Hots Matematik

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    Higher Order Thinking Skills inScience & Mathematics(HOTsSM)

    BAHAGIAN PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM

    KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

    2012

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    Di akhir sesi ini anda akan dapat:

    Memahami apa itu HOTs dalam Matematik.

    Menerapkan HOTs dalam kalangan murid.

    Menyampaikan taklimat berkaitan HOTs kepada

    guru-guru lain.

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    Sesi Taklimat ini mengandungi DUAkomponen:

    1) Penerangan & Perbincangan

    2) Perbengkelan

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    Apa itu HOTs dalam Matematik?

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    Resnick (1987) Lower-order thinking (LOT) is often characterized by the

    recall of information or the application of concepts or knowledge tofamiliar situations and contexts.

    Schmalz (1973) LOT tasks requires a student to recall a fact,

    perform a simple operation, or solve a familiar type of problem.

    It does not require the student to work outside the familiar

    Senk, Beckman, & Thompson (1997) LOT is involved when

    students are solving tasks where the solution requires applying a

    well-known algorithm, often with no justification, explanation, or proof

    required, and where only a single correct answer is possible

    Thompson 2008 generally characterized LOT as solving tasks while

    working in familiar situations and contexts; or, applying algorithms

    already familiar to the student.

    LOWER ORDER THINKING (LOTs)

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    HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILLS (HOTs)

    Resnick (1987) characterized higher-order thinking (HOT) asnon-algorithmic.

    Stein and Lane (1996) describe HOT as the use of complex,

    non-algorithmic thinking to solve a task in which there is not a

    predictable, well-rehearsed approach or pathway explicitly suggested

    by the task, task instruction, or a worked out example.

    Senk, et al (1997) characterized HOT as solving tasks where no

    algorithm has been taught, where justification or explanation are

    required, and where more than one solution may be possible.

    Thompson (2008) generally characterized HOT involves solving

    tasks where an algorithm has not been taught or using known

    algorithms while working in unfamiliar contexts or situations.

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    Higher order thinkingskills are normally thoseskills in the top fourlevels of the revisedBlooms taxonomy:applying, analysing,

    evaluating, and creating.

    HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILLS (HOTs)

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    Higher-order questions promote learning

    because these types of questions require

    students to apply, analyze, synthesize, and

    evaluate information instead of simply recalling

    facts.

    HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILLS (HOTs)

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    Termasuk

    pemikiran kritikal,

    pemikiran kreatif,

    pemikiran logikal,pemikiran reflektif dan

    meta-kognitif.

    HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILLS (HOTs)

    HOTs dicetuskan melalui

    masalah bukan rutin,

    masalah yang tidak jelas

    atau dilema.

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    Mengapa perlu HOTs dalamMatematik?

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    Menghasilkan modal insan yang cerdas,kreatif dan inovatif bagi memenuhi

    cabaran abad ke-21 agar negara mampu

    bersaing di persada dunia.

    If we want students to develop the

    capacity to think, reason, and

    problem solve then we need to

    start with high-level, cognitivelycomplex tasks.

    Stein & Lane 1996

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    Trends in International Mathematics and Science Studies

    TIMSS 2007 Average Achievement in the

    Mathematics Content and Cognitive Domains

    Malaysia performed below TIMSS average in both Mathematics

    Content and Cognitive Domains

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    Berubah ke arah lebih daripada kefahaman asasdan rote memorization.

    Meningkatkan tahap kefahaman

    Meningkatkan kemampuan menjustifikasikan

    penyelesaian dan dapatan. Konsep matematik dapat dipelajari dengan

    lebih berkesan melalui HOTs.

    Meningkatkan keupayaan murid dalam

    menyiasat dan meneroka idea matematikmemerlukan HOTs.

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    HOTs DALAM KURIKULUM MATEMATIK

    Pernyataan Standard Kurikulum ditulis

    menggunakan kata kerja mengikut Taksonomi

    Bloom.

    Bagi HP yang menggunakan kata kerja seperti

    menyatakan dan menerangkan turut

    menuntut guru menyediakan aktiviti yang

    menekankan HOTs

    Kata Kerja

    Metaperwakilan

    http://localhost/var/www/apps/conversion/tmp/scratch_6/Draf%20metaperwakilan.pdfhttp://localhost/var/www/apps/conversion/tmp/scratch_6/Draf%20metaperwakilan.pdfhttp://localhost/var/www/apps/conversion/tmp/scratch_6/Draf%20metaperwakilan.pdf
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    Bagaimana meningkatkan HOTs?

    Perlu kepada transformasi dalam PdP:

    Guru perlu berubah cara:

    berfikir

    Mengajar - kurangkan chalk and talk, perbanyakkanhands on

    Menyoal (ms 4 & 5)

    Memotivasi

    Mentaksir Tingkatkan kualiti tugasan yang diberi kepada murid

    http://localhost/var/www/apps/conversion/tmp/scratch_6/CBS_AskingEffectiveQuestions.pdfhttp://localhost/var/www/apps/conversion/tmp/scratch_6/CBS_AskingEffectiveQuestions.pdf
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    Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum

    Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia

    Engaging Non-algorithmic

    PemikiranReflektif

    Pelbagai

    Pendekatan

    Kritikal &

    Analitikal

    Sikap Positif PelbagaiPerkaitan

    Kefahaman

    Mendalam

    Komunikasi

    Pelbagai Strategi

    Kreatif &

    Inovatif

    Penaakulan &

    Pembuktian

    Penerokaan &

    PenyiasatanMembuat &

    menguji

    konjektur

    Peruntukan Masa

    PELAKSANAAN HOTs MENUNTUT

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    Guru perlu merancang

    soalan, tugasan dan

    aktiviti yang menuntut

    murid berfikir, berlatihberfikir secara

    berterusan dan menilai

    pemikiran mereka dan

    pemikiran individu lain.

    Worthwhile

    and Rich

    task

    PELAKSANAAN HOTs MENUNTUT

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    Different levels of response

    by Robert Sternberg

    (American Cognitive Psychologist)

    Teacher should answer children's

    questions in a way that promotesHOTs.

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    Level 1: Reject the question

    Example:

    "Why do I have to eat my vegetables?"

    "Don't ask me any more questions."Because I said so."

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    Level 2: Restate or almost restate

    the question as a response

    Example:"Why do I have to eat my vegetables?"

    "Because you have to eat your vegetables."

    "Why is that man acting so crazy?"

    "Because he's insane."

    "Why is it so cold?""Because it's 15 outside."

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    Level 3: Admit ignorance or

    present information

    Example:"I don't know, but that's a good

    question."

    or,

    Give a factual answer to the question.

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    Level 4: Voice encouragement to

    seek response through authority

    Example:

    Let's look that up on the internet.

    Let's look that up in the

    encyclopedia.

    Who do we know that might know theanswer to that?

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    Level 5: Encourage brainstorming,

    or consideration of alternative

    explanations

    Example:

    "Why are all the people in Holland so

    tall?

    "Let's brainstorm some possible

    answers."

    "Maybe it's genetics, or maybe it's diet,or maybe everybody in Holland wears

    elevator shoes, or" etc.

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    Level 6: Encourage consideration

    of alternative explanations and a

    means of evaluating them

    Example:

    "Now how are we going to evaluate thepossible answer of genetics? Where

    would we find that information?

    Information on diet? The number of

    elevator shoes sold in Holland?

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    Level 7: Encourage consideration of

    alternative explanations plus a means

    of evaluating them, and follow-through

    on evaluations

    Example:

    "Okay, let's go find the information for afew days we'll search through the

    encyclopedia and the Internet, make

    telephone calls, conduct interviews, and

    other things. Then we will get backtogether next week and evaluate our

    findings."

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    Bring a closure to

    Sternberg, so what?

    Teacher should answer

    children's questions in a way thatpromotes HOT, so which level

    shall the teachers pitched on?

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    MENINGKATKAN PEMIKIRAN MATEMATIK MURID(MS 310-311)

    http://localhost/var/www/apps/conversion/tmp/scratch_6/TCM2007-02-308a.pdfhttp://localhost/var/www/apps/conversion/tmp/scratch_6/TCM2007-02-308a.pdf
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    Soalan Bukan Rutin yangmemerlukan tahap kognitif yangtinggi dapat membentuk HOTsdalam kalangan murid.

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