn/)i# %o&"i#a, n(.3Pa)agoni&a, Aai&a i "n)a%ni Sii6

    2. "ozin" 5na)a%" "ozini# d&"%oan&"#6;. a+/#/%a)in" 5na)a%" )a%o8"n&"# #a)"i&a%a i )a+o na)a&/ d"%)",a%/i&a%n" ani7", oa%", #oa i o+"ani6.

    Koline 5/d/%&"n&a6 / n"ga)ini "%&"$ni o%i7i, /d/"n&a #an&"g i%i "9"g(o)an)a, ("d)a%&"n" /an&"ni# dno#. P"#a na*in/ (o)an+a az%i+/&/"3

    1. )"+)on+" +o)%in" 5na)a&/ n"ga)ini# )"+)on+i# (o+")i#a (/)an&a3)"+)on+i o, in+%ina%a6

    2. "ozin" +o)%in" 5na)a&/ "%"+)ino# "ozi&o# i&"*ni )o+oa, )&.

    o*no# "ozi&o#, &o " nazia&/ $%/i&o>"ozina (oi"n&a / i&"*ni#do%ina#a6

    ;. zaa%" / /d/%&"n&a "9i di#"nzi&a o+/8"na (%anin+i# o+io#5zaa%a P%anin+" o%a)i, Saa&"+o>z"ni*+a zaa%a6

    Zaa%" " a)o&" od +o)%ina, n(.3 Mo)a+a zaa%a ?i&"%o(o%&+a +o)%ina,Mo)a+a +o)%ina i Mo)a+o %a)o.

    *eljef dna okeanski/ 4esena

    Do#inia&/ a+/#/%a)ini o%i7i, a "ozini / #an&" za)/(%&"ni. K%ai$i+a7i&a"%&"$a " i g"n")+i# i "giona%no>g"oga$+i# (in7i(o#. P"#a"giona%no>g"oga$+o# (in7i(/ az%i+/&"#o %&"d"9" o%i+"3

    1. "%$ - +on)in"n)a%ni (ag 5na +a)i " ("d)a%&a na&&")%i&o# (%ao#o&o#6, / "%$/ " "+(%oa)i/ na$)a i /d".

    2. d/o+o#o+" +o)%in" - na&"9i# (o)o)+o# (i+az/&/ "%&"$ o7"ana5(o&"*na d/ina B000 #6 dno &" "%&"$no.

    ;. d/o+o#o+i &a7i, %an7i i (agoi.

    Raz%i+/&/ " (ozi)ini i n"ga)ini "%&"$ni o%i7i dna o7"an+i a"na.

    Pozi)ini "%&"$ni o%i7i /3 (od#o+" g"d" i%i (agoi, (od#o+" ("*ag",(od#o+i (%a)oi i (od#o+" /%+an+" +a(".

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    Po%&"di7" /%+aniz#a /3 /%+ani, $o#ian&" n")ai%ni di&"%oa Z"#%&in"+o". O+o = @ gon&i di&"%oa %i)o$"" *in" /%+an+" )&, #ag#a)+" )i&"n".+"lkan%ki rel#ef %e di#eli na'

    "7"n)ni 5a+)ian i dana6

    $oi%ni 5(a%"o/%+an+i6 "%&"$ - na)ao / (o%o)iG%ani /zo+ /%+aniz#a &" /n/)an&a )o(%o)a, )&. "n"gi&a Z"#%&". &ag"a&"/8a"na #aa / /n/)an&o)i, a lava &" /8a"na #aa na (oini. %ulkanskeerupcije/ "+(%ozina izi&an&a %a". A+o / iz/z")no na8n", nag%" i z", )ada" nazia&/ (ao+iz#o#. V/%+aniza# " odnoi na (oin/, a (%/)oniza# na/n/)an&o). V/%+aniza# i (%/)oniza# / di&"%oi o()" g"o%ogi&", a%i /%az" i /do#"n g"o#o$o%ogi&" zog o%i+a +o&" )aa&/ / "%&"$/ Z"#%&in" (oin".

    Vulkanske eru0cije

    V/%+an+" "/(7i&" / odaz a+)inog /%+aniz#a (i *"#/ " iza7/&/ )"*n",*)" i gaoi)" #a".#ene mase / ("d)a%&"n" /i&ano# %ao# *i&a &" )"#("a)/a =0-1=00H. a)a %a" /%az" i gaoi i #")a%i. Od ;=>0 @ #a" #ag#", )&. %a"

    ("d)a%&a&/ i%i7i&/# o+id" 5SiO26. Ki"%a %aa ad8i ("+o B= @ SiO2,"dn&" +i"%a =2>B= @, azi*na 40>=2 @, a /%)aazi*na %aa #an&" ad8i #an&"od 40 @ SiO2.

    ,ava se dijeli na dvije kategorije!

    1. 8i)+a 5i+ozna6 > azi*n" /, i zo " +"9/ 520>;0 +#C62. )")a" 5$%/idna6 - i%i7i&+a %aa, +i"%a i (oa, +"9" " o)(i%i+" = +#C.Po*")a+ %a:"n&a %a"&" na )"#("a)/i od B00 do 00H. zo7i +")an&a /ogo#ni (i)i7i i n"(o"dna "za a oog"ni# $aza#a. Po+oi %a" #og/ i)iogo#ni di#"nzi&a 5aa&i > ;00 000 +#2 &" (od (o+oo# %a" (%a)oKo%oado / SAD>/ - =00 000 +#2&" (od (o+oo# %a" - d"%&ina 1 =00 #.7vrste mase / iza*"n" / az%i*i)i# +o%i*ina#a, o%i7i#a i az%i*i)o#a)a/ za i&"#" /%+an+i "/(7i&a, (o)i*/ od #a)i*ni )i&"na i o%a:"n"%a". Ra)"i)i (od/+)i /%+an+i "/(7i&a /3 /%+an+i ("("o, /%+an+i

    (i&"a+, %a(i%i, i /%+an+" o#". %ulkanski pepeo &" na&zna*a&ni&a *)a/%+an+a #aa, a ("d)a%&a %a/ / o%i+/ (aa - (a"na %aa 5(i#&"3"+(%ozi&a /%+ana Ka+a)a/ 1;.g.6. %ulkanska pra'ina&" na&i)ni&i /%+an+i#a)"i&a%, ("*ni+a do 2= ##, a a+o &" +/(ni&a, onda gooi#o o /%+an+o#

    ("("%/. )ufiti" $o#ia&/ / i)/a7i&i +ada " /%+an+i ("("o i (aina, +o&i /(a%i na &"z"+/ i%i #o+/ (oin/, (o#i&"a&/ a g%ino# i (i&"+o#. V/%+an+i(i&"a+ &" ("d)a%&"n i)ni# *")i7a#a /%+an+og )a+%a i +i)a%i#a (o&"dini#in"a%a )" *")i7a#a o%a:"n" %a" ("*ni+a 1>2 ##. Kada " /%+an+i

    (i&"a+ i ("("o 7"#"n)/&/ (od d&"%oan&"# a)#o$"+i (adaina, )ada ("%az"

    / vulkanski tuf0A+o " / /%+an+o# )/$/ &a%&a&/ +/(ni&i +o#adi9i doin",onda &" )o vulkanska (re&a. La(i%i / i)ni +o#adi %a" ("*ni+a od 2>;0 ##.

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    5ulkanske (om(e / +o#adi %a" iza*"ni / /i&ano#, (%a)i*no# )an&/,+/+a)og o%i+a, ("*ni+a od n"+o%i+o 7"n)i#")aa (a do 20>;0 #")aa.T"+"/ i (o n"+o%i+o d"")ina )ona. Mog/ (a)i na /da%&"no) i do +#, a o)i9i naiin/ i do 1 +#. Pi "/(7i&a#a +o%i*in" iza*"ni *)i (od/+a)a /, /

    (oi&"+/, "9i od +o%i*ina iz%i"n" %a"."asovite mase / ("d)a%&"n" od"no# (ao# 5i )o na&*"9" B0>@6, /#(oodoni+o#, /#(odio+ido#, %ooodoni+o#,/g%&"n#ono+ido#, a#oni&a+o#, #")ano# i odoni+o#. M")an i odoni+ /za(a%&ii i go", zog *"ga " &a%&a (%a#"n (i%i+o# "/(7i&a. (o)oi#a/%+an+og i (a%"o/%+an+og "%&"$a *")a &" (o&aa (o)/%+an+i ganiizoa.P"iod a+)inog /%+an+og ada " zaaa (o&aa#a #inog izi&an&a (aa igaoa. M&")a na Z"#%&ino& (oini, na +o&i# / (o)/%+an+o# ("iod/

    izi&a&/ gaoi, nazia&/ " $/#ao%a#a, o%$a)oa#a i #o$")a#a. 6umarole /(/+o)in" +oz +o&" izi&a od"na (aa +o&a #o8" i#a)i )"#("a)// ("+o10H.olfatore/ #&")a na +o&i#a izi&a&/ /#(ona &"din&"n&a a%i / o%i+/gaa i i#a&/ n"/godan #ii. T"#("a)/a &" 100>10H.Mofete/ (/+o)in" na+o&" izi&a /g%&"n#ono+id, a / #an&i# +o%i*ina#a on/ +i"%in/, #")an i azo).

    Pre*a karaker" i-)a$enog *aeri#ala &ri v"lkan%ki* er"&1i#a*a!

    ra-lik"#e*o ri o%novna i&a v"lkana'

    %ai*ni - /%+ani +o&i iza7/&/ %a/ a #a%o gaoa

    gani - /%+ani +o&i iza7/&/ a#o gao", "z %a" #&"o)i - /%+ani +o&i iza7/&/ i)o"#"no i gao" i %a/.

    #i0ovi vulkanski/ eru0cija! %ro*)ol%ki i&- i#" ("#a /%+an/ S)o#o%i na Li(a+i# o)i#a -

    I)a%i&a. ")" / "+(%ozi&" / i)#i*+o# (ona%&an&/ )" "%i+a +o%i*ina/%+an+og #a)"i&a%a

    volkan%ki i& - i#" ("#a /%+an/ Vo%+ano / Li(a+i# o)i#a.Kaa+)"i)i*an &" (o (oo# iz%i&"an&/ %a", a do)a *")o " )aa *"(

    na +a)"/ hava#%ki i&- /%+ani aa&+og o)o*&a, #in" "/(7i&" i $o#ia&/ "

    %ai*ni (o)o7i d/ga*+i d"")ina#a +i%o#")aa ve-"v%ki i&- i#" (o /%+an/ V"z/ +od

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    )anda#%an#%ki i& - i#" ("#a &a(an+o# o)o+/ ?anda&>an, azon""/(7i&", "z %a", nago#i%aan&" ogo#n" +o%i*in" /%+an+og ("("%a.Oo# )i(/ (i(ada i Ka+a)a/.

    Vulkani se 0rema aktivnosti dijele na! a+)in" 5i dana a+)ini6 /gani i%i /ga"ni 5na i)o+/ Si&" i Ma+"doni&" / i%i /%+ani, a%i /

    /ga"ni6.

    VU,%'S% &1,2

    1. V/%+an+a +/(a2. Ka)";. V/%+an+i di#n&a+ 5go)%o64. Nai)" /%+ana 5#ag#a6=. Paazi)+" +/("

    %ulkanska kupa&" +/(a)a na+/(ina )dn/)" %a" i (io+%a)i*nog #a)"i&a%a.Mo8" i)i az%i*i)og o%i+a.Krater&" %&"+a)i o)o na / /%+ana. 5ulkanski

    dimnjak /grotlo0&" 7i&" +o&a (o"z/&" /n/)an&o) i +a)". Paazi)+" +/("/ "+/ndan" (o&a". V/%+an+a +/(a, za&"dno a +a)"o# i go)%o#,o/a9"na &" o()i# i#"no# vulkan.Viina /%+ana " #o8" od"di)i ("#a a(o%/)no& i "%a)ino& iini.V/%+an+" +/(" na n"/%+an+o& onoi3 A+on+aga 5BB0 # - Ag"n)ina6,Ki%i#and8ao 5== # - A$i+a6, V"%i+i Aaa) 5=1=B # - Ka+az6, Ko)o(a+i5=B # - E+ado6, L/%a&%a+o 5B2; # - P"/6, K%&/*"a o(+a 54=0 # -Ka#*a)+a6...V/%+an+" +/(" na /%+an+o& onoi3 E)na 5;2B; #6 i V"z/ 511B #6.

    V/%+ani " di&"%" na a+)in" i /ga%". A+)ini / oni +o&i i dana ad". ga%i /oni +od +o&i &" n")a%a /%+an+a a+)ino). A+)ini na)a&/ i dana, /

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    o+"ani#a, gd&" " az#i*/ (%o*", n(. #%adi /%+an P"i+/)in / M"+i+/ +o&i &"na)ao 14;. godin", iin" ;40 #.Stratovulkani ili slojeviti vulkani 5V"z/6 i#a&/ %o&"i)"+/(" )&. izazi)/ %o&"i)o) na o+oi#a /%+an+i +/(a. Ta %o&"i)o) "

    naziaperiklinalna stratifikacija. P")ana+ a)a /%+an+i +/(a odi&a " nada na*ina31. (")ana+ /%+an+og ada2. /ni)aan&" /%+ana "+(%ozino# "/(7i&o#, )a " (o&aa zo"

    (ao+iza# 5Ka+a)a/ 1;.g.6

    Postoje i slo9ene vulkanske ku0e! "+/ndan" 5#an&" i #%a:" +/(" $o#ian" / "di)/ )ai&"g gigan)+og +a)"a 5V"z/6

    (aazi)+" 5#an&" +/(" +o&" " "8/ za g%ani /%+an6 ("/dog"n" 5n"#a&/ +a)"6 #aoi 5$oi%n" +/(" #a%i iina "d"n" na a# +a)" i na&*"9" i(/n&"n" odo# 5(i#&" / Fan7/+o& i

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    Pseudovulkanski o4lici < la9ni vulkanski o4lici!1. %a)ni /%+ani

    2. #")"oi)+i +a)"i.

    ?%a)ni /%+ani / /%+ani +o&i iza7/&/ %a)o i gao". V"zani / za n")ai%n"di&"%o" Z"#%&in" +o" i )o za o%a)i oga)" na$)o#. / i"n)a%no& Azi&i. M")"oi)+i +a)" na)a&" /dao# #")"oi)a.

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    D/ina i(o7"n)a &" 10>B0 +#, a #o8" i9i i do =0 +#.S/#ain+i z"#%&o)"i / oni +o&i " d"" / (od#o&/ 5i(o7"n)a na dn/o+"ana6, o(ani /, dood" do na)an+a )/na#i&a.

    Podjela zemljotresa 0rema uzroku!1. )"+)on+i - na&*"9i 50 @6, na)a%i / )"+)oni+o# oi z"#%&o)"i /

    na&&a*i, na&azoni&i i na&o(ani&i2. /%+an+i - na)a&/ +ao (o%&"di7a /%+an+i "/(7i&a 5 @6;. //ni i%i /in+i - na&i&":i na)a&/ /%&"d //aan&a )&"n+i #aa /

    /n/)an&o)i Z"#%&", n(. //aan&" ("9in+i odoa 5; @6.

    jerenje i jaina zemljotresaJa*ina z"#%&o)"a " od":/&" (o#o9/ di&" +a%"3

    1. Ri)"oa - 50H > 10H6, #&"i " +o%i*ina o%oo:"n" "n"gi&"2. M"+a%i&"a +a%a - 50H > 12H6, (o+az/&" (o%&"di7" na Z"#%&ino& (oini,

    ("+o H / azoni z"#%&o)"i.

    Izoi&")" / za#i%&"n" %ini&" +o&" na +a)i (o"z/&/ #&")a a i)o# &a*ino#z"#%&o)"a. o#oi&")" / za#i%&"n" %ini&" na +a)i +o&" (o"z/&/ #&")ai)o"#"n" (o&a" z"#%&o)"a. Z"#%&o)"i " ozna*aa&/ +ao ")i+a%ni i%i)a%aa)i (o+")i. V")i+a%ni z"#%&o)"i " #ani$")/&/ / o%i+/ /daa. Ta%aa)i/ / oizon)a%i Z"#%&in" (oin" , a #ani$")/&/ " / o%i+/ )a%aa)og gian&aZ"#%&in" (oin".

    e"ljotresni oblici se for"iraju na e"ljinoj povr'ini pod uticaje"ze"ljotresa! *ijetki su+ spadaju u "ikrooblike! ,avljaju se u obliku razliitih

    pukotina-

    z&a("9" (/+o)in" - na)a&/ oizon)a%ni# az#i7an&"# )%a za i&"#"z"#%&o)"a

    a&"dn" (/+o)in" - na)a&/ ")i+a%ni# +")an&"# na Z"#%&ino& (oini i&a%&a " a&"dni +o+ 5na&"9i #")aa, na A%&a7i6.

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    T%"na*i &" azoni )a%a /zo+oan (od#o+i# z"#%&o)"o# i do 40 #")aaiin", zina i ("+o 00 +#C. Oa%" Tiog o+"ana / na&(od%o8ni&")/na#i&i#a. 52B.12.200B.g. na S/#a)i6.2rn"%i / "+/ndan" (o%&"di7" z"#%&o)"a na +o(n/ 5nag%a o/aan&a)&"n+i #aa na io+i# (%anina#a, n(. "n)a%na Azi&a - Pa#i6.2%ovi/ n&"8n" %ain" (o+"n/)" z"#%&o)"i#a.

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    n/altPOJAM, PREDMET I ZADATAK GEOMORFOLOGIJE................................................- 1 -

    Unutranje (end!ene" #$%e................................................................................- 1 -

    &anj#'e (e!!ene" #$%e......................................................................................- ) -

    De*n$+$je !er%!$je................................................................................... - ) -

    Pne !er%'e +je%$ne/........................................................................- ) -Pdje%a !er%!$je....................................................................................... - ) -

    Ger%'$ nau0n$ etd$............................................................................- -

    TEKTO23KA GEOMORFOLOGIJA (MORFOTEKTO2IKA"......................................... - -

    End!ene (unutranje" #$%e................................................................................ - -

    &ert$'a%na #tru'tura e%je................................................................................ - 4 -

    Mr%'$ na0aj te'tn#'$5 6'reta.................................................................- 7 -

    EPIROGE2I POKRETI I O8LI9I..............................................................................- : -

    Ut;raena..................................................................... - = -

    OROGE2I POKRETI I O8LI9I................................................................................- ? -

    Pdje%a r!en$5 6'reta/.................................................................................. - ? -

    @r$nta%n$ $%$ tan!en+$ja%n$ 6'ret$ $ >%$+$........................................................- ? -

    Med$teran#'a !e#$n'%$na%a.............................................................................. - 11 -

    TEKTOGE2EZA [email protected] PLA2I2A..................................................................- 11 -

    LA2A2E PLA2I2E...........................................................................................- 1) -Lan0ane 6%an$ne...............................................................................................- 1) -

    2B

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    Or!ene ae.................................................................................................... - 1) -

    &ERTIKAL2I ILI RADIJAL2I POKRETI................................................................... - 1 -

    E%eent$ ra#jeda/............................................................................................. - 1 -

    &r#te ra#jeda/................................................................................................... - 14 -

    U #%Bena ra#jedanja #6adaju/..........................................................................- 14 -

    E;%u+$ja ra#jedn$5 6%an$na...............................................................................- 17 -

    RELjEF ZEMLjE..................................................................................................- 1: -

    Ma'r>%$+$ re%jea 'nt$nenata #u/...................................................................- 1: -

    Re%je dna 'ean#'$5 >e#ena............................................................................- 1= -

    &ULKA23KE POJA&E I O8LI9I............................................................................- 1= -

    &u%'an#'e eru6+$je........................................................................................... - 1? -

    Te0ne a#e...................................................................................................... - 1? -La;a #e d$je%$ na d;$je 'ate!r$je/..................................................................... - 1? -

    Ga#;$te a#e................................................................................................. - 1C -

    T$6;$ ;u%'an#'$5 eru6+$ja/...............................................................................- 1C -

    &u%'an$ #e 6rea a't$;n#t$ d$je%e na/..............................................................- 1C -

    &ULKA23KI O8LI9I............................................................................................- ) -

    3trat;u%'an$ $%$ #%je;$t$ ;u%'an$.......................................................................- ) -

    P#tje $ #%Bene ;u%'an#'e 'u6e/.................................................................... - )1 -

    O>%$' 'ratera/...................................................................................................- )1 -

    P#e>an >%$' 'ratera je 'a%dera un$ten$ 'rater/..........................................- )1 -

    P%utn$a je a!at$a u unutranj#t$. P%utn#'$ >%$+$/...........................- )1 -

    P#eud;u%'an#'$ >%$+$ %aBn$ ;u%'an#'$ >%$+$/...............................................- )1 -

    &u%'an#'e >%a#t$ na Ze%j$ #u te'tn#'e, ne #ta>$%ne >%a#t$, a d$je%e #e na/..- )) -

    3EIZMIKE POJA&E I O8LI9I.............................................................................. - )) -

    Pdje%a e%jtre#a 6rea ur'u/..................................................................- ) -

    Mjerenje $ ja0$na e%jtre#a............................................................................- ) -Ge!ra#' ra#6r#tranjenje e%jtre#a.........................................................- )4 -

    3e$$0'e >%a#t$ na Ze%j$/.............................................................................- )4 -