Expos© Reading

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    Directed by: Supervised by:

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    When we learn a language, there are four skills that we need for acomplete communication. When we learn our native language, we usuallylearn to listen first, and second to speak, then to read, and finally to write.These are called the four "language skills":

    Listening

    Speaking Reading

    Writing

    As you can see, reading is the third language skill. It is important foracquisition of vocabulary, and also because it can be done alone.

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    The four language skills are related to each other in two ways:

    The direction of communication (in or out)

    The method of communication (spoken or written)

    Input is sometimes called "reception" and output is sometimescalled "production". Spoken is also known as "oral".

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    Reading is a complex cognitive of decoding symbols for the intention ofconstructing or deriving meaning (reading comprehension). It is a meanof language acquisition, of communication, and of sharing information andideas. Like all language, it is a complex interaction between the text and thereader which is shaped by the readers prior knowledge, experiences, attitude,and language community which is culturally and socially situated. The readingprocess requires continuous practices, development, and refinement .

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    There are some approaches that will help you to get the maximum benefit fromyour reading, with the minimum effort:

    Think About What You Want to Know:Before you start reading anything, ask yourself why you're reading it. Are you

    reading with a purpose, or just for pleasure? What do you want to know afteryou've read it?

    Reading Efficiently by Reading Intelligently:

    By choosing a useful document to gain helpful informations and to get a fullunderstanding of the content.

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    Read Actively: Here are four tips for active reading:

    Underlining and highlighting: If you are a visual learner, you'll find ithelpful to use different colors to highlight different aspects of whatyou're reading. Note Key ords: Record the main headings as you read by Takingnotes , Gathering information .

    http://www.studyskills.soton.ac.uk/studytips/lecture_notes.htmhttp://www.studyskills.soton.ac.uk/studytips/lecture_notes.htmhttp://www.studyskills.soton.ac.uk/studytips/gather_info.htmhttp://www.studyskills.soton.ac.uk/studytips/gather_info.htmhttp://www.studyskills.soton.ac.uk/studytips/lecture_notes.htmhttp://www.studyskills.soton.ac.uk/studytips/lecture_notes.htm
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    Read Actively: Questions: prepare your reading by noting down questions youwant to answer to while you're reading.

    Summaries: after you've read a section of text try to put whatyou've read into your own words.

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    Reading is a skill we developed as we grow up and as we become acquainted with

    different types of text. Once we started seeing these texts in a foreignlanguage we are unable to decode the message. The problem is probably notthat we are not using the correct techniques, but that we are unable torecognize the words and meaning.

    There are three kinds of difficulties :

    Decoding DifficultiesComprehension DifficultiesComprehension Difficulties

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    Decoding Difficulties Trouble sounding out words and recognizing words out of contextConfusion between letters and the sounds they represent

    Slow oral reading rate (reading word-by-word)

    Reading without expressionIgnoring punctuation while reading.

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    Comprehension Difficulties Confusion about the meaning of words and sentencesInability to connect ideas in a passage

    Omission of, or glossing over detail

    Difficulty distinguishing significant information from minor detailsLack of concentration during reading.

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    Retention Difficulties Retention requires both decoding and comprehending what is written.This task relies on high level cognitive skills, including memory and theability to gather related ideas:

    Trouble remembering or summarizing what we have read.

    Difficulty connecting what is read to prior knowledge

    Difficulty applying content of a text to personal experiences.

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    Reading is a very active process. It is true that the writer does a lot ofwork, but the reader also has to work hard. When you read a text,you have to do some or all of these:

    -imagine a scene in your head.

    -understand clearly what the writer is trying to say.-agree or disagree with the writer.

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    We can follow five steps to make it possible :

    Tip #1:

    Try to read at the right level. Read something that you can (more orless) understand.

    Tip #2:

    Make a note of new vocabulary. Try to guess their meaning as youread.

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    Tip #3:Try to read regularly. For example, read for a short time once a day. Fifteen

    minutes every day is better than two hours every Sunday.

    Tip #4:Be organised. Have everything ready:

    -something to read.-a marker to highlight difficult words.-a dictionary-a pen to write down the new words.

    Tip #5:Read what interests YOU. Choose a magazine or book about a subject that

    you like.

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    Newspapers & Magazines: Newspapers and Magazines are interesting because they are about real life and the news. Many

    magazines have pictures which can help your understanding.

    Books:

    Books are divided mainly into:-Non-fiction (history, biography, travel, cooking etc).-Fiction (stories and novels).

    Short Stories: Short stories can be a good choice when learning a language because they are...short. It's like

    reading a whole book in a few pages. You have all the excitement of a story in a book, but youonly have to read 5,000 or 10,000 words.

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    Cornflakes Packets: Means any product you can buy that has English writing on or with it. If you buy a box of

    chocolates, or a new camera, why not read the description or instructions in English? Thereare many such examples, and they all give you an opportunity to read real English:

    -cans or packets of food

    -tapes and CDs

    -user guides for videos, computers...

    Poetry: If you like poetry, try reading some English-language poems. They may not be easy to understand

    because of the style and vocabulary, but if you work at it you can usually get an idea - or afeeling - of what the poet is trying to say.

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    When you're a graduate people expect you to use a vocabulary which is wider than

    a school-leaver's. So, If you are determined and prepared to practise, then youshould be able to train yourself to read faster and improve your concentration andlevel of comprehension.

    Remember reading improves with practice, and the more you are familiar withadvanced reading texts the more quickly you will be able to get access to the

    information.

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