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  • 8/3/2019 bahse jepun


    Japanese verb conjugations and adjective declensions 1

    Japanese verb conjugations and adjectivedeclensionsThis is a list of Japanese verb and adjective conjugations. Almost all of these are regular, but the conjugations of the

    very few irregular verbs are also listed. Japanese verb conjugation is the same for all subjects, first person ("I","we"), second person ("you") and third person ("he/she/it" and "they"), singular and plural. The plain form of all

    verbs ends in u. In modern Japanese, there are no verbs, at least in the plain form, ending in zu , fu, pu , or yu , and ( , shinu ; to die) is the only one ending in nu .

    A revision sheet visually summarizing the

    conjugations and uses described below.


    In Japanese, the basic verb form is imperfective aspect. It is broadly

    equivalent to the present and future tenses of English, and is sometimes

    called the "non-past tense". The imperfective form of a verb is the

    same as its dictionary form it is used as the headword, orlemma and no conjugation needs to be done. For example, using the

    verb ("do"):

    ( ) (watashi wa) kaimono o suru : "(I) shop", or"(I) will shop". (Japanese pronouns are usually omitted when it is

    clear about whom the speaker is talking.)

    ( ) (watashi wa) ashita benky suru : "Tomorrow, (I) will study".

    In most cases, the base form of the imperfective aspect cannot be used to indicate one's current state, such as in the

    English sentence "I am shopping". Rather, it can only be used to express habit or other actions that are expected to

    continue into the future, such as in "I shop". To convey the former, the te form with iru must be used.

    PerfectiveThe perfective aspect, on the other hand, has a specific suffix. The basic pattern is the -ta (or -da ) ending, but various

    phonetic changes are made, depending on the verb's last syllable. The perfective is broadly equivalent to English past

    tense, and is often called past tense in treatments of Japanese grammar, but it is not restricted to any one time:

    Basu ga ki-ta ato de, ik-?

    bus NOM come-PFV after AT, go-VOL

    "After the bus comes (perfective), shall we leave?"

    Type of verb Perfective Examples Perfective

    Irregular verbs

    suru (do) shita (none others)

    kuru (come) kita (none others)

    iku (go) itta (none others)

    irassharu (polite)

    irasshatta irashita [1]

    (none others)

    masu stem - -mashita ikimasu (go) ikimashita

    Regular verbs
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    Japanese verb conjugations and adjective declensions 2

    u - -tta tsukau (use) tsukatta

    u (See Usage) - -uta , -ota tou (ask) tta

    ku - -ita yaku (grill) yaita

    gu - -ida oyogu (swim) oyoida

    su - -shita shimesu (show) shimeshita tsu - -tta matsu (wait) matta

    nu - -nda shinu (die) shinda

    bu - -nda yobu (call) yonda

    mu - -nda yomu (read) yonda

    ru (consonant stem) - -tta hashiru (run) hashitta

    iru , eru (vowel stem) - -ita , - -eta kigaeru (change clothes) kigaeta


    i adjective - -katta yasui (cheap) yasukatta

    na adjective - -datta kantan (easy) kantan datta


    Note that the perfective conjugation for verbs ending in - more commonly follows the second pattern listed abovefor speakers of Western Japanese. The in the perfective ending - may be pronounced either as an u or as ano depending on the preceding vowel, according to regular Japanese phonological rules. Consequently, in Kansai, one

    may hear forms such as tsukau tsukta , or iu iuta .[2]

    Usage of the perfective aspect follows the same pattern as the imperfective aspect. For example, nihonni iku (I go to Japan) becomes nihon ni itta (I went to Japan).

    Non-exhaustive list of actions (like A B is used for non-exhaustive lists of objects): hon o yondari, terebi o mitari shita (I read a book, watched TV, etc.)

    NegativeThe basic pattern is u becomes anai (informal).

    Type Negative Examples Negative

    Irregular verbs

    suru (do) shinai( sanai )

    benky suru (study) aisuru (love)

    benky shinai aisanai

    kuru (come) konai

    aru (be, exist) nai

    da de wa nai ja nai

    masu stem - -masen ikimasu (go) ikimasen

    Regular verbs

    u - -wanai tsukau (use) tsukawanai

    ku - -kanai yaku (grill) yakanai

    gu - -ganai oyogu (swim) oyoganai

    su - -sanai shimesu (show) shimesanai
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    Japanese verb conjugations and adjective declensions 3

    tsu - -tanai matsu (wait) matanai

    nu - -nanai shinu (die) shinanai

    bu - -banai yobu (call) yobanai

    mu - -manai yomu (read) yomanai

    ru (consonant stem) - -ranai hashiru (run) hashiranai

    iru , eru (vowel stem) - -inai , - -enai kigaeru (change clothes) kigaenai


    i adjectives - -kunai itai (painful) itakunai

    na adjectives - -de wa nai- -ja nai

    kantan (simple) kantan de wanai

    kantan ja nai

    The nai ending conjugates in two ways.

    1. As an i adjective. For example the past tense of tabenai is tabenakatta and the te

    form is tabenakute .2. There is a special te form made by adding de . For example, tabenaide . This is used, for

    example, in tabenaide kudasai : "Please don't eat (this)".

    i formThe i form, or ren'ykei , is very regular, and in almost all cases it is formed by replacing the u with i (and making

    any necessary phonetic changes: su to shi , and tsu to chi ).

    Type i form Examples i form

    Irregular verbs

    suru (do) shi benky suru benky shi

    kuru ki

    ru (polite verbs) - -i gozaru gozai

    da de ari

    Regular verbs

    u - -i tsukau (use) tsukai

    ku - -ki yaku (grill) yaki

    gu - -gi oyogu (swim) oyogi

    su - -shi shimesu (show) shimeshi

    tsu - -chi matsu (wait) machi

    nu - -ni shinu (die) shini

    bu - -bi yobu (call) yobi

    mu - -mi yomu (read) yomi

    ru (consonant stem) - -ri hashiru (run) hashiri

    iru , eru (vowel stem) - -i, - -e kigaeru (change clothes) kigae

    The rule for polite verbs ending in ru applies to the consonant-stem honorific verbs irassharu , ossharu , kudasaru , gozaru , and nasaru , which have irregular i forms.

    They are formed by replacing the ru with simply i, instead of ri .
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    Japanese verb conjugations and adjective declensions 4


    The i form has many uses, typically as a prefix. These include:

    To form polite verbs when followed by the - -masu ending: iku ikimasu , tsukau tsukaimasu .

    To express a wish when followed by the ending tai : tabetai : "I want to eat it", ikitai :

    "I want to go". (The tai ending conjugates as an i adjective.) To express a strong negative intention when followed by - -wa shinai :

    iki wa shinai yo, anna tokoro "no way I'm going someplace like that". To form a command when followed by

    - -nasai : kore o tabenasai : "eat this", asoko e ikinasai : "goover there".

    - -na : massugu kaerina "go straight home": nakayoku asobina "play nice".(Used with children, etc.)

    To express that something is easy or hard when followed by - -yasui or - -nikui :

    shitashimiyasui : "easy to befriend": wakarinikui : "hard to understand". To express excessiveness when followed by the verb - -sugiru : nomisugiru : "to drink too

    much". ( sugiru can also be used with the stems of adjectives.)

    To express doing something in conjunction with something else . When followed by the suffix -

    -nagara , the verb becomes an adverb that means doing something while doing something else.

    arukinagara hon o yonda : "I read a book as I walked." When followed by the verb - - yagaru in yakuza speech, to express