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magazine unesco-ihe institute for water education december 2009 – january 2010 Spotlight TheWaterChannel.tv Interview Professor András Szöllösi-Nagy Education 100th PhD degree Resources Poo

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magazine unesco-ihe institute for water educationdecember 2009 – january 2010


InterviewProfessor András Szöllösi-Nagy

Education100th PhD degree


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Rajasthan’s rural revolutionRajasthan, India - Women working on a rainwa-ter harvesting project near the village of Paladi Bhopatan. The women work digging channels for underground aquafers to direct water if/when it rains. The area has been suffering from a severe drought for the last eight years.

Photo: Panos/Robert Wallis

contentsCOLOPHON Editorial BoardAndrás Szöllösi-NagyJoop de SchutterErwin Ploeger

Editorial CommitteeJan Herman KosterAnn van GriensvenHenk LubberdingMarco SchoutenLindsay Beevers

Editor in ChiefAlida Pham

Sub-editorTheresa Stanton

Graphic DesignPeter Stroo

PrintPrints & Proms/Rotterdam Editorial ContributionsBerta Fernández Álvarez, Cecilia Tamara Avellán, Jan Bartacek, Maarten Blokland, Anne van Dam, Larry Elchuck, Abraham Mehari Haile, Erick de Jong, Lenneke Knoop, Ewoud Kok, Laura Kwak, Pieter de Laat, Piet Lens, Branislav Petrusevski, Christina Reed, Bart Schultz, Maria Sorrentino, Klaas Schwartz, Assiyeh Tabatabai, Stefan Uhlenbrook, Raymond Venneker, Zoran Vojinovic.With special thanks to Richard A. Meganck, former Rector of UNESCO-IHE.

About the magazineUNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education produces a biennial mag-azine called UPDATE. We print 12,000 free copies per issue, which is sent to our counterparts across the world. UPDATE features institu-tional information related to water education, research and capacity building activities undertaken by UNESCO-IHE, alumni and partners. We have tried to make this issue of UPDATE Magazine as eco-friendly as possible. The paper, Cocoon Offset, is a high-quality uncoated off-set paper. The range is produced using ecological technology at the company’s Greenfield S.A.S. mill in France from 100%-recycled and FSC-certified de-inked pulp. The plastic that is used to cover UPDATE Magazine is made of environmentally biodegradable polymers by the company A.V.I. B.V. in Volendam, the Netherlands.

About UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water EducationUNESCO-IHE is the largest international postgraduate water educa-tion institute in the world and the only institution in the UN system authorised to confer accredited MSc degrees and promote PhDs. The mission of UNESCO-IHE is to contribute to the education and train-ing of professionals and to build the capacity of sector organisations, knowledge centres and other institutions active in the fields of water, the environment and infrastructure, in developing countries and coun-tries in transition. Since 1957, the Institute has provided postgradu-ate education to over 14,500 water professionals from 162 coun-tries, the vast majority from the developing world. Currently over 80 candidates are registered PhD fellows, and numerous research and capacity building projects are carried out throughout the world.

Published by UNESCO-IHEPO Box 30152601 DA DelftThe Netherlands

T +31 15 215 1715F +31 15 212 2921E [email protected] www.unesco-ihe.org

In UPDATE there is freedom of expression and opinion. Opinions need to be expressed complete and clear content wise. It should also be clear whose opinion the article represents. The Editorial Committee reserves the right to refrain from publishing articles, editorial contri-butions and letters to the editor or to publish them in consultation with the author. The Editorial Committee encourages editorial contributions from readers. The Column, Op-Ed, and Report from the Field sections are intended to provide a platform for such contributions. Please note that editorial sections are subject to change.

UPDATE Magazine is interested in hearing more from the insti-tute’s alumni, especially about the projects they are currently working on and the organisations they are attached to. Please send your updates to the editor, Alida Pham at: [email protected].

SPOTLIGHT 4 TheWaterChannel.tv

COOPERATION 5 Guiding US investments in water

COLUMN 7 Biofuels

INTERVIEWS 8 András Szöllösi-Nagy

16 Annemieke Nijhof

19 Iris Frida Josch de Kosak

HIGHLIGHT 21 St Maarten flood risks

EDUCATION 12 100th PhD degree

ALUMNI 18 Refresher Seminar Kenya

BACKGROUND 24 A pinch of salt

E-LEARNING 28 New eCampus


RESOURCES 30 Online Water Resources

32 Publications

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30 Poo


Editorial Adapting to Changes

12 100th PhD degree

8András Szöllösi-Nagy

Welcome to the first issue of UPDATE Magazine, the first 32-page magazine produced by UNESCO-IHE to keep you up-to-date with institutional informa-tion related to water education, research and capacity building activities undertaken by UNESCO-IHE and its alumni and partners. “Redesigning a magazine and moving its informa-tion and ideas into a new form feels like building a new home and moving,” was said by Mark Winz in Folio, the Magazine for Magazine Management. Loyal readers are familiar with former editions of UPDATE that previously appeared in a newsletter format. The reason we chose to redesign UPDATE, starting with this December 2009 issue, is to commemorate and celebrate a series of events: the arrival of our new Rector, Professor András Szöllösi-Nagy, the celebra-tion of our 100th PhD degree to be awarded in 2010 and a change in editorship among many other rea-sons.

We hope to have sufficiently shared with you that this new design was driven by editorial concerns, not by design alone. The Magazine now provides an increased opportunity to share with you the institu-tional developments, thoughts and announcements by the board and management, news from alumni and partners and our perspectives on emerging is-sues in the water and development sector. Beyond this, we aim to encourage global discussions on water issues through relevant opinion pieces, provide in-spiration, encourage public spirit amongst UNESCO-IHE counterparts and offer an UPDATE where one can read about water issues from a different perspec-tive, thereby maintaining a vast and expanding net-work in the international water sector and beyond. We very much welcome your input and hope you enjoy reading this issue.

On behalf of the Editorial Committee,

Alida PhamEditor in Chief

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TheWaTerChannel.Tv makes a wide range of video material available for a large public to create awareness and encourage de-bate. To this end, TheWaterChannel.tv team seeks various initiatives with other organisations. Recently, a DVD with a collection of videos from TheWaterChannel.tv was produced for educational purposes to be used in the project: ‘Strengthening Ethiopian Universities in Integrated River Basin Management Programme’ commissioned by the Netherlands Organisation for International Cooperation in Higher Education (NUFFIC). Possibilities to further develop such thematic DVD productions for other organisations is currently being explored.

Theme siTes Currently online is the www.thewaterandclimate-channel.org, a theme site developed as part of TheWaterChannel.tv. The site shows the vital links between water and climate change through videos and documents. In addition, the Arab Water Council and TheWaterChannel.tv developed the thematic site ‘TheArabWaterChannel’. This online resource is meant to be a window on water in the 22 countries that make up the Arab World. It aims to support education and awareness raising activities on all levels with re-gard to water management in the region.

heTWaTerK anaal , is a Dutch spinoff of TheWaterChannel.tv and is a Dutch interactive platform for videos on water related topics in and about The Netherlands. This Dutch version of the concept was de-veloped in cooperation with TheWaterChannel.tv and will be launched through the website in the coming month. TheWaterChannel team encourages readers of UPDATE Magazine to upload quality visual ma-terial on water related topics to ensure it finds an audience. As a special service, VHS tapes can be sent in for digitalisation and uploading.

¡ [email protected] www.thewaterchannel.tv and subscribe to the newsletter.

spotlight | TheWaterChannel.tv


unesco-ihe hosts un libraries meetingThe UNESCO-IHE Library and Information Services

hosted the annual United Nations Inter-Agency

Meeting on Knowledge Sharing and Information

Management (UNKSIM) at the end of September.

Around 40 Participants from various UN agen-

cies attended the meeting to build and develop

Knowledge Management networks and programmes.

Among other topics, special attention was given to

the development of intellectual property issues.

¡ Patricia Darvis, [email protected]

SHORT NEWS | Waterpass Foundation

mou waterpass foundation UNESCO-IHE signed an MoU with the Waterpass Foundation. This foundation was newly established by Jan Stuit, the former Chair of the Royal Bank of Scotland in the Netherlands, with the aim to sponsor UNESCO-IHE MSc fellowship extensions to allow excellent UNESCO-IHE students to write a publication or develop a business proposal (i.e. for use in their home coun-tries). The foundation pledged an initial €23,000 and will raise more funds.

SHORT NEWS | Changes

board members IHE Delft Foundation Board Wim Deetman, former Minister of Education and Science was appointed UNESCO-IHE Foundation Board member. Wim Kuijken, Secretary-General of Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, was appointed UNESCO-IHE Foundation Board member. Bert Keijts, former Director General of the Directorate Public Works and Water in the Netherlands, recently retired as member of the IHE Delft Foundation Board.

Governing Board The UNESCO-IHE Governing Board comprises a total number of 13 representatives of ministries, universities and the private sector, all appointed by the Director General of UNESCO. Annika Söder, Assistant Director-General of the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) was appointed UNESCO-IHE Governing Board member in July 2009. John Verbakel, Vice president R&D Europe at Unilever also joined UNESCO-IHE’s Governing Board since July 2009.

TheWaterChannel.tv takes you on a multi-media tour around the world of water

www.thewaterchannel.tv is an online video channel on water. Launched in early June, the website received over 20,000 views in November alone, counting around 380 videos rang-ing from instructional videos to Public Service Announcements from various sources. The footage is presented in different categories, including climate change, agriculture and sani-tation & hygiene, among others. The website caters to a large audience, including educa-tors, policy makers, high-school and university students, media professionals, companies and organisations with an interest or active involvement in water issues. TheWaterChannel is a collaboration between MetaMeta, UNESCO-IHE, Cap-Net and Nymphaea.

December Statistics410 uploaded videos24 categories500 registered members21,000 visitors (of whom over 10,000 unique visitors)Most visits from: Mexico, The Netherlands, United States, India and Canada

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UNESCO-IHE recently initi-ated advisory and capacity-build-ing activities directed at staff of the US Agency for International Development (USAID). UNESCO-IHE is contributing to the devel-opment of a USAID Water Guide to assist agency project officers in water project design and im-plementation around the world. These activities are an outgrowth of UNESCO-IHE’s involvement as a partner in the USAID Global Water for Sustainability (GLOWS) consortium, which is lead by Florida International University in Miami. In addition to its role in the development of the Water Guide, UNESCO-IHE is develop-ing training modules for USAID on Integrated Water Resources Management and Climate Change Adaptation and assisting in a USAID-funded Public-Private Partnership Iniciative in collabo-ration with the Confederation of Indian Industries, USAID funding is also providing partial support for the thesis projects of three MSc students working in East Africa. Dr. Michael McClain, Director of GLOWS and Head of the Water Engineering Department at UNESCO-IHE explains that the lack of capacity and practi-cal training are major obstacles to the application of IWRM in many areas of the world. “ While many institutions and practitioners have a general knowledge of IWRM as

articulated in international agree-ments and guidance documents, few possess a detailed knowl-edge of the many resources in the IWRM toolbox and how to apply them,” he explains. “Practitioners must be able to evaluate their own management goals in an IWRM framework and then design a step-wise strategy to accomplish these goals. The training modules that GLOWS and UNESCO-IHE is jointly developing will be custom-ised for USAID project officers, who are tasked with programming an increasing water budget within the agency. Dr. Sharon Murray, Water Resources Programme Manager on the USAID Water Team, based in Washington DC, visited the Institute in June to learn more about UNESCO-IHE programmes and activities. She also briefed vari-ous departments about the work that USAID is doing and new US investments in water develop-ment. “Encouraging people in USAID through supporting higher education in developing countries, resources and programmes that exist is very important. Also, I can imagine that linkages with US uni-versities in capacity building and development will be established as one of the results of this partner-ship. There are parallel efforts in mutually supporting each other in the water sector,” Murray said.

cooperation | USAID

Guiding US Investments in Water


first unesco category 2 centre on freshwater in the usOn Thursday 29 October 2009, the Director-General of UNESCO, Koïchiro Matsuura, signed with Major General Don T. Riley, Deputy Commanding General of the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), an agreement establishing the UNESCO International Centre for Integrated Water Resources Management (ICIWaRM) in Alexandria, Virginia.Also present at the signing ceremony was Dr Robert Pietrowsky, Director of the USACE Institute of Water Resources and member of the UNESCO-IHE Governing Board, and Dr Eugene Z. Stakhiv, Technical Director of UNESCO-ICIWaRM. “Today, we establish the first category 2 centre in the US. It is a very important moment. For UNESCO to expand its freshwater programme we need the involvement of the US science community – we need its expertise, its creativity and its entrepreneurship,” the Director-General said on signing the agreement. He went on to explain that ICIWaRM would join a powerful global network of over 40 category 2 centres operating under the

aegis of UNESCO, around half of which are in the field of freshwater. “Promoting more sustainable freshwater management has been a top priority of my tenure at UNESCO. The creation of this new centre will significantly bolster our implementing capacity in this area”, Mr Matsuura underlined, stating that the new centre would notably increase support to de-veloping countries, especially in Africa. Major General Don T. Riley congratulated Mr Matsuura on his remarkable achievements at UNESCO. “You can leave knowing that you have made a very big difference to the lives of millions. And with the creation of this new centre, UNESCO will go on to help millions more”, the Major General affirmed. Dr Robert Pietrowsky underscored the importance the US attached to UNESCO’s work in freshwater, noting that collaboration in this area had significantly expanded following the country’s return to the Organisation in 2003. He referred to the new centre as an op-portunity to further reinforce this partnership, explaining that good relations had already been established between ICIWaRM and other UNESCO category 2 centres, as well as UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education. The Director-General said that this outreach was “a very good indicator of the centre’s future success”, adding that he very much looked forward to hearing of ICIWaRM’s achievements. W www.iwr.usace.army.mil/iciwarm

The Global Water for Sustainability (GLOWS) programme is a consortium financed by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) working to increase social, economic, and environmental benefits to people of the developing world. GLOWS works on-the-ground to implement water supply, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services, improve water management practices, and build local capacity. The GLOWS Consortium is led by Florida International University and includes CARE, WaterAid America, Winrock International, World Vision, and the World Wildlife Fund (WWF). Together the partners possess skills and worldwide experience in water supply/sanitation/hygiene, water productivity, and water resources management. UNESCO-IHE is a training partner within the consortium. GLOWS is the freshwater component of USAID’s Global Programme for Integrated Management of Coastal and Freshwater Systems (IMCAFS), which also features the Sustainable Coastal Communities and Ecosystems (SUCCESS) programme. SUCCESS emphasises coastal resources, aquaculture, and fisheries management, under the leadership of the University of Rhode Island’s Coastal Resources Center.

GLOWS Project Sites Mara River Basin (Kenya/Tanzania) During the dry season, the Mara River is the only source of water to the Mara-Serengeti ecoregion and its spectacular migration of wildlife. GLOWS is supporting the governments of Kenya and Tanzania in integrated water resources management to meet the water needs of developing human communities while protecting water needed for Masai-Mara National Reserve and Serengeti National Park. Project activities extend to Lake Victoria, and its artisanal fishing communities.

Pastaza River Basin (Ecuador/Peru) The Pastaza River Basin drains an Andean subcatchment of the larger Amazon River Basin, in one of the world’s most biologically and culturally diverse regions. The lives and livelihoods of ba-sin residents are intimately linked to the ecosystem services provided by rivers, especially water supply, wastewater assimilation, and fisheries. GLOWS is work-ing with government agencies and local communities to protect freshwater eco-system services and promote integrated management of water resources.

Wakal River Basin (India) A semi-arid, extremely seasonal climate charac-terises the Wakal River Basin in southern Rajasthan state, India. Groundwater resources help sustain human communities in the basin, as do centuries-old rain-water harvesting techniques that facilitate storage of rainwater for use during dry periods. GLOWS is supporting local efforts to increase awareness of integrated water resources management as a means for promoting sustainable use of ground-water and appropriate implementation of rainwater harvesting techniques.

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water supply and sanitation fellowships launchedIWA President Dr David Garman and Professor Damir Brdjanovic of UNESCO-IHE signed an agreement on IWA/UNESCO-IHE Water Supply and Sanitation Fellowships at the first International Water Association (IWA) Development Congress, held in Mexico City from 15 till 19 November 2009. The agreement is an important milestone in the cooperation between IWA and UNESCO-IHE. Dr Garman invited potential donors to contribute to the fund and set up a target of 50 fel-lowships for the next two years. Fellowships will be divided between the three water supply and sanitation related specialisations at UNESCO-IHE, namely Sanitary Engineering, Water Supply Engineering and Water Services Management.

W www.iwahq.org ¡ Damir Brdjanovic, [email protected]

NEWS | Capacity building in Addis Ababa

The city of Addis Ababa faces a number of challenges due to the vast ex-pansion of the city, such as limited water resources and adequate prac-tices in managing them. The Addis Ababa Water Supply and Sewerage Authority (AAWSA) is trying to achieve its mission of good service de-livery to its customers in the midst of these challenges. A recent tailor-made training course conducted by UNESCO-IHE pro-vided 23 AAWSA employees, from middle to senior level, with a new skill-set to tackle water supply and sanitation issues. The training course was held in collaboration with local partners Solomon Sisay in Ethiopia and the National Water and Sewerage Corporation (NWSC) in Uganda. The AAWSA has already been able to implement its newly acquired knowledge during a critical assessment which it made of a newly de-signed plan for waste-water treatment. In addition, AAWSA recently recruited a number of junior engineers in response to the huge expecta-tions from its customers and to help it cope with the daunting challenges ahead. During part of the training programme in Ethiopia, opportunities were created to include a short training course for the junior engineers. Based on the huge demand for water and sanitation professionals in the country, discussions are already underway concerning collaboration with Addis Ababa University to strengthen its postgraduate studies.

¡ Kebreab Ghebremichael, [email protected]

Please see the website for presentation downloads: http://www.unesco-ihe.org/Biotechniques-for-Air-Pollution-ControlCopies of the proceedings will be available through the Taylor and Francis UNESCO-IHE series.

¡ Piet Lens, [email protected]

Biotechniques for Air Pollution Control

The 3rd International Congress on Biotechniques for Air Pollution Control was held at UNESCO-IHE end September. Over 110 participants from universities and industries discussed various innovative research aspects of environmental chemistry, environmental engineer-ing and bioprocess technology aimed at improving waste gas treatment. The Congress was co-organised by UNESCO-IHE and the Environmental Engineering group of the University of La Coruña in Spain.

AWARD | Keizo Obuchi

uruguayan wins fellowshipUNESCO awarded Cecilia Tamara Avellán from Uruguay with a Keizo

Obuchi fellowship in 2008. Avellán recently used this fellowship to carry

out research at UNESCO-IHE in constructed wetlands for use in Uruguayan

dairy farm waste waters. The research fellowship is received annually by

20 candidates worldwide to faciliate the exchange of scientific expertise.

“The dairy sector plays an important economic role in Uruguay and a trend

is noticeable whereby milk production has notably increased in the past

decade. Drastic changes in land use, such as increased herd sizes and the

implementation of artificial pastures go hand-in-hand with the uncontrolled

use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Also, increased irrigation activities

as well as the lack of proper sewage disposal systems of dairy farms have

provoked severe deteriorations of aquatic environments,” Avellán explains.

She therefore studied the abilities of Uruguyan native plants (Juncus

acutus & Cortedeira selloiana) vs. plants traditionally used in constructed

wetlands in Europe and the US (Phragmites australis & Typha latifolia) to

release oxygen into the water and lower the COD and nutrient levels in the

artificial waste water. Uruguayan plant species performed very well in this

short-term experiment increasing the oxygen concentration in the artificial

sewage water more rapidly and to higher rates than the traditionally used

plants. This opens up the prospect of using these plants in natural treatment

systems and constructed wetlands to treat the effluents of dairy farms.

congress | Biological Wastegas Treatment

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COLUMN | Biofuels

A greener planet requires a lot of water…

Biomass derived energy is a promising renewable energy sources intended to satisfy the escalating global energy demand and to limit greenhouse gas emis-sions. The advantages seem manifold: (i) security of supply (renewable energy; can be produced locally), (ii) usually lower net greenhouse gas emissions, (iii) clean in respect to other emissions (sulfur, carbon monoxide and particulates), (iv) well-suited for transport uses, (v) less dependency on fossil fuel from politically unstable regions, and (vi) support for agriculture, in particular in many developing countries.

The International Energy Association (IEA) estimated that in 2004 more than 13% of the total global energy consumption came from renewable source, and I fully agree that it is the right policy to increase this number further in the years to come. Also a rapid increase in the biomass derived energy is envisaged for the future, in particular considering the recent discussions on carbon trading and the preparations for the crucial Cimate Change Conference in Copenhagen in December 2009. This is still true even if large energy consumers like the EU and USA are reconsidering their own biofuels poli-cies, which were more pro-biofuel only two years ago.

The opportunities for farmers and forest owners in the South to become energy farmers and “good guys” in terms of climate change mitigation seem very promis-ing! This is especially true because energy efficient production of biofuels is best possible in sub-humid and humid tropical regions, due to often suitable climate and soils. Consequently, biomass production offers great economic chances for developing countries located in these regions. But there is also a downside, which make some people speak of ‘Climate Colonialism’. They point at the recent land grabbing in Africa and Latin America, often through foreign companies and fuelled by lucrative Northern subsidy schemes, which results in large mo-nocultures in countries such as Ethiopia, Mozambique, Peru and Tanzania. This has potentially huge impacts on food security, but also on water and the environmental integrity. The availability of water resources is key in that respect. I would like to stress that there are many unknowns in predicting the impacts of such land use changes and a better understanding of the impacts on the hydrological processes (i.e. evaporation fluxes, run-off generation mechanism, groundwater recharge) for such interventions is definitely needed. Therefore, con-sidering different temporal and spatial scales is essential.

Despite the many knowledge gaps, we know already that forests (e.g. eucalyptus) and crops (e.g. sugar cane) need a lot of water to grow, and an accurate analysis of the environmental and societal impacts of large-scale biomass production is essential to protect water resources and to assure ecological integrity to enable future sustainable development. Thus, water is vital in this climate change mitigation measure, as it is in many adaptation measures. This should not be forgotten when setting the policies, and dividing the hopefully big cake of the new Climate Change Adaptation fund.

Stefan UhlenbrookProfessor of HydrologyWater Engineering Department

¡ [email protected]

Main Outcomes The Congress demonstrated that a growing number of young scien-tists is becoming interested in the field of biological waste gas treatment. Moreover, scientific groups as well as engineering companies from all over the world were present at the Congress. Participants from 28 countries representing all continents (except Antarctica) came to Delft, indicating that air pollution control has become a widespread concern with a global impact. During the Congress, special attention was given to resource recovery. A lot of space was available to showcase new developments in the field of biological waste gas treatment. The majority of research presented focused primarily on engineering perspectives. Microbiology and modelling were also addressed, but more attention could have been given to research in these areas.

Legislation alone is insufficient It was noted that legislation in the field of waste gas emission was not sufficient. This may hinder the development of new technologies, because the polluting companies are not pushed to invest in waste gas treatment. This becomes even more difficult in the case of diffuse and transboundary emissions. Another outcome of the Congress was that the problem of waste gas production is often closely related to waste water production or waste water treatment. These two problems should be studied in combination with each other more often. The Dutch engineering consul-tancy company DHV, with their Moving Bed Trickling Filter, may serve as a good example of this trend.

More interaction needed The biotechnologies used for waste gas treatment are often very similar to those applied to waste water treatment. The two communities – the waste gas treatment engineers and the waste water treatment engineers – should interact more intense-ly. This is valid even though the regulation of waste gas treatment processes is more difficult to regulate than that of waste water treatment. Finally, it was mentioned that research relating to greenhouse gases was not sufficiently addressed at the congress. This is because biological processes are not so common in this ap-plication area. Moreover, people working in this field were not attending the conference. A final recommendation would be to put more effort in attracting scientists working in the field of greenhouse gases emission mitigation to present their work in future congresses. The next conference will be held in 2011 in La Coruña, Spain.

Biotechniques for Air Pollution Control

Economic and public pressureIn recent years, energy and feed-stock materials for the chemical industry are in increasing demand. With constraints relating to the availability and use of oil, the energy and chemical industry is undergoing considerable changes. The need to use cheaper and more widely available feedstocks and to develop sustainable and environ-mentally-friendly chemical proc-esses is rapidly growing as a result of economic and public pressure.

Becoming self-sufficientConsequently, waste gas treat-ment has gradually been integrat-ed into process design. Instead of discharging their waste gases into the atmosphere, industries can opt to treat those effluents or, alternatively, they can attempt to become self-sufficient and recover compounds from their own waste streams or use (upgraded) waste streams of neighbouring indus-tries as raw material.

Recovering useful by-productsSustainable gas treatment con-cepts are being developed and can lead to the recovery of useful by-products such as energy in the form of biogas, hydrogen or elec-tricity, and chemicals in the form of fertilisers (ammonia, phos-phates) or raw materials (elemen-tal sulphur, sulphuric acid) among others. Adding value to waste gas by upgrading the recovered compounds will only be a reality if it is demonstrated that there is a fundamental basis and a tangible advantage in using these recov-ered compounds instead of buying raw materials and feedstock.

congress | Biological Wastegas Treatment

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”It is good to be back in the world of academia. However, I must ad-mit I never really left the academic world,” said Szöllösi-Nagy. “The International Hydrological Programme of UNESCO (IHP), which I served for 20 years and nine days as its Secretary, is a large-scale global scientific programme so my relations with academia were never really severed. I worked closely in this community over the years. On the other hand, facilitating international water science di-plomacy versus practising and teaching water science, are two very different things. It is a very exciting change and I am looking for-ward to plunging into the UNESCO-IHE pool. Of course, first I have to learn how to swim in this new pool. My first mission, therefore, will be that of learning. First of all, what is the shape of the pool? Is there enough water in it? How do people swim in it? How should I swim in it and support the others?”

To be an insiderSzöllösi-Nagy has indicated that he would like to talk with everyone at the Institute and learn from every single individual what she or he is doing. “I want to understand in more detail how this magnificent organisation works and how its people are shaping it. I want to un-derstand how its scientific departments and support units are work-ing, how they are interacting in the daily work in serving the basic goals of the Institute. I hope it does not sound too immodest, but I believe I already know a fair bit about the Institute. I taught there some time ago and have stayed in regular contact with colleagues; I also played a role in transforming it into a UNESCO Institute and, of course, I have visited it quite often. I love the place immensely. But of course it is one thing to be a visitor from outside, and quite anoth-er to be an insider. I am looking forward to interacting with my new colleagues, learning more about their points of view and listening to their proposals very carefully concerning potential improvements and new strategical research directions.”

Consensual“I will continue the outstanding work that Richard Meganck, my predecessor, has started,” he adds. “I very much value what he has done in a rather difficult period of transition. I would like to man-age this Institute on a consensual basis and would like to work with the Academic Board, the Management Team, the Personnel Council and other bodies that could make a positive contribution. It is needless to say that the Chairs of the Governing Board and the UNESCO-IHE Foundation Board, both very experienced and out-standing politicians, will be my closest partners in setting overall strategies and policies. I have already started working with them and am looking forward to a very successful cooperation.”

Measured outflowsWhen asking the Rector why he got involved in the water busi-ness and what kept him so enthusiastic about it for such a long time, given the many organisational challenges in this area, he explained: “I was about 16 years old when I was working as an observer at one of the UNESCO Experimental and Representative Catchment Areas in Hungary during my summer vacation. This was during the International Hydrological Decade, so we are talking about paleo-hydrology. My job was to carry out field experiments under differ-ent soil and slope conditions with a small cylindrical artificial rainfall generator and measure how much the surface flow that comes out through a tiny V notch is. Quite a simple job, actually. Of course, I had no idea about hydrology, as I was much more interested in the young local village ladies, but I got very angry that wherever I set up my rainfall apparatus, the results were always very different. Even when I relocated my equipment just one metre away and repeated the experiment the measured outflows were always significantly different. It was very frustrating.”

Professor András Szöllösi-Nagy took up office as the Institute’s new Rector from mid-September. He follows in the footsteps of Professor Richard Meganck who recently retired from his six-year term as Rector of the Institute. Prior to his new appointment, Professor Szöllösi-Nagy was Director of the Division of Water, Secretary of the International Hydrological Programme (IHP), and Deputy Assistant Director-General of the Natural Sciences Sector of UNESCO. During his tenure, Professor Szöllösi-Nagy was able to significantly reinforce UNESCO’s response capacities in the area of fresh-water through a variety of actions. Due to a reinforced IHP, the establishment of UNESCO-IHE, 23 UNESCO Water Centres and the UN World Water Assessment Programme (UN WWAP), it grew to become the largest, most widely known UN water programme in the world. He was also instrumen-tal in setting up the new UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education in March 2003 and acted as a key player in the integration of the Institute’s education and research programmes in UNESCO.

interview | New Rector

“ The Institute has a dual nature that makes it intellectually powerful”

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“ The Institute has a dual nature that makes it intellectually powerful”

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What happens to the rain?“Gradually I got interested in the question: What happens to the rain? Was it my fault that the results are so dramatically differ-ent or is there something intrinsically random in this entire process from the rain through to the pore distribution of the soil particles? What are the physical laws? Are there any, or is it just chaos? Or perhaps both? From then on it was all very straightforward. After a degree in Civil Engineering I became a hydrologist, wrote a couple of theses, ranging from applied mathematics to systems science, and started to passionately develop mathematical models for hy-drological forecasting (to my greatest surprise some of them even worked). A big eye opener were the assignments in various develop-ing countries. I realised the obvious: it is water that needs to be fixed otherwise developing countries will never have the chance to achieve what we today call sustainable development. This obvious realisation made me join the United Nations as I also realised that without international cooperation and development, assistance in policy setting, education and building local water management and science capacities in the third world, as it was called back in those days, there was no possibility that a fair and equitable world could ever be built. Serving that cause was the best achievement in my professional life. Mind you, I still don’t know what happens to the rain… So I am still challenged.”

Main focus areasSzöllösi-Nagy also shared his views on the main focus areas in the first biennium. “I would like to further strengthen the position of UNESCO-IHE in water science and education in the international scene with a principal regard to the needs of the developing coun-tries. We have all the opportunities and potential to become a lead-ing institute in the field. Talent is uniformly distributed but we have to find it and help it blossom. Indeed, I believe that the uniqueness of the Institute provides excellent initial conditions to achieve that. I would like to grow our international networks and get the best of the best involved in various activities of the Institute. I would like to establish and strengthen mutually beneficial relations with the lead water resources departments, both at universities and research facilities all over the world, with a special regard for the needs of the developing countries. I would like to attract leading scientists to spend their sabbatical year at the Institute and to contribute to and strengthen the academic life of the Institute. Secondly, I would like to increase the impact of the Institute both in terms of water education and science. I will work with my colleagues towards an improved financial base. We receive such unbelievably generous support from our host government and I would like to see other governments from the ‘developed world’ following suit. We are open to any scrutiny that any government wishes to make to identify how useful this institution is globally, regionally and locally and how much we could serve their foreign policy objectives in building water management capacities in de-veloping countries. I will spare no efforts in convincing UNESCO’s Member States that it is not only their moral obligation to support UNESCO-IHE but that it is also a good investment from their side. I believe we still have a great deal of room to mobilise UNESCO’s Permanent Delegations, the UNESCO National Commissions, the IHP National Committees, the IHP Secretariat in Paris, the Regional Hydrologists at the UNESCO’s Regional and Field Offices and the two dozen Category II water centres that are under the auspices of UNESCO, to achieve our goals. And thirdly, I would like to help my colleagues be successful. If they are successful then I am successful. If any of them fails, I fail.”

NetworksWith over 20 years of experience in the water sector at UNESCO alone, Szöllösi-Nagy has a diverse skill-set to share which the

Institute. “Over the years I have been involved in various networks, from professional NGOs through scientific journals and the in-ternational scientific community to global water policy organisa-tions in various functions. I would like to bring those networks in closer association with the Institute. And I would like to assist my colleagues in taking lead roles in the various associations, journals, forums, councils and boards in order to enhance our visibility, in-crease support and generate a great impact. When it comes to science-based water policy advice, Member States as well as potential donors and clients will turn to the Institute for help and action. Also, I would like to have UNESCO-IHE play a more important role in designing and implementing IHP. There are already good practices, from urban water management to water-related conflict resolution, but there is still considerable room for improvement. I will work towards bringing the IHE and IHP staff much closer together and to build closer relations with the rest of the UN system and the Bretton Woods institutions through UN-Water as well as through bilateral cooperation. I also think it is important that we improve our collaboration with the headquarters divisions in Paris. UNESCO has a great deal to offer which we need to utilise much more. It is of paramount importance that members of the Executive Board and the General Conference of UNESCO are aware of the role of the Institute in the implementation of the Organisation’s mandate. And I believe it is equally important that our colleagues in Delft are aware of what those bodies are deciding because those decisions are providing the framework for our work. I will work on ensuring that the staff get to know the ‘big picture’.

Minimising hierarchyFormer staff members have described Szöllösi-Nagy as a vision-ary leader who is loyal, demanding, enthusiastic, hardworking and generous; this is how UNESCO-IHP has become so well-known in the water family and what has also kept them united behind him. But most of the staff and students at UNESCO-IHE are curious to know what he expects from them. “It was a great pleasure and privilege to work with my former staff at UNESCO and serve them. I worked in and with a wonderful team who were working openly and democratically. Hierarchy was minimised within a quite hierar-chical administration in order to increase efficiency and the delivery of sound results.” He explains: “I saw my role as serving them and not the other way around. I have an open-door policy, whereby anyone can come in and see me. In my opinion, the relative success of IHP was based on mutual trust. I would like to continue this ap-proach at UNESCO-IHE as well.”

interview | New Rector

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Alumni are assetsThe Rector also touched upon the importance of alumni. “Alumni are real assets for us. They can mobilise additional support for the Institute. Many of the thousands who graduated here earlier are in lead positions now and could raise political support that could hope-fully turn into financial support. Many of our alumni have become extremely successful in business. I will approach and encourage them to help us build a UNESCO-IHE Endowment Fund that could support our scholarship programme. Anyone could pay into the en-dowment and withdraw funds at any given time. In the meantime, the interest that the fund generates would help to finance scholar-ships. Also, I believe alumni could help us a great deal in identify-ing young talent that could enroll in the Institute to do graduate and post-graduate work. Alumni could also help identify potential projects that we could implement at a later stage. I am confident that by having alumni involved in the work of the Institute we will be able to generate win-win situations that will help all of the parties involved.”

FlexibilityWith increased flexibility in education a new reality, such as online and short courses, virtual learning platforms and the introduction of joint degrees with other institutes around the world, UNESCO-IHE is also taking big steps in this direction. “I would like to expand our activities in establishing more intensive relations with lead-ing schools in the world. Joint degree programmes with prestig-ious universities is certainly one of the options we need to examine more closely. I have already had some discussions in this regard with some lead universities and have noted a great deal of interest. It goes without saying that we must maintain the involvement and main-streaming of universities in the developing countries in this process as well. I would like to encourage flexibility in our educational offer-ings. More elective subjects and more choice will certainly help tai-lor the courses to specific needs. I am quite certain that an improved guest lecturer scheme and an expanded sabbatical leave system, by involving the best brains we can have access to, will help a great deal in this regard as well. UNESCO-IHE should also function as a labo-ratory of ideas and of new innovative thinking to solve the major water resources issues in the world today.”

Intellectually powerfulSzöllösi-Nagy continues: “I think the Institute has a dual nature that makes it intellectually powerful. On the one hand, there is a link with the developing world through many networks, including that of the alumni, that brings in a constant flux of exciting issues that require novel handling. These things are very real: real catchments, real people and real issues to solve. I believe these issues stimulate the discovery of entirely new approaches and fresh thinking. On the other hand, the Institute, and UNESCO for that matter, has primary access to the best minds of the world. If there is something untested, something seemingly too complex to deal with, something we do not know how to handle we can always have access to the best professional advice and people. That is a tremendous asset that we should keep alive by increased networking and expanding our rela-tions further.”

Three intellectual giantsWhen asking the Rector who has been his greatest example, he responds: “My role model is my late father who was a geographer and a walking encyclopedia with an immense sense of humour and an insatiable appetite for all the good things in life. I miss him a great deal. My professional life was very strongly influenced by three intellectual giants: Professor Jim Dooge, former Foreign Minister of Ireland, Emeritus Professor of Hydrology in Dublin and also the former President of ICSU. I consider him my grand master. I learned

systems hydrology from him. Once, he survived one of my early presentations where I advocated that continuous models belonged to the past and the future was for discrete models only. During the discussion he declared: “hm, interesting idea but it’s junk, young man”. Of course, he was right. I did not know it for many years but Jim often acted as my guardian angel. Then, in my early twenties I met the late Professor Vujica Yevjevich of Colorado State University who had a tremendous influence on my way of thinking in terms of stochastic processes. (Later on somebody told me that my greatest achievement in hydrology is that I turned Stochastic Hydrology into Sarcastic Hydrology by occasionally being perhaps a little bit too critical with certain methodologies.) And finally, in my mid twen-ties I had the privilege of working at IIASA for some years. Professor Howard Raiffa of Harvard was my boss. He was a charismatic, intel-lectual leader and the top gun in decision theory. He led us by exam-ple and with an eternal big smile, always encouraging and support-ing new ideas.

Jekyll and HydeSzöllösi-Nagy is known by his closest friends as an infamous art col-lector. His significant other, Judith Nem’s, is an artist. In response to the question how his love for art complements his professional life, he responds: “Like Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hide. Art is my Mr. Hide side. It is totally independent of my professional activities. When I was young I trained to become a sculptor. But soon enough I recog-nised that I was not talented enough. I also recognised that as there were already so many bad artists in my country that adding one more would amount to a national catastrophe. So I gave up doing art. I have not drawn a single line ever since, not even on Sundays. But anything that is supressed in your childhood comes back later in adulthood. This is probably why Judith, who is indeed a painter, and I started to systematically collect contemporary art some twenty years ago. The subject matter is very narrow, geometric abstract and concrete art, but the collection became quite sizeable and interna-tional by now. In fact we even have paintings on the ceiling of our house in Paris. It is not like the Kröller-Müller Collection – yet. But we are getting there.

Inaugural AddressOn 5 November, Professor András Szöllösi-Nagy, was formally installed as the new Rector of the Institute after presenting his inaugural address en-titled: “Learn from you errors - if you can! – re-flections on the value of hydrological forecasting models.” A native of Hungary, Szöllösi-Nagy holds a Doctorate of Science in hydrology and stochastic systems, a PhD in water sciences, and a Doctorem Habilem in hydrology and water resources, the lat-ter two from Budapest University of Technology. Dr. Bart Schultz, the senior most member of the Academic Board opened this special academic ses-sion by noting that the education and research objec-tives of the Institute will remain primordial – driving both the production of quality science as well as the

development mandates of UNESCO-IHE. The formal address of the new Rector traced some of the very interesting, if somewhat convoluted, history of hydrological modeling as well as presenting a number of challenges relating to predicting extreme weather events such as floods and flood-related damage. And he did this in his ‘normal’ style – discussing a serious scientific issue while employing a degree of irreverent humor. It is also fair to note that while few will doubt the scientific nature of his comments, he still manages to get into any number of arguments with well-meaning colleagues who fail to grasp the connections to which he refers. After what can only be described as an engaging ad-dress, the former Rector Richard Meganck passed the academic authority of the Beadle and the staff of the Institute to the care of the new Rector symbolising the transfer of both the authority and the responsibility of the academic excellence of the Institute.

interview | New Rector

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education | PhD Programme

UNESCO-IHE to award it’s 100th PhD degreeSince its affiliation with UNESCO in 2003, the Institute has made huge steps in further developing its scientific reputation and establishing a solid academic environment. The NVAO accreditation constituted a first step, but other elements are the sharp increase in the number of peer-re-viewed publications, the appointment of additional scientific staff (PhD and professor level), the acquisition and allocation of more funds to re-search and recently the membership of the SENSE Research School. This resulted in a spectacular growth in the number of PhD fellows: from the late nineties until 2003, the number was stable at around 50 registered students. In 2003 the number started to grow steadily from 48 in 2003 to 89 in November 2009. When adding the number of staff members doing a PhD, the current enrollment reaches 95.

appliCaTions When looking at the number of PhD applications, a peak can be observed in 2008. In that year the Institute kicked-off an ambitious research programme sponsored by the Netherlands Ministry for Development Cooperation. It was also the year in which the Institute decided to allocate a larger portion of its base subsidy to co-funding of research projects acquired through competitive calls. The Institute’s strategy is to maintain this high volume of research activities in the years to come.

regional baCKground A prerequisite to be admitted in the UNESCO-IHE PhD programme is obviously the quality of the research proposal. In practice, an important bottleneck is the availability of fund-ing. Most of UNESCO-IHE’s students depend on sponsoring from na-tional governments or multilateral agencies. Due to the international de-

velopment focus on Africa, and more in particular Sub-Saharan Africa, a growing number of PhD students at UNESCO-IHE also originate from that region.

gender Twenty six per cent of the registered students in 2009 are fe-male. This is nearly the same as the overall Dutch average of 27% in the science area. (Vereniging Samenwerkende Nederlandse Universiteiten, VSNU)

aver age dur aTion The average duration of a PhD study at UNESCO-IHE is 5.45 years including the time between the approval of the thesis and the date of the public defense, and 5 years if this time is excluded. This figure does not significantly deviate from the average of universities in the host country, and also aligns with PhD programmes in other countries. This is remarkable as the majority of PhD’s at UNESCO-IHE are done in a sandwich format, and students are often claimed by their employer for part of their time.

number of promoTions and disTinCTions Since the first graduation in 1994, 93 researchers obtained a PhD degree through UNESCO-IHE. The number of promotions is expected to reach 20 per year by 2012. Out of the 93 successful promotions, six candidates re-ceived a PhD degree with cum laude. This is a remarkably high percent-age, exceeding the average of regular universities.

¡ Erick de Jong, e.de[email protected] W www.unesco-ihe.org/Education/PhD-programme




2 2













Academic Year

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

Number of PhD promotions of UNESCO-IHE


Number of PhD applications and admitted students



Finally admited


Total numberof applications







Academic Years

2004/8 2005/9 2006/10 2007/11 2008/12 2009/13

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The SENSE Research School for Socio-Economic and Natural Sciences of the Environment is a joint venture of the environmental research institutes of ten Dutch universities. SENSE strives to be a high quality school for researchers, where disciplinary and multidisci-plinary approaches are being developed and taught for the support of scientifically based and effective environmental policies. UNESCO-IHE invited SENSE Research School to conduct a peer review evalua-tion in order to obtain full participation and member-ship into the SENSE Research School. To this end, the SENSE assessment committee looked at UNESCO-IHE’s past performance (2003-2008) and future potential.

The general result of the SENSE visitation is that: “The UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education is highly visible and well regarded internationally with very rel-evant research and societal evident high impact.” The group concluded that UNESCO-IHE is an in-stitute in transition and that the number and quality of research and publications has increased considerably in the timeframe under revision. Interdisciplinary re-search is well developed and the PhD fellows are very enthusiastic about their training with frequent super-vision and social integration with staff and participants alike. seT Clear sTr aTegiC researCh prioriTies

The Committee recommends that UNESCO-IHE de-velop a coherent research strategy with the appropri-ate incentives to increase scientific quality and pro-ductivity. The Institute should have a plan establishing its medium-term and long-term research priorities. It would be useful to define clear and transparent bench-marks for the quantity and quality of research, for example the SENSE criteria, as well as to create incen-tives for research and high-level publications.

reConsider organisaTional sTruCTure It was also suggested that UNESCO-IHE consider es-tablishing a small external Academic Advisory Board to provide guidance in strategic research issues and to provide recommendations on appointments. Although the UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education is organised along educational lines with seemingly very efficient collaboration among the core groups, it was recommended by the SENSE as-sessment committee that the Institute re-evaluates its organisational structure of departments and core groups, which is at this time geared towards the MSc programmes rather than research. In addition, the Committee pointed out that UNESCO-IHE boosts the careers of many profession-als as a consequence of its mandate for capacity build-ing in developing countries and should therefore mon-itor these career improvements in order to measure the societal impact and relevance of its research. The added value behind this exercise is that the Institute’s alumni can facilitate ways to access a supplementary source of potential funding via their current employ-ers. ConClusions The Institute has an excellent interdisciplinary PhD programme and many individual staff members already comply with the membership criteria. Thereby, SENSE welcomes UNESCO-IHE. The SENSE Peer Review Committee is convinced that the future prospects for the UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education are very strong. The Institute is in good shape and can build on its currently strong posi-tion to continue serving international water research and water management.

¡ Berta Fernández Álvarez, [email protected] www.sense.nl

peer review evaluation | Sense Visitation


international media consultation on adaptation strategies to water and climate changeInternational journalists, experts and a number of other participants from more than 35 countries took part in a 2-day seminar organised by the United Nations. The seminar focussed on the role of the media and communicators and took place at the end of September in Zaragoza, Spain. Conclusions from the meeting point out that the role of the media and communicators as information multipli-ers is paramount to public advocacy and awareness-raising. The seminar was organised by the United Nations Office to Support the International Decade for Action ‘Water for Life’ 2005-2015 (UNO-IDfA) and brought together around 50 opinion leaders, communicators, UN representatives, and experts from Africa, Asia, Europe, North and South America.

¡ Ulrike Kelm, [email protected]

SHORT NEWS | Collaboration with American water utility

grant for reverse osmosis desalinationUNESCO-IHE will undertake research projects in reverse osmo-sis desalination in conjunction with The American Water Works Company, the largest investor-owned U.S. water and waste-water util-ity company. The partnership has been made possible due to a grant of USD 490,000 that was recently awarded to the company. “This research project will use novel methods to measure organic carbon in sea water that can cause plugging of the reverse osmosis membranes,” said Dr. Orren Schneider, senior environmental engineer for American Water and principle inves-tigator for this project. “The study will also use advanced techniques to measure the surface charge of particles in sea water. Neutralization of this surface charge is important for particle and organic carbon removal in the pre-treatment process.” The American Water Works Company was founded in 1886, and has its headquarters in Voorhees, N.J. The company employs more than 7,000 professionals who provide drinking water, waste-water and other related services to approximately 15 million people in 32 states and Ontario, Canada.W www.amwater.com

SENSE Research School for Socio-Economic and Natural Sciences of the Environment is a joint venture of the environ-mental research institutes of ten Dutch universities. It promotes an integrated understanding of environmental change in terms of the mechanisms that cause it and the consequences that result from it. To fulfil this mission, the combined programmes of research and education within SENSE are aimed at the develop-ment and further improvement of scientific concepts and methods that are required for an effective disciplinary and multi-disciplinary understanding of environmental change. Research and education in SENSE are dedicated to developing high quality scientific results, which may be applied to practically and critically inform environmen-tal policy perspectives.

SENSE Research School welcomes UNESCO-IHE

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SWITCH | Global CityWater Futures Summit

learning alliances for changeTThe Global CityWater Futures Summit, hosted by

SWITCH at UNESCO-IHE, at the beginning of October

2009, brought together over 50 experts from around

the world with 100 practitioners from cities in Africa,

Europe, South America, Asia, the Middle East, and

Australia as well as donor groups, international organi-

sations and media experts to join forces in accelerating

change toward a more sustainable water City of the

Future. Representatives from cities around the world

actively stepping up and taking action presented innova-

tive and local solutions. Discussions were jumpstarted by

media from India, Ghana and Yemen. The Summit was preceded by a science

meeting whereby experts interacted and exchanged ideas over a 3-day period

through a series of interactive events including workshops and an innovation

marketplace. Visit the SWITCH Water Summit Blog for videos and reports from

the event http://switchwatersummit.wordpress.com.

¡ Carol Howe, [email protected]

agreement | Research and capacity building

Over the past two years, the SpN has contributed as a co-funding and professional partner in several projects and tailor-made train-ing courses, including Spate Irrigation Improvement in Yemen, an Options Paper on Spate Irrigation and Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change, Global Guidelines for Spate Irrigation Improvement, and Spate Irrigation Training in Ethiopia.

Promoting an exchange of experiences The central mis-sion of SpN is to promote an exchange of experiences through re-search and training courses with regard to the sustainable develop-ment and management of spate irrigation and other flood-based irrigation systems (flood recession farming, flood plain irrigation, inundation canals). This is to improve food security in water-scarce areas as well as to fulfill various environmental functions including preserving biodi-versity, stabilizing river systems, mitigating flood peaks and recharg-ing groundwater.

Unpredictable and unreliable Traditional flood-based ir-rigation systems, which harness unpredictable, unreliable and often destructive floodwater in ephemeral environments, have existed for centuries as a major source of livelihoods for mainly economically disadvantaged communities in arid and semi-arid regions of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and the Middle East. Despite being among the oldest water resource management sys-tems, they remain the least studied and least understood and docu-mented. Most investments have been channelled into the perennial irrigation systems because these were perceived as having relatively reliable water sources, a higher sustainable return, and fewer risks and uncertainties with regard to crop and livestock production.

The International Spate Irrigation Network (SpN) and UNESCO-IHE have signed a formal Cooperation Agreement to jointly explore oppor-tunities in research, projects and capacity build-ing for the sustainable development and manage-ment of flood-based irrigation systems, water and environmental resources management.

COOPERATION | Armenia and Georgia partners

seeking to reinforce the potentialsThe State Agrarian University of Armenia (SAUA), the Georgian State Agriculture University (GSAU) and UNESCO-IHE have agreed to continue their collaboration on a number of joint education and capacity building activi-ties and trainings through tailor-made courses, regular short courses and refresher seminars. The bilateral Memorandum of Agreements was one of the results of a succesful tailor-made training, held in 2008 and early 2009.

Project leader László Hayde explains: “The training has substantially contrib-uted to the capacity building of university staff in Armenia’s and Georgia’s water sector. Eventually this will contribute towards increased socio-economic benefits from the available water resource base and their long-term sus-tainability through better educated professionals. The training provided a promising opportunity for networking and sharing of information among the professionals involved, fostering the collaborative approach for par-ticipatory water resource development and management at local levels. Hayde continues: “The participants of the training are already showing inter-ests in strengthening and furthering the newly established professional contacts and collaborations which will only strengthen in the time ahead. The training also helped local resource persons, in addition to the exchange of know-how, build up closer contacts with each other and with the trainers from UNESCO-IHE, which will in turn facilitate continuous exchange of ideas and advice. Furthermore, this training has already stimulated communications with UNESCO-IHE with regard to various capacity building opportunities in Netherlands as well as for conceptualising and conducting joint research projects.”

Multilateral strategy At the end of the training, Professor Gela Javakhishvili, Rector of the Georgian State Agricultural University (GSAU) and Professor Daniel Petrosyan, Pro-Rector of the Armenian State Agrarian University (ASAU) visited the Netherlands to discuss further cooperation possibilities, to determine the long-term multilateral strategy for scientific cooperation development and to work out the details of an agreement among the participating institutions. “The collaboration between the State Agrarian University of Armenia (SAUA) and UNESCO-IHE and its outcomes are essential for Armenian specialists. They will get the unique opportunity of capacity building and trainings in Europe as well as explore the innovative technologies currently applied in the field of water resources management. In the production field 48 Water Users Associations and over 250,000 consumers of our Republic will seek to reinforce the potentials of technological management. The cooperation agreement will open prospects to carry out further joint research based on the most sophisticated technologies in the field of sustainable water resources management. The agreement will also develop opportunities for masters and post-graduate participants, engaged in the agrarian educa-tional programme of Armenia, to gain knowledge concerning the applica-tion of innovative technologies and methodologies,” Dr Petrosyan added.

¡ László Hayde, [email protected]

Spate Irrigation: least studied, understood and documented

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agreement | Research and capacity building

Improving food security With growing water variability and scarcity in semi-arid and arid regions a reality, a renewed interest in flood-based irrigation systems has emerged. Such systems are in-creasingly seen as practical solutions to supplement food production and improve food security in areas where water is scarce and variable. The political will to support these systems has been growing incre-mentally over the past decade and, accordingly, some substantial in-vestments have been made.

Achieving a balance The success of these renewed initiatives and investments will largely depend on identifying and implement-ing optimal approaches and techniques for the sustainable design and management of flood-based systems to achieve a balance between providing for human requirements and ensuring the holistic needs of the river ecosystems and downstream water uses. The SpN and UNESCO-IHE will jointly contribute to meeting these challenges through the development of tailored scientific research projects and demand-driven training courses.

¡ Abraham Mehari Haile, [email protected] www.spate-irrigation.org

What is Spate Irrigation? Spate irrigation is an ancient form of water harvesting and managing

unpredictable and sometimes-destructive flash floods for crop and livestock production. The

system is unique to semi-arid and arid areas where it has existed for over 70 centuries. Today,

spate irrigation is still the major source of livelihood for many poor communities in South Asia,

the Middle East and North Africa, whereas the area under spate irrigation is on the increase in the

Horn of Africa and other parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Despite being the oldest type of irrigation,

however, it is still the least studied, understood and documented.

Spate Irrigation: least studied, understood and documented

agreement | Flood Mitigation

Cooperation with Viet Nam on flood mitigationUnder the watchful eye of Tineke Huizinga, Vice Minister for Transport, Public Works and Water Management in the Netherlands and Vietnamese counterpart Nguyen Thai Lai, a cooperation agreement was signed on 5 October 2009, between Viet Nam and the Netherlands to cooperate on im-proving flow forecasting of the Red River. A satellite-based flow forecasting system developed by UNESCO-IHE and EARS Earth Environment Monitoring will be used to gener-ate relevant data. The Red River, originating in China’s Yunnan province, is about 1,200 kilometres long. Its main tributaries, the Lo River, the Clear River and the Black River, contribute to its large water volume, which averages 4,300 cubic metres per second. Backed by the steep forested highlands, the down-stream part, including Vietnamese capital Ha Noi, rises only a few metres above sea level. The area is subject to frequent flooding; at some places the high-water mark of floods is fourteen metres above the surrounding countryside. Although a variety of infrastructure works have been carried out in the Vietnamese part of the Red River basin, floods incur massive economic losses, estimated at five bil-lion USD over the past 20 years. The most recent flood, which occurred last year in November, covered an area of 2600 square kilometres and claimed 120 victims. Sufficient and timely data from the entire basin are es-sential to take preventive measures and to warn local inhab-itants about the flood risk. The new technology proposed, uses near real-time satellite-derived rainfall and evaporation data fields in combination with numerical weather predic-tions to drive a hydrological flow simulation and forecasting model. Recently, a similar system has successfully been put into operation for the Yellow River in China. Operational implementation takes place at the National Hydro-Meteorological Service of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. The cooperation also involves the Water Resources University in Hanoi, and includes a substantial capacity building component.

¡ Raymond Venneker, r. [email protected]

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Why was there a need for a water plan?Mainly because of the changing climate in recent years,

the realisation gradually dawned on us that we had to rethink our water-related policies in the Netherlands. The new Water Law, an outcome of this, stipulates that every six years the main elements of the national water policy need to be formu-lated in a plan.

Does the plan have a predecessor?

It follows the Fourth National Policy Document on Water Management of 1998 and a number of other documents so, in a sense, it is a continuation of existing practice but in a bet-ter, more comprehensive way.

What is new in the plan?

Ten years ago an integrated approach in the water sector itself was a novelty, whereby aspects of safety, quality and quantity were combined in one policy. However, the new plan takes this one step further by involving spatial planning aspects. The plan provides a legal framework for the spatial consequences of water management strategies for different areas such as the IJsselmeer lake and the North Sea coast.

How do people outside of the Netherlands perceive this approach?

My experience is that internationally this approach is still relatively undiscovered. Many people I meet consider the wa-ter sector to be one of many stakeholders in spatial planning whereas we think that in most cases it should be given a more central role.

We have brought this insight to Copenhagen where the United Nations Climate Change Conference was held. Our State Secretary of Water will state that taking short-term and long-term water management requirements into considera-tion during spatial development is essential for a sustainable and climate-resistant water system.

A considerable part of the water plan is about education and communication. Why is this important?

For many Dutch citizens good water management is a giv-en; they tend to forget that water management is something they should not take for granted as it needs continuous efforts and investments. Therefore a number of actions described in the plan focus on raising awareness among the general public.

Furthermore, we want people to feel part of the policy and process and that is what we have achieved with the water plan: think along with us, because plans become better when citizens are involved in the discussion. In addition, the many projects that will be executed in the coming years might cause inconvenience to our citizens, therefore we would like people to understand why.

As far as education is concerned, we developed numer-ous study materials for all levels of the school system about the future and past of water management. It is also of utmost importance to stimulate interest among secondary school stu-dents to become water professionals as we will have 16,000 vacancies in 2012 when we execute our plans. Without the inflow of sufficient qualified water professionals the ambi-tions of the water plan can never be achieved.

Does the water plan look beyond the Dutch borders?

Although the name is the National Water Plan, there is an important international component. First of all, we cooper-ate intensively with neighbouring states, for example where it concerns the North Sea and the rivers Rhine and Meuse. Secondly, we noticed that apart from technological aspects, there is a lot of foreign interest in how, politically, legally and financially, we have set up our water management policies in the Netherlands. Therefore we would like to share our expe-riences with governments and people who live under similar circumstances elsewhere in the world. We studied a number of low-lying delta areas and inventoried the cooperation potential which resulted in the preference for cooperation with five deltas; the Jakarta, Mekong, Ganges/Brahmaputra, Incomati and the Nile delta. We are now trying to intensify existing collaboration and start new initiatives through a number of long-term cooperation agreements. These part-nerships will have a special focus on climate adaptation and on contributing towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

UPDATE Magazine interviewed ANNEMIEKE NIJHOF, Director-General of Water at the Dutch Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management about the Dutch National Water Plan, its international scope, and her role in this process.“The plan is the result of numerous discussions, consultations, and research studies by many parties in the water sector. The ministry steered this process and shaped the conditions under which the plan could be made. Under the supervision of the State Secretary of Water, Tineke Huizenga, I was responsible for making it.”

Flood protection has our focus

interview | Dutch National Water Plan

The Directorate-General for Water Affairs (DGW), headed by Director-General Annemieke Nijhof, is responsible for ar-ranging for and maintaining a sustainable water system at socially acceptable costs, guaranteeing vital functions in rural and urban areas, including safety, the economy, housing, agriculture, recreation and nature. DGW favours a combined effort from public and private parties in dealing with national water-related issues. Societal acceptability in terms of costs and benefits determine what can, must and will happen. DGW has developed its own long-term vision, mapping out its water policy until far into the 21st century. Its primary aims are to ensure the sufficient availability of good quality water and to provide protection from, and anticipate, possible problems related to floods and flooding. The Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management is one of the thirteen ministries that make up the Dutch government. The Ministry consists of the policy departments and executive depart-ments, as well as the Directorate-General for Water Affairs. The first National Water Plan describes all national water management activities in the Netherlands for the 2009-2015 planning period. It also outlines the central government’s longer-term ambitions in sustainable and climate-resistant flood pro-tection and defense, and freshwater supply.

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The first National Water Plan describes all na-tional water manage-ment activities in the Netherlands for the 2009-2015 planning period. It also outlines the central government’s longer-term ambitions in sustainable and climate-resistant flood protec-tion and defense and freshwater supply.



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Could you give examples of the Dutch water sector learning from practices abroad?

We have been seeking help in China to find out how strong the dykes along the largest lake in the Netherlands, the IJsselmeer, should be. Since 2006, we have been cooperating with our Chinese colleagues on the Taihu Lake, monitoring the surge flow. This lake is very similar to the IJsselmeer, although many typhoons occur on the Taihu Lake. As a result, we can quickly gain crucial knowledge about surges and storms on the IJsselmeer. Another example is Indonesia, where many natural hazards such as cyclonic storms occur. They have a wealth of experience with human behaviour in these situations which has helped them to better instruct their citizens on how to act in these situations. The Netherlands can learn from this.

Is the Netherlands preparing for the worst?

Although we still consider the Netherlands to be a very safe delta area, we are thinking beyond what needs to be done to prevent the country from floods. Of course, flood protection has our main focus but since we can never guarantee one hundred percent safety, we study what-if scenarios and make strategies for these situations.

Getting back to collaboration with other delta areas, do you see a role for UNESCO-IHE and its network of partners?

I think that the alumni of UNESCO-IHE in particular can help us to build bridges between Dutch organizations and their counterparts elsewhere in the world. When we investigated the delta areas in search of cooperation op-portunities, we talked with many UNESCO-IHE alumni. I noticed the openness and friendliness of our discus-sions and, in particular, the keenness from both sides to cooperate.

Tomorrow’s water leaders study at UNESCO-IHE, what message do you have for them?

I think good leadership means being authentic, having your own story to tell. Furthermore, leadership entails involving the people you work with by listening and openly communicating to them. I believe in the concept of value creation, meaning that in decision-making proc-esses with every step you take you ask yourself whether it contributes to the creation, or the destruction, of value. Within this process it is important to aim for mutual benefits by assessing views and weighing the interests of all parties involved. I believe that this approach will ultimately lead to finding the most cooperation, progress and sustainable development.

NEW INITIATIVES | Dutch Delta Design 2012

Tempting the world with waterDutch Delta Design 2012 is a new ambitious project to position the Netherlands as a global platform for water. The project was launched on 1 July 2009 and aims to share knowledge and expertise between countries, thereby providing a means for the Dutch to strengthen their lead-ing position on global water expertise in an international arena. Dutch Delta Design 2012 or DDD2012 is located within the Netherlands Water Partnership organization (NWP), an independent coordinator and information source for the Dutch water sector. The DDD2012 board consists of NWP professionals, as well as experts from other Dutch organisations, such as the Dutch Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management. Currently, DDD2012 includes 30 project partners, ranging from govern-mental organizations, including Water Boards and the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, to private organizations, such as IBM Benelux and the Technical University of Delft.

Living in a DeltaThe term ‘Delta’ in Dutch Delta Design 2012 refers to the Netherlands being a delta in which several rivers, such as the Rhine and the Maas, come together before reaching the sea. Living in a delta requires the Dutch to factor water into their everyday lives. Dutch Delta Design 2012 aims to show other countries in the world how this is done by providing best practices on creat-ing a stable and safe water environment for its inhabitants.

W www.ddd2012.nl

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A Refresher Seminar entitled ‘The Ecology of Livelihoods in African Wetlands’ was held in Kenya at the end of August for UNESCO-IHE alumni in Sub-Saharan Africa. Thirty-three participants from 12 countries took part. The semi-nar was organised in close collaboration with the Department of Biological Science of Egerton University and the Eastern Africa Water Association.

alumni | Regional Refresher Seminar

phd researCh on The ‘Ecology of Livelihoods’ con-cept is based on the notion that ecology and livelihoods are strongly linked. ‘Ecology’ in this case represents natural eco-systems (e.g. wetlands) with their biodiversity, water, nutri-ent and energy cycles. ‘Livelihoods’ represents the develop-ment of human societies. need for susTainabiliTy In Africa and elsewhere, people’s livelihoods are often directly dependent on wet-lands, notably through the provision of food, water and biomass. Because of the human usage of wetlands for liveli-hoods, wetlands are under pressure and in many cases show signs of degradation or decline. The relationship between ecology and livelihoods is affected by a multitude of natu-ral factors, such as climate change, for example, but also by socio-economic and institutional influences. The large number of activities in the wetlands (agriculture, fishing, papyrus harvesting, livestock grazing) underscores the need for sustainable management solutions for these wetlands. presenTaTions Professor Jude Mathooko, Deputy-Vice Chancellor for Research and Extension at Egerton University, officially opened the seminar. He welcomed the participants to Kenya and expressed his support for re-search projects and capacity building for the wetlands. This was followed by a number of presentations about innova-tive research methods for wetlands: Bayesian Networks by Dr. Julius Kipkemboi, SWAT modelling by Dr. Ann van Griensven, and Environmental Water Allocation by Professor Jay O’Keeffe.

A session on policy making for wetlands was chaired by Mr. Paul Mafabi, Commissioner of the Wetlands Management Department of the Ugandan Ministry of Water and Environment. Other organisations present included the Kenya Wildlife Service represented by Dr James Njogu, the National Environmental Management Authority represent-ed by Ms Miriam Wainaina, and WaterNet represented by Dr. Innocent Nhapi. field visiT After introductions by UNESCO-IHE alumna Dr. Margaret Abira of the Kenyan Water Resources Management Authority and others, participants got their feet wet in the papyrus wetlands during a field visit to the Nyando Wetland in Kisumu, at the edge of Lake Victoria. The trip was hosted by VIRED International, a Kisumu-based non-governmental organisation. VIRED International has been active in wetland conservation and sustainable management projects in the Nyando wetlands for almost ten years. Dr. J.B. Okeyo-Owuor, VIRED Director and na-tive to the Nyando wetland, showed the participants around his home area. folloW-up aCTions As a follow-up activity to this seminar, participants agreed to develop papers on case stud-ies presented at the seminar. Input from the participants will be used in the forthcoming publication entitled Ecology of Livelihoods in African Wetlands. It is expected that this publication will provide a focus for continued interaction and collaboration with this group of wetland professionals in the coming year.

¡ Anne van Dam, [email protected]

The Ecology of Livelihoods in African Wetlands

UNESCO-IHE organises annual refresher seminars in Europe, Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Middle East, primarily for UNESCO-IHE alumni. The seminars cover themes that are of direct relevance and importance to the region and the participants. The goal of these seminars is to facilitate an exchange of experiences between alumni from different countries facing similar issues and problems in their professional capacities, strengthen relationships, and to adapt and improve the approaches and contents of UNESCO-IHE courses on the basis of the experiences and practices of profession-als working in developing countries. Opportunities will also be explored to establish and strengthen local and regional knowledge centres that are part of regional and global networks for capacity building in water, environ-ment and infrastructure.

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alumni | Regional Refresher Seminar

The theme of the course ‘The Ecology of Livelihoods’ (or ECOLIVE) is also the name of a new interdisciplinary research programme, funded by the Directorate-General for International Cooperation (DGIS/UNESCO-IHE Partnership Research Fund (UPaRF). The programme is the result of a joint collabora-tion between UNESCO-IHE, the University of Amsterdam, Egerton University and VIRED International. ECOLIVE con-sists of three PhDs and one post-doctoral researcher who will investigate the hydrologi-cal, ecological and social as-pects of papyrus wetlands used for livelihoods support. W www.unesco-ihe.org/the-ecology-of-livelihoods-ecolive

interview | Iris Frida Josch de Kosak

UPDATE Magazine interviewed Iris Frida Josch de Kosak, UNESCO-IHE Alumna. Currently she is the National Manager of Hydraulic Projects and Public Works for the Under Secretary of Water Resources, Secretary of Public Works in the Ministry of Federal Planning Public Investments and Services in Argentina. She holds a Masters of Engineering degree in Rivers and Navigation Works from UNESCO-IHE 1967 – 1968. Which current projects are you currently working on?

All the projects I work on are related to hy-draulic works: you may find urban and rural pluvial nets, flood control systems, hydropower dams, irrigation dams, irrigation nets, drinking water dams, margin sea and river protection, among many others. I lead a group of 60 per-sons: 22 engineers, 5 lawyers, and technical and administrative staff. Our actions are divided into 4 stages: first, we supervise and approve hydraulic projects (hydraulically, environ-mentally and economically). These hydraulic projects are submitted by the provinces and/or municipalities. Secondly, we programme the feasibility of the construction of the reported projects according to the general scheme of the Ministry. Thirdly, we prepare the agreement between the province or municipality and the national government and, finally, we supervise and pay the construction of the public work.

How did your time at UNESCO-IHE contribute to your professional life?

The technical preparation I received at UNESCO-IHE has been of great importance in the development of my professional life because in Delft I learned the modern ways of planning and designing water resources projects, paying attention to some new (for me) variables such as sediment transport problems and environmen-tal issues. Through the Institute I found a way to keep myself updated on global water issues.

Of which achievement in your professional career are you most proud?

I am very proud of two important con-courses in the development of my profes-sional career. In La Plata National University, Engineering Faculty, where I was awarded the place of Titular Professor of Fluvial Hydraulics and when I was appointed National Manager of Hydraulic Projects and Public Works in the Under Secretary of Water Resources (Secretary of Public Works, Ministry of Federal Planning Public Investments and Services).

How do you feel Argentina should address environmental issues, concerning poor water and air quality, deforestation and soil degradation?

The Argentine Republic has important legis-lation at the national level that addresses envi-ronmental issues. It even appointed a Secretariat of Natural Resources in charge of water quality, air quality, deforestation and soil degradation.

As we are a federal country the provinces dictate their own regulations. In all cases, when a municipality or a province asks the National Government to finance an hydraulic public work, the main pre-requisite of the project is to have the provincial technical and environmental approval.

In addition, it is vital to raise people’s aware-ness about the importance of preserving water resources to address pressing threats to the preservation of Argentina’s natural resources, particularly its water resources.

Are you in touch with other IHE alumni, professionally or privately? Did you make friends at UNESCO-IHE who are still friends or professional contacts today?

I am one of the founding members of the Asociacion Argentina de Ex Alumnos de Holanda (ACANEB), the Dutch alumni associa-tion in Argentina. This enables me to remain in close contact with many professionals through the different activities organised by ACANEB.

What role do you see yourself, or others in your position, playing in promoting UNESCO-IHE?

As you have seen, my experience as a result of my course at UNESCO-IHE was of great im-portance, because at the Institute I was exposed to most of the topics I had to develop during my professional career. Not only from a technical point of view, but also from an organisational perspective with regard to working groups ac-tive in the field of managing water resources. In this respect, I am comitted to promoting UNESCO-IHE as an Institute for research, edu-cation and capacity building. The only constraint nowadays is that Argentina does not provide many fellowship opportunities for students interested in studying water management at UNESCO-IHE.

UPDATE Magazine is interested in hearing more from the institute’s alumni, especially about the projects they are cur-rently working on and the organisations they are attached to. Please send your updates to the editor, Alida Pham, [email protected].

“ Through the Institute I found a way to keep myself updated on global water issues”

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Marcio Barbosa, Deputy Director-General of UNESCO, addressed the delegates by expressing his concerns for water issues around the globe, stating the need for water education and highlighted UNESCO’s cross-sectoral efforts over decades. Barbosa gave a com-prehensive overview of the four pillars of UNESCO’s freshwater ac-tions collaborating to deliver water education challenges: WWAP, UNESCO-IHP, UNESCO-IHE and UNESCO water-related centres and chairs. He stressed the importance of UNESCO-IHE as the larg-est postgraduate water education facility in the world and the only institution in the UN system authorised to confer accredited degrees. He asked permanent delegates to fully support UNESCO-IHE. Cross-sectoral efforts András Szöllösi-Nagy, the then Director of the Division of Water and Secretary of the International Hydrological Programme of UNESCO, went into further detail explaining the var-ious cross-sectoral efforts UNESCO is making in the fields of water education and noted the critical need for adequately trained profes-sionals in the water sector. In this context, he urged Member States to further strengthen their commitment to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

Decade of Education for Sustainable Development Aline Bory-Adams, Chief of the Coordination Team for the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD), further highlighted how UNESCO is contributing to strengthen human capacities to address water issues, noting the crucial role of edu-cation for the sustainable management of water resources. In par-ticular, she showed how IHP, UNESCO-IHE, UNESCO-UNEVOC, UNITWIN and UNESCO Chairs and the Associated Schools Network of UNESCO (ASPnet), among others, are collaborating on water education in the context of the DESD. Strengthening capacities During the meeting, UNESCO an-nounced the UNESCO Tertiary Water Education Grants Programme, a scheme whereby UNESCO Member States can support students in MSc, PhD, Short- and Online Courses on water issues at UNESCO-IHE. “Strengthening the capacities of human resources working on water issues is a tangible way to address critical water issues in the developing world,” Richard Meganck, the then UNESCO-IHE’s Rector told the audience. Student presentation Carmen Almeyda (29) from Peru, Jonas Heita (27) from Namibia and Mohanasundar Radhakrishnan (28) from India represented their fellow students at the Information Meeting in Paris by giving a joint presentation on the water chal-lenges in their respective countries and how studying at UNESCO-IHE allows them to tackle these challenges.

The SMAP III EU-funded ‘Alexandria Lake Maryut Integrated Management (ALAMIM) project’ was recently concluded. UNESCO-IHE provided support in the development of mathematical models of the hydrodynamic and ecosystem dynamics in the lake.

UNESCO-IHE presented its contributions to water education to UNESCO Member States Delegates. The briefing was held at the end of June during an Information Meeting on Water Education at UNESCO Headquarters in Paris, France.

project outcomes | ALAMIM Project

The Alexandria Lake Maryut Integrated Management project

grants programme | Information Meeting on Water Education

The UNESCO Tertiary Water Education Grants Programme (UNESCO-TWEGP) is an activ-ity to strengthen the capacities of human resources working on water issues in UNESCO Member States. The UNESCO-TWEGP accepts extrabudgetary grants to support students in MSc, PhD, Short and Online courses on water issues at the UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education. These capacity building efforts are in support of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and within the framework of the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) and the International Decade for Action: Water for Life.

SMAP BackgroundThe Short and Medium-Term Priority Environmental Action Programme (SMAP) constitutes the environmental component of the Euro Mediterranean Partnership. It builds on the Barcelona Declaration, which recognised the importance of reconciling economic devel-opment with environmental protection, of integrating environmental concerns into the relevant aspects of economic policy, and of mitigating any potential negative environmental consequences. SMAP sets five priorities for national and donor interventions: Integrated Water Management, Integrated Waste Management, Hot Spots (including polluted ar-eas and threatened biodiversity zones), Integrated Coastal Zone Management and Combating Desertification.

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“ strengthening capacities is a tangible way to address critical water issues”

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In Alexandria, the ALAMIM work that began in 2006 was centred on Lake Maryut, a shallow closed lake, not directly connected to the sea and located on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt. The quality of the lake is deteriorating due to anthropogenic pressures, such as the discharge of domestic sewage and industrial and agricultural wastewater. These pressures influence the ecological state of the lake and result in the deteriora-tion of environmental conditions. promoTing inTegr aTed managemenT

The project aimed to promote a sounder and more sustainable development pattern of the Coastal Zone of Alexandria by promoting the integrated manage-ment of the Lake Maryut Zone and the adoption of a participatory integrated development action plan for this zone, encompassing environment protection, eco-nomic development and the needs and interests of all stakeholders. The action targets the Alexandria Governorate, the Regional Bureau of the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA), local and national authorities, local industries, local communities and NGOs, private sector, investors, and visitors. inTegr aTed aCTion plan The main activities included the actual drafting of the action plan, thereby involving all stakeholders; the design and institutional-ization of Lake Maryut Management and Monitoring units at the Alexandria Governorate and at the re-gional bureau of EEAA; developing methodological, technical and financial capacities and instruments for implementation of the plan; and capacity building ac-tivities and public awareness programmes for local and provincial authorities and stakeholders.

prediCTing poTenTial ouTComes The mod-els, developed by UNESCO-IHE, were calibrated to existing conditions and were used to predict poten-tial outcomes of different management scenarios that eventually supported the development of the action plan. The management scenarios were specified by stakeholders and covered a wide range of future strat-egies for the lake. During a final meeting in Alexandria at the offices of the Governate, results of the project were officially announced to the Governor. The models were handed over to the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (Ministry of Environment) and the National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences (NARSS), where they will be installed for central use in the new-ly established management and monitoring unit. projeCT Team The ALAMIM project includ-ed partners from the Centre for Environment and Development for the Arab Region and Europe, the Alexandria Governorate (CEDARE), the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (Ministry of Environment) EEAA, the National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences (NARSS), Ville of Marseille, the Department of Housing and Environment - Regional Government of Catalonia, the Coastal Union (EUCC) and UNESCO-IHE. W http://smap.ew.eea.europa.eu/fol120392/prj885304/ ¡ Lindsay Beevers [email protected]

project outcomes | ALAMIM Project

The Alexandria Lake Maryut Integrated Management project

UNESCO-IHE was recently commissioned to under-take a flood-modelling study of a transboundary catch-ment area on St. Maarten. In recent decades, this small island in the Caribbean has incurred extensive tangible damages, unprecedented losses and social disruption due to tropical storms and hurricanes. St. Maarten cov-ers an area of land that is 87 km²; 53 km² of which is under the sovereignty of France, and 34 km² under the sovereignty of the Netherlands. The Belle Plain/Belvedere stormwater catchment area contains trans-boundary waterways, which have been managed sepa-rately by the two administrations. ConneCTing TWo governmenTs The project aims to connect the two governments in the process of identifying the most suitable structural flood protec-tion measures and to help them develop joint policies and urbanization guidelines for this catchment area. So far, the stormwater management practices have paid little regard to the infrastructure and development policies of the neigh-bouring areas. During the past four years, UNESCO-IHE has been ac-tively involved in various flood-modelling activities on the Dutch side of the island. In May 2009, UNESCO-IHE was commissioned to undertake a flood-modeling study of the Belle Plain/Belvedere area.

measures for improvemenT For this par-ticular project a number of structural as well as non-structural improvement measures will be evaluated and compared. Some examples of such measures in-clude: the amplification of the existing drainage net-work, the construction of detention ponds (in areas such as parks, sport fields and other open space are-as), the provision of designated overland flow paths, the development of disaster management actions and post-event recovery plans, and the development of an automated real-time controlled flood warning system. The project will also include the develop-ment of joint policies based on the delineation of flood hazard areas, and raising public awareness and capacity building in the area of flood management and control. Final recommendations will be based on the following activities: the sourcing of data and local knowledge, field measurements, model build-ing, model verification, and identifying sustainable

flood management strategies. In addition, tools will also be developed to improve communications with stakeholders and involve them in the de-cision-making process. The project was scheduled to take approximately twelve months and is expected to end in early 2010.

¡ Zoran Vojinovic [email protected]


Addressing St. Maarten’s transboundary flood risks

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graduation | Double Degree Master Programme

The first group of Indonesian students who graduated from the Double Degree Master Programme on Integrated Lowland Development and Management Planning (DD-ILDM) received their degree from Professor András Szöllösi-Nagy, UNESCO-IHE’s new Rector, during the awarding ceremony held at UNESCO-IHE on 15 October. The ceremony was also attended by Professor Badia Perizade, Rector of Sriwijaya University in Palembang, Indonesia, Professor Dr. Kamaluddin, Director of the Post Graduate Programme, Ir. Eddy Santana Putra, Mayor of Palembang and UNESCO-IHE alumnus, and Margreeth de Boer, Chair of the UNESCO-IHE Foundation Board. The MSc programme is jointly organised by the UNESCO-IHE Land and Water Development Core and the Post Graduate School on Environment Management, Integrated Lowland Development and Management Planning of Sriwijaya University.

The programme is especially suited for government staff at the Ministry, Provincial, District and Municipal level who are involved in lowland development and manage-ment planning - both rural and urban - in Indonesia. The programme will be conducted for several years to come and is supported by the Indonesian National Development Planning Agency BAPPENAS and the NUFFIC NESO Indonesia.

loWland areas In Indonesia large lowland areas exist along the coasts, in river floodplains and as inland depres-sions. Most of these lowlands are still in their natural state; parts have been reclaimed, primarily for agricultural land use. Urbanisation and industrialisation take place, especially in the lowlands in densely populated areas. Because of its population growth, the increase in the standard of living, the need for food self-sufficiency, and the ongoing urbanisation for which agricultural lands often are taken out of exploitation, the Indonesian government is putting a lot of effort into the future development of the lowlands based on an integrated approach. However, there is a substantial shortage of skilled staff to manage the development of the required policies and approaches, the resulting plans and planning and the actual design, implementation, operation, maintenance and man-agement of the required programmes and projects.

¡ Bart Schultz, [email protected]

The first ten graduates pro-duced a range of MSc theses on various aspects of lowland development and management: Ms. Resza Dwi ArthaWater Management for Acid Sulphate Soils in Lowland Areas. Case Study in Patra Tani Muara EnimMr. Akbar SaefudinLand and Water Evaluation of Lowland Areas. Case Study: Lowlands in North Eastern Muara Enim Region, IndonesiaMs. Dewi Sartika*Water Management Service Fee for Optimal Operation and Maintenance of Canal Systems in Tidal Lowlands. Case Study Telang I, South SumatraMr. Ahmad FadilanRegeneration Options for Peat Forest. Case Study Marang Kepayang, South Sumatera, IndonesiaMr. Rahmadi*The Effect of Climate Change and Land Subsidence on Water Management Zoning in Tidal Lowlands. Case Study Telang I, South SumatraMs. Wiwin EstiningrumImpact of City Development on Urban Drainage and Flood Protection in Metro CityMr. Taufik SyahzaeniUrban Drainage and Flood Protection in Tangerang CityMs. R.A. Marlina SylviaOptions for Water Management and Flood Protection of Agropolitan Gandus for Agricultural DevelopmentMs. Eka GustiniPalembang Urban Drainage and Flood Protection Development. Case Study JakabaringMs. Flora Prima SynthaOptimizing Operation and Maintenance for Urban Drainage System. Case Study: Sub Catchment Bendung Palembang City, South Sumatera *Ms. Dewi Sartika and Mr. Rahmadi obtained their MSc Degree with distinction.

A chromium removal plant in Holon, Tel Aviv in Israel, was officially put into operation on 17 September by the Head of the Water Authority of Israel, Professor Uri Shani and the Netherlands Ambassador in Israel Michiel den Hond. The design and construction of the pilot plant for the removal of chro-mium from contaminated groundwater is the result of joint cooperation between UNESCO-IHE, the Water Authority of Israel, the Mekorot Water Company and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, under the framework of EXACT, the steering committee of the Multilateral Working Group on Water Resources (MWGWR). The Multiculture Working Group on Water Resources (MWGWR) aims to enhance cooperation on water-related issues between the Israeli, Jordanian and Palestinian core parties. The Netherlands is a donor of the MWGWR and in 2002 UNESCO-IHE was asked to ex-ecute the 2.2 million euro project. The design of the pilot plant is a spin-off of the UNESCO-IHE strate-gic research line on the removal of metals and is based on MSc and Post Doctoral research studies conducted at both UNESCO-IHE and the Hebrew

University in Israel. Recently, an MSc student from the Hebrew University was appointed to continue the chromium research with the new pilot plant. The pilot will al-low the field-testing of two chromium removal technologies, namely the re-duction, coagulation (precipitation), filtration and reduction and adsorptive chromium removal with Iron Oxide Coated Sands (IOCS). Until 1985, the Holon-8 well produced approximately 1.5 Million m3 of drinking water annually. Thereafter, the well was taken out of produc-tion due to high levels of chromium. It is expected that the new pilot will be instrumental in establishing an effective and affordable approach for the treatment of chromium-contaminated water from the Holon-8 well. After the pilot plant in Baq’a (Jordan) for the removal of iron from ground-water and the upgrade of the slow sand filters in Aqbat Jabr (near Jericho), this is the third and final pilot plant to be completed within the EXACT-DUPC project.

¡ Branislav Petrusevski, [email protected]


chromium removal pilot in israel put into operation

First ten graduates in Integrated Lowland Development and Management Planning

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The 2009 World Water Week in Stockholm, Sweden from 16 to 22 August, themed ‘Accessing Water for the Common Good’ had a special focus on Transboundary Waters. The 2009 WWW will be the first under a new three-year niche entitled “Water: Responding to Global Change”. True to tradition, UNESCO-IHE was also present through a variety of activities.

Stockholm World Water Week 2009

events | UNESCO-IHE activities

Water Footprint Network As one of the founding organisations and as a member of the supervisory council UNESCO-IHE, represented by Joop de Schutter, took active part in the Water Footprint Network session ‘Water footprint: A new entry point for water policy and corpo-rate water strategy?’. The session was organised by the Water Footprint Network (WFN), World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD), World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the Swedish Water House (SWH).

IWRM for Climate Change Adaptation UNESCO-IHE was one of the convenors of the session ‘IWRM as a practical approach to climate change adaptation’. During this session Erik de Ruyter van Steveninck presented the training package ‘IWRM as a Tool for Adaptation to Climate Change’. Other activities during this session included case studies presented by GWP, a presentation and interactive discussion on risk assessment and a panel discussion on the usefulness of IWRM as a framework for adaptation to climate change and the need for capacity building in this area. A number of contacts were made to explore future cooperation (IUCN, Wetlands International and WWF/Danube-Carpathian pro-gramme).

Cooperation as Conflict? UNESCO-IHE also actively con-tributed to a workshop entitled ‘Cooperation as Conflict? Towards Effective Transboundary Water Interaction’, convened by the King’s College London Water Research Group (LWRG) and the Universities Partnership on Transboundary Waters (UPTW), of which UNESCO-IHE is an active member. Pieter van der Zaag presented a paper together with Lynette de Silva of Oregon State University on ‘Educational Strategies: An Integrative Approach to Water Relations’. The focus of the presentation was on the important role that knowledge institutes have in improving trans-

boundary water management, for example through capacity building ef-forts. The session emphasised the importance of analysing, understand-ing and dealing with tensions that may arise between countries that cooperate on water, underscoring the relevance of training and educa-tion in transboundary issues. Two PhD students at UNESCO-IHEs MAI Department were able to contribute by presenting their work at the Water Week Conference. David Love presented his paper entitled ‘Storing and Sharing Water in Sand Rivers: A Water Balance Modelling Approach’. And Mr Shilp Verma gave a keynote address ‘Securing India’s Water Future 2050: Can Domestic Virtual Water Trade Play a Role?’

Advanced river flow management vital to facing climate challenge Improved river flow management will be vital to pro-tecting communities from the worst impacts of climate change and to achieving international goals on poverty reduction, according to a new report issued in Stockholm. The report, developed in collaboration between major global insti-tutions draws on the latest research and practices on environmental flows and their significance. Partners include the Water Week organiser the Stockholm International Water Institute, Swedish Water House, UNESCO-IHE, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), UNEP- DHI, Deltares and NGOs such as WWF, Conservation International and The Nature Conservancy.

Securing Water for Ecosystems and Human Well-being The Importance of Environmental Flows also finds that river flow man-agement should be funded through appropriate valuation of the ecosys-tem services provided by healthy rivers to meet diverse environmental and human needs. These include maintenance of groundwater levels, flood and drought mitigation, and contributions to human livelihoods, nutrition and health.

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Any company interested in providing drinking water for desert cities near the coast, for example, will use the new method of cal-culation in building sea water desalination plants. The thermody-namic equation will also make climate models even more accurate than at present. Experts attending the 25th assembly of UNESCO’s Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) last June, recommended that the entire oceanographic community adopt the thermodynamic equation and the use of Absolute Salinity. inConsisTenCies “I was not familiar with sea water 20 years ago,” says Rainer Feistel of the Leibniz-Institut für Ostseeforschung in Warnemünde (Germany). But the mathematician and physicist had a good handle on energy conservation, thermodynamics and the maths behind complex systems. In the late 1980s, after nearly a decade in Berlin, Feistel moved back home to the Baltic Sea region and started applying his skills to oceanography. The equations he found himself navigating worked fine for the open ocean but devel-oped inconsistencies in regions that were strongly influenced by riv-er drainage, evaporation, precipitation or extremes in temperature. “As you go to points where there are sensitivities, it’s a real mess,” Feistel says. The Baltic Sea was one such region. “I was sur-prised,” he says. “There was a missing mathematical component, a ‘Gibbs function’ which physicists had determined for all sorts of various fluids, except apparently sea water.” Named after American mathematician Josiah Willard Gibbs (1839–1903), the ‘Gibb’s function’ defines a fluid in terms of its energy and heat transfer, or thermodynamics.

WhaT’s in a salT? “In chemistry, any positive and negative ion bound together is called a salt,” explains molecular geneticist and chemosensation (taste and smell) expert Hiroaki Matsunami of Duke University in the USA. In the ocean, salts dissolve into free-floating negative and positive ions, also known as electrolytes. These charged particles are what make it possible for electricity to flow through water. The same ions that make up the salt used in foods – sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl–) – account for more than 86% by weight of the 11 major ions in the sea and are what gives the ocean its salty taste. Dried, these ions form table salt and get sprinkled over food. After chloride and sodium, the ocean’s next most common ions are sulfate (SO4

2–) and magnesium (Mg2+). For a century, oceanographers calculated salinity based primarily on measurements of the most common salt ion: chlorine.

The shorTfalls of The ConduCTiviTy meThod

The conductivity method, or ‘Practical Salinity Scale,’ has been used by marine scientists since 1978. UNESCO incorporated the scale into the 1980 equations for calculating the density of seawater. The conductivity method established in 1978 improved accuracy, as it tracked all the ions in the sea and not just chloride. But calculat-ing salinity from conductivity, as opposed to oldfashioned chemical analysis, required sacrificing the definition of salinity. This is be-cause conductivity measures only free-floating ions or electrolytes, the same dissolved salts that are found in power drinks. In fact, any nonconductive material, such as dissolved silicon dioxide and car-bon dioxide, ‘is simply ignored’ when it comes to practical salinity, Feistel says. The Baltic Sea is a prime example of seawater with an unusual composition, far different from the North Atlantic standard. It has electrolytes that conduct electricity but they are not the typi-cal sodium chloride. The vast rivers of Poland and Russia drain into the Baltic Sea, bringing with them dissolved calcium carbonate (CaCO3) from the limestone river beds. When CaCO3 dissolves, it dissociates into the conductive ions Ca2+ and CO3

2–. These ions prefer to be bound together but, if they can’t be, they will often bind to other mole-cules floating in sea water, changing the mass of the molecules and wreaking havoc with conductivity measurements. The sWiTCh To absoluTe saliniTy Feistel’s re-evaluation of the 1980s equations provided sea water with a ‘Gibbs function’. The previous mathematical equations for determining the proper-ties of sea water had not accounted for water’s ability to transfer heat from warmer to cooler currents. Nor did the old equations set a standard for comparing how difficult such a transfer of energy might be, based on the water’s inherent pressure and volume. The thermodynamic equation of seawater chews up all of the old equations and spits out a neat new bundle of computer algorithms that modellers crave. In 2010 for the first time, the algorithm for measuring salinity will incorporate more than dissolved salt into the conductivity conversion. Millero, who worked on the 1980 equa-tion of sea water, and Feistel are helping to bring about the change. They have been working with modeller Trevor McDougall of the Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research in Hobart as part of an international team established in 2005 by the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research and the International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Ocean. They are incorporating the location of the conductivity measurements with chemical analysis from those regions into the new Absolute Salinity calculation. The team has also redefined how the properties of seawater are calcu-lated using this new Absolute Salinity method and combining it with the principles behind thermodynamics to form a single new ther-modynamic equation for seawater. saliniTy levels are indiCaTors of ClimaTe Change

The fundamental properties of sea water – salinity, temperature and pressure, along with the freezing and boiling points, heat capacity, speed of sound and density – are intricately tied together. Being able to measure salinity is important, as salinity levels are indicators of

background | Identifying absolute salinity

Being able to measure salinity is important, as salinity levels are indicators of climate change.

Rather than taste sea water to determine its salinity, oceanographers electrocute their samples and measure how easy it is for the electricity to flow through the water. This measurement of con-ductivity accounts for the electrolytes from dissolved salts but misses other dissolved material in seawater. Now, a more accurate way of identifying ‘Absolute Salinity’ has been devised and in-corporated into a ‘Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater’. The new equation is set to become the next oceanographic standard as of 2010, after becoming an industrial standard in 2008.

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climate change. They indicate how much freshwater is evaporating from the oceans. Parts of the Atlantic Ocean appear to be getting saltier, for instance. One possible explanation could be that trapped heat from higher atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is causing more sea water to evaporate than before, leaving the salt behind. Secondly, salinity levels affect water density. Density especially determines whether a current rises towards the surface or sinks towards the seafloor, as the denser the sea water, the deeper it will sink. Density depends on temperature, pressure and the amount of dissolved material in the water. Knowing the density of sea water is crucial to monitoring the Earth’s climate.

oCean Conveyor belT The ocean transports heat via cur-rents collectively called the ocean conveyor belt in a process known as thermohaline circulation. In the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans, cool and salty waters sink to form deep water currents. Over thousands of years, these currents travel around the world until they reach areas of upwelling, which bring them to the surface. Once at the surface, the sun-warmed, rain-freshened currents head back to the poles where the formation of ice allows the cycle to continue. A massive input of freshwater, such as from melting polar ice caps, can prevent the surface water from sinking and slow down or even stop the ocean conveyor belt, potentially causing great changes to the Earth’s climate. “Every climate model worth its salt depends on our ability to know if hot water goes up and cold water down, as well as how far and how fast,” observes Keith Alverson, head of the Ocean Observations and Services section of the . mixing CenTuries Several factors influence ocean circula-tion patterns: wind, rain, seafloor topography, the conditions of the surrounding water, as well as the moon and the rotation of the Earth. Ocean circulation models include all of these factors and the

computer algorithms that generate the models take weeks to run. Climate change models, which incorporate the ocean’s ability to transport heat, take even longer. “To see what model works best, what fits with the Earth’s cli-mate record from the past then run the model forward a century or two can take the best part of a year,” McDougall says. To incor-porate nonelectrolytes into the equation for salinity then merge the various other equations for different sea water properties into one, McDougall’s team has relied on the theories of Josiah Gibbs. They are mixing 19th century theory with 21st century computer algorithms. Based on what they have run so far, McDougall esti-mates the new equation will show a 3% change in how the ocean circulates heat from the equator to the poles. The other change he is noticing is a 0.5°C difference in the surface temperature of the equatorial Pacific Ocean in both the east and west. aCCur aTe as possible Off the coast of Peru, trade winds drive warm surface water away from the shore and cold, nutrient-rich, deep water upwells to fill its place. The warm water pools further to the west, warming the air above it and increasing pre-cipitation over Indonesia. During El Niño years, the reduction in the strength of the trade winds allows the warm, nutrient-consumed water to stay closer to the Peruvian shore. The winds push the rain only as far as the central Pacific and Indonesia experiences droughts. The new thermodynamic equation for sea water allows models to account better for changes in density and for heat transfer as a re-sult of rain falling on the Earth’s surface. “The main reason to do this work is to make these models as accurate as possible,” McDougall concludes.

Adapted from: Reed, Christina (2009) A pinch of salt. A World of Science, vol 7, no 3, July. Accessible at: www.unesco.org/en/a-world-of-scienceWater

A pinch of salt

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Recently appointed personnel Giuliano di Baldassarre, Researcher/lecturer in Hydroinformatics HIKM Selda Akbal, Secretary of Dept MAI Iris Peereboom, Secretary of Director, OR Pieter de Laat, Associate Professor of Land and Water Development WE Durga Lal Shrestha, Post-Doc HIKM Carlos Lopez Vazquez, Lecturer in Sanitary/Wastewater Engineering HIKM Berta Fernandez Alvarez, Quality Manager, OD Miroslav Marence, Associate Professor, WE Richard Ashley, Professor of Flood Resilience, WE

Changed positions Jan Willem Foppen, Associate Professor of Hydrology (formerly senior lecturer in Hydrology) Jan Herman Koster, Head of Department, Urban Water and Sanitation, UWS Michael McClain, Head of Department, Water Engineering, WE

Departed staff Pieter de Laat, Acting Head of Department WEJan Peter Buiteman, Senior Lecturer in Sanitary Engineering WE Gary Amy, Professor of Urban Water Supply and Sanitation UWS, Elise Steenbergen, Secretary of the Director, OD, Vincent Becker, Producer Videoconferencing & Videos, CS ICT

staff changes


Au-revoir to former Rector Richard Meganck

Professor Richard Meganck, Rector of UNESCO-IHE, celebrated his of-ficial retirement early July with staff and students, after having served a six-year period as the first Rector at the UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education in Delft, the Netherlands after its transition from IHE to UNESCO. “Retiring is different than being assigned to a new post in a new country. There is a degree of permanence in verbalising those words,” he said. From 1 January onwards Professor Meganck assumes a one-day per week chair at his Alma Mater Oregon State University in the water resources management group. “I already have two graduate students and will teach a PhD-level seminar on international water policy and institutions. And I know for a fact that my wife Janet will have me quite occupied in our gardens and orchard and with our grandchild.” Dr. Meganck continues: “Looking back at the years I spent at the Institute, I have tried to dance in wooden shoes, ate more types of cheese than I knew existed, listened to accordion music at a funeral and tested more than 30 dif-ferent brands of beer. I have sat in the back of classrooms where, I admit that I was lost in the technical nature of the subject. I have chaired 56 Academic Board meetings and 116 Management Team meetings. Six Governing Board meetings and about 14 Foundation Board meetings were held. I have met participants from more than 120 nations and embarrassed my wife on numerous occasions by wearing my cowboy outfit to many UNESCO-IHE functions.

I have served beer and have had students admit that they were afraid to ap-proach the bar for the first time to take a beer from their Rector. I have given seven closing ceremony addresses and conferred more than 1000 Masters degrees, and jointly conferred 49 PhD diplomas. It has been a life-changing experience. I know that Delft and this Institute are part of me, part of my DNA. I can only hope that I am part of Delft and UNESCO-IHE for the long haul. As George Harrison of the Beatles said “Life is what happens while you are busy making other plans. And life is what happened during these past six years. But no one can deny the progress we have made as it can be proven through fact, figures, and physical outputs. I will not repeat them now, but you know them.”


dr. o. braadbaart (1960 - 2009)

On 5 June Dr. Okke Braadbaart passed away at the age of 49. Dr. Braadbaart worked at UNESCO-IHE from September 1995 to February 2003. In his final years at the Institute he was senior lecturer in Water Services Management. Those of us who worked with him remember him as a very intelligent, industrious, friendly and witty col-

league. In 2003, Dr. Braadbaart left to work for our sister insti-tute IHS. Later, he worked for the WUR University. Since 2003, however, he remained involved as guest lecturer and as a coun-terpart in the SWITCH Programme. Last year, Dr. Braadbaart was diagnosed with a braintumor that proved incurable. In his 8-year career at UNESCO-IHE, Okke worked in the Sector and Utility Management Group, the predecessor of the present Water Services Management Group. At that time Okke’s background was quite unconventional with Master de-grees in Economic Anthropology and in Sociology and a PhD in Social Sciences, all from the University of Nijmegen. His PhD re-search was on the Indonesian engineering and textile industries. His scientific work was mostly on the industrial performance of utilities. He recently published on topics such as ‘benchmarking of the Dutch water supply utilities’, ‘managerial autonomy with-in water utilities’ and ‘the Jakarta water concession contracts’. Just before he fell ill, VITENS agreed to sponsor a Professorship for him at Wageningen University.

Okke Diederik Braadbaart

Rijswijk, 16 maart 1960 Hoogland, 5 juni 2009

Jolien Zevalkink

Jonas, Lieke

Mieke & Freek Braadbaart-VerheemWendy Braadbaart & Gerry

Oscar, Milou, CasperMarijn Braadbaart & Sara

Isabel, KaiDinanda Zevalkink & Edwin

Nadia, DetlevAd & Ben Zevalkink-Sinke

Okke is thuis. Liever geen bezoek aan huis.

De crematie vindt plaats op woensdag 10 juni om 15.30 uur in aula 2 van Crematorium Amersfoort, Dodeweg 31 te Leusden.

Gelegenheid tot condoleren ter plekke.Kinderen zijn ook welkom.

Correspondentieadres: Hamseweg 52A, 3828 AE Hoogland, The Netherlands

Als een spin in het web van de wereld,weefde hij met kennis, kunde en empathie

inspirerende, originele patronen,waarbij hij altijd zijn hart volgde.

Like a spider in a worldwide web,he wove knowledge, skill and empathy

into inspiring, original patterns,always following his heart.

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Dr. Pieter de Laat retired from UNESCO-IHE in May 2009, after a tenure spanning 37 years – a record for UNESCO-IHE. Dr de Laat was involved in the Institute before a formal MSc programme was established, before research was a focus for the academic staff and even prior to the full impact of working in a devel-opment context with field projects was fully understood. Shortly before his retirement Dr. De Laat gave a review of his distinguished ca-reer and we are happy to provide a few of his insights into the three pillars of the Institute – education, research and projects. eduCaTion As a hydrologist Pieter’s entire professional life was intimately linked with the development of the programme on hy-drology. From the beginning of this effort the first courses had an international aspect “de-veloped to train participants with different backgrounds in the field of hydrology.” Early courses were taught by renowned (guest) lec-turers and as the curriculum was adapted to the developments in the field of hydrology, the list of courses expanded and so did the in-tegrity of the programme through the “devel-opment of textbooks, teaching aids, curricula and syllabi in hydrology.” Dr. de Laat’s early experiences continued to impact the com-position of the present hydrology specialisa-tion as well as the lives of untold numbers of other participants who were exposed to his vast well of knowledge on all aspects of hy-drological science and techniques. His activi-ties in the education realm have not stopped with retirement as he continues involvement in the EXACT project and in lecturing at the Institute. researCh From the time when IHE was established until at least the mid-1980s, research was not a focus for academic staff. Education continued to be the core of the Institute’s activities. Even in 1983 when the Institute advertised for a Professor of Hydrology, research activities were optional as the position description referred only to “a willingness and ability to carry out research.” Pieter was somewhat of an exception in this regard as he had research interests dating from before he was hired at IHE in 1972, which lead to his PhD degree on modelling unsatu-rated flow in 1980. Hydrological research, particularly that undertaken by participants was initiated with the first MSc in Hydrology

awarded in 1988. Since that time research gradually increased in importance, largely catalysed by the need that each MSc student prepares a thesis. Even in the latter years of his active career Dr. de Laat continued to see an increase in the importance of research ac-tivities. Eight new Professors were hired in the years after IHE joined UNESCO and spe-cifically with the arrival of Dr. Uhlenbrook in early 2005, hydrological research took on new importance according to Dr. de Laat. “Soon after his arrival, he developed a re-search strategy for the section and started to attract funds for research, which has boosted the scientific output of the core significantly.” projeCTs “In the early 1980s IHE was more or less forced to be involved in capac-ity building projects” according to Dr. de Laat. These projects “were developed to set up post-graduate education in the field of wa-ter at a local university or institution and to train local staff up to PhD level.” Most of the early project efforts involved placing staff in the field for extended periods of time. Today the Institute no longer uses that modality but rather uses local staff as consultants to projects that support both capacity building activities as well as research activities of the Institute. Dr. de Laat made numerous con-tributions to the capacity building projects. He continues as the director of the EXACT project, which aims at enhancing coopera-tion of countries in the Middle East on water related issues.

As is obvious, Dr. Pieter de Laat has quite literally seen it all – at least in terms of the development of IHE and its transition as an integral component of UNESCO. He claims that the future is bright for the Institute and we couldn’t agree more with this icon of hy-drology in Holland who has impacted his dis-cipline in the far corners of the globe.

Recently appointed personnel Giuliano di Baldassarre, Researcher/lecturer in Hydroinformatics HIKM Selda Akbal, Secretary of Dept MAI Iris Peereboom, Secretary of Director, OR Pieter de Laat, Associate Professor of Land and Water Development WE Durga Lal Shrestha, Post-Doc HIKM Carlos Lopez Vazquez, Lecturer in Sanitary/Wastewater Engineering HIKM Berta Fernandez Alvarez, Quality Manager, OD Miroslav Marence, Associate Professor, WE Richard Ashley, Professor of Flood Resilience, WE

Changed positions Jan Willem Foppen, Associate Professor of Hydrology (formerly senior lecturer in Hydrology) Jan Herman Koster, Head of Department, Urban Water and Sanitation, UWS Michael McClain, Head of Department, Water Engineering, WE

Departed staff Pieter de Laat, Acting Head of Department WEJan Peter Buiteman, Senior Lecturer in Sanitary Engineering WE Gary Amy, Professor of Urban Water Supply and Sanitation UWS, Elise Steenbergen, Secretary of the Director, OD, Vincent Becker, Producer Videoconferencing & Videos, CS ICT

staff changes


dr. m.m.a. shahin (1932 - 2009)

Dr. Mamdouh Shahin passed away on 14 November 2009 at the age of 77, some 12 years after his retirement as Associate Professor in Water Resources Engineering at IHE. Dr. Shahin graduated from the Cairo University in 1955 and obtained his PhD degree from the same university in 1959. Before joining IHE in 1972 he worked with the Cairo University, the Ministry of Irrigation of Egypt and

in The Netherlands with the Dienst Zuiderzeewerken. He is also an IHE alumnus, since he participated in two diploma coursesDr. Shahin developed an excellent scientific

career in the field of arid zone hydrol-ogy in particular related to Africa and the Arab world. His book Hydrology of the Nile Basin written in 1985 at the request of Elsevier is considered the standard text on this subject. He wrote more than 30 papers many of which have been pub-lished in internally refereed journals. He continued publishing after his retirement. His latest book appeared two years ago: Water Resources and Hydrometeorology of the Arab Region. His scientific quali-ties did not remain unnoticed. In 1989 he received the prestigious Arid Lands Hydraulic Engineering Award from the American Society of Civil Engineers. For almost 25 years Dr. Shahin lectured at IHE, but also at our sister institute in Brussels and many other places in the world. His favourite topic, Statistical Hydrology was considered a tough subject by many of the students, because Dr. Shahin wanted the subject to be fully understood. His lecture notes appeared in the form of a book entitled Statistical Analysis of Water Resources Engineering, which triggered the start of the IHE lecture note series. For a quarter of a century Dr. Shahin was the IHE representative in the field of arid zone hydrology and water resources in Africa. He will be remembered as an expert in this field and a dedicated lec-turer on many topics, but in particular on Statistical Hydrology.

RETIREMENT | Pieter de Laat

“ The future is bright for the institute”

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UNESCO-IHE is well un-derway in its goal to pro-vide more and improved e-learning services for it in-house participants and for our distant education participants. The eLearn-ing services are based on the Moodle Platform and will replace in due time the current system LMS. Moodle is the most popu-lar open-source virtual learning environment in the world and is deployed in over 56,000 sites, with more than 750 sites in the Netherlands alone.

Moodle selected as new Virtual Learning Environment

New eCampus! From mid April 2009 till about February 2010, the Institute is undergoing a demon-strator phase of the transition to Moodle. The phase involves the piloting of three ‘official’ demonstrator modules. The objective of the demonstrator projects was to introduce and demonstrate this VLE as UNESCO-IHE’s new educational support environment for online and face-to-face (blended learning) education, as well as to support project collaboration. In 2010, it is anticipated that faculty will move ex-isting online and blended learning courses over to Moodle.

The focus of the initial phase of the implemen-tation plan is to develop, test, demonstrate and learn from the demonstrator courses, through which the institution acknowledges and shows its commitment to its strategic objectives: a) education and research in (global) partner-ships, b) flexible educational offerings, and c) new pedagogical approaches and meth-ods. The courses/faculty initially selected to participate in the demonstrator phase included the modules of the Groupwork St. Maarten, the Limnology and Wetland Ecosystems and Wetlands Management. A growing number of staff is trained in the use and didactical features of Moodle.

Dr. Larry Elchuck from Dr.Tech and Associates Learning Designers in Canada, was working at the Institute as the Project Manager for the Moodle Implementation initiative. “UNESCO-IHE faculty are enthusiastic about the enhanced learning opportunities, that Moodle offers, for both their online learning options and their face-to-face MSc programmes,” Dr. Elchuck said. The project was guided by a Steering Committee and Programme Consultative Group, with Mr. Carel Keuls acting as the inter-nal Project Coordinator. “Learning about water and its various dynamics needs an interactive learning system and an active learning ap-proach from teachers ánd participants. Moodle enables and supports these needs perfectly,” says Keuls in addition. Two permanent part-time positions (Moodle eLearning Advisor and Moodle Trainer) will be advertised early in the new year to sustain the momentum of the pi-lot project. The system itself will be managed by our IT staff. To augment the three official demonstrator modules, as many as 8 unofficial modules and project environments have also started; and another twenty are slated to begin in the new year.

¡ Carel Keuls, [email protected]

education | E-Learning

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Due to the success of the Training and Capacity Building Programme for the Water and Wastewater Sector of Iran (TCBWI) , the project has been extended by another six months and is expected to conclude mid 2010. The project out-put will increase by 50 percent, whereby 34 additional courses will be deliverd in Iran and the number of study tour particiants will increase from 260 to 390.

capacity building | Iran

By the end of the project, UNESCO-IHE in col-laboration with the Power and Water University of Technology in Tehran, Iran, will have trained around 3500 Iranian professionals in water and wastewater technologies, planning and management through the TCBWI . The training that commenced in 2008, is aimed at building the knowledge and skills required to face the many andincreasing challenges in the water sector in Iran. Focusing particularly on the provision of sanitation to rural communities, the application of emerging, innovative water and wastewater technolo-gies and improving the performance of conventional systems, the programme =will also improve general and financial management of water and wastewater companies.

Tr aining progr amme The programme consists of a series some 64 different training courses, some of which are conducted twice, bringing the total number of courses to 104. In addition, 24 study tours for technical and financial specialists and general manag-ers, as well as a number of workshops are executed. The 1-week training courses are held at the PWUT campus in Tehran, by international and Iranian experts from UNESCO-IHE, Vitens, Evides, SWO, PWUT, University of Tehran, Sharif University of Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, and other ex-perts working in the field. The 10-day study tours are held in Western Europe, and consist of technical visits to Dutch, German, French, Belgian and Luxemburg water and wastewater companies. By June 2010 the programme will be concluded with an Expert Group Meeting on Continuous Human Resources develop-ment for the Iranian water and sanitation sector, which aims to set the agenda for a more structural cap build-ing approach.

main goals and poliCies “Trained human resources are considered as one of the main advan-tages of every organisation and as a modern manage-ment tool it needs to receive special care. The new methods of training human forces at the moment of employment while increasing staff efficiency, causes the organisation to advance as well. In our country, trained employees in the water and wastewater sec-tor has become one of our main goals and policies. As this project is the largest training and capacity build-ing project that has ever been presented within the Ministry of Energy, and welcomed significantly on the part of the participants, it is expected that, its results

be seen clearly in the promoting of the service quality to the customers,” Mr Namjoo said. He is the former Chairman of the National Water and Wastewater Engineering Company (NWWEC) and has recently been appointed Minister of Energy in Iran. During one of the study tours conducted at the end of last year, he was one of the visiting officials. The NWWEC sec-retariat, under the Ministry of Energy, supervises all water and wastewater companies in Iran.

sCienTifiC and pr aCTiCal revenue During the project, the managers and engineers were trained and exposed to European practices and experiences. Mr. Namjoo said that holding the training courses and also participating in the different courses in Europe, meanwhile visiting the dynamic and active leading companies in the water and wastewater sector world-wide, brought very scientific and practical revenue for the experts and the managers of the water and waste-water sector in Iran. “However, b ased on the current situation within the country and the status of water and wastewater sector in Iran, which is at a starting point, I recommend including a series of training es-sentials in the programme, whereby the content is translated into local actions, giving practical transla-tions to the staff working in this sector,” he added.

¡ Jan Herman Koster, [email protected]

Currently, sixty companies are responsible for the provision of water and wastewater services to the Iranian people. Evenly spread over Iran’s thirty provinces, each province has one urban and one rural water and wastewater company. All water and wastewater companies are supervised by the Ministry of Energy, under the secretariat of the National Water and Wastewater Engineering Company (NWWEC). The water and wastewater sector in Iran is facing a multitude of problems. Almost everyone in urban Iran has access to safe potable water (98%), while in rural areas about 61% of the population has access. However, the coverage of wastewater services is substantially lower. In rural areas there is practically no provision of wastewater services (0.5%), while in urban areas 20% has access to wastewater services. In particular the ongoing popula-tion growth provides a substantial challenge to contain or even increase coverage rates. The government of Iran has acknowledged this and has embarked on an ambitious plan to improve the water and wastewater provision in the coming years. In urban areas more than 11 million people need to be connected to a wastewater system in the next 5 years. In rural areas about 5 million people will need access to water services in the coming 5 years, and another million need to be connected to a rural wastewater system.

3500 Iranian water professionals trained through capacity building project

Iranian water professionals visiting a drinking water treatment plant on field visit in France.

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Online Water Resources

The internet has become an increasingly important source of information. A diverse range of online re-sources on water, infrastructure and the environment can provide useful tools for water profession-als and others interested in water-related teaching materials, scientific research findings, the sharing of best (and worst) practices from the field, and much more. In this issue of UPDATE Magazine we would like to share three online resources with you. Send an email to the editor at [email protected] if you wish to share any of the websites, blogs, twitter streams, networks or communities with our readers.

online water resources | At your fingertips

The HEC-RAS Blog is a collection of tips, tricks, experiences and general help related to the hydraulic software program HEC-RAS. HEC-RAS stands for Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System. There are many users of this specialized software around the world, several of whom are undoubtedly UNESCO-IHE alumni. Unfortunately, there is very little technical support to help users work with the program. Through the blog, the au-thor Chris Goodell - UNESCO-IHE alumnus of the Hydraulic Engineering Class of 2000 - aims to share his experiences and expertise using the HEC-RAS software with other users. It is an open source platform to share and ex-change information. Suggestions for topics and any tips, tricks and commentary about HEC-RAS are more than welcome on the blog. W www.rasmodel.com

The India Water Portal is an open, in-clusive, web-based knowledge and social plat-form for exchanging knowledge, experiences and ideas on water issues in India. The portal intends to share water management knowl-edge amongst practitioners and the general public. It aims to draw on the rich experience of water-sector experts, package their knowl-edge and add value to it through technology, and then disseminate it to a larger audience. The ultimate objective of the portal is to ad-dress equity and sustainability issues in the water sector. Arghyam - a non-profit trust that works in the area of water - coordinates the India Water Portal. They see the knowl-edge asymmetry amongst stakeholders of the water sector as a critical factor hampering the sustainable management of India’s water re-sources. The portal seeks to address this asym-metry by sharing best practices, advocating sustainable approaches, bringing transparency to public data and information, and by spread-ing awareness. W www.indiawaterportal.org

Circle of Blue is an international network of leading journalists, scientists and com-munications design experts that reports and presents the information necessary to respond to the global freshwater crisis. It is a non-profit affiliate of the internationally recognized wa-ter, climate and policy think tank, the Pacific Institute. Circle of Blue makes the complexities of the global freshwater crisis relevant and per-sonal. Circle of Blue reports and collects infor-mation and data, and presents it in coherent, accessible and connected forms. The website provides a highly visible forum for response, and through communications design, extends awareness into action. In most cases, the solu-tions to solve the global freshwater crisis exist. What is lacking is the awareness and will to respond. Circle of Blue’s reporting captures the heart through exceptional fact-based storytell-ing, making water issues personal and relevant while providing a hub for data visualisation, aggregation, and integration. W www.circleofblue.org

RESOURCES | Sanitation

Poo‘Poo’ is a comic book about sanitation. The author, Sourabh Phadke, is a school teacher in India who teaches ecology to pre-primary children. With this publication, he hopes to focus more attention and dialogue on the issue of sanitation. He explains: “The topic of sanitation deserves all the attention it can get since current paradigms beautifully demonstrate a focus on misplaced priorities. It is only when we discuss the problem that we can begin solving it. Some of us have the luxury of labeling poo-related discussions as ‘yucky’, ‘juvenile’, ‘crass’ or even a ‘waste’ of time. The fact is that there needs to be a discussion on sanitation. One larger than ever before. Because there are billions without access to basic sanitation facilities. And that is no toilet humour.”‘Poo’ is freely available for downloading in English, Hindi and Marathi. A blank version of the comic book is also downloadable and can be translated into any language.

¡ [email protected] W www.sourabh.tk

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Short CoursesCoastal Systems ............................................................................ 11 – 29 JanuaryCoastal and Port Structures I ........................................................... 8 – 26 FebruaryConventional Surface Water Treatment ............................................ 8 – 26 FebruaryWater Quality Assessment .............................................................. 8 – 26 FebruaryCoastal and Port Structures II ..............................................................1 – 19 MarchConstructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment ..................................1 – 19 MarchEnvironmental Engineering .................................................................1 – 19 MarchEnvironmental Policy Making ..............................................................1 – 19 MarchGroundwater Resources and Treatment ................................................1 – 19 MarchNegotiation and Mediation for Water Conflict Management ...................1 – 19 MarchAdvanced Water Treatment Technology ................................................. 6 – 23 AprilEnvironmental Monitoring and Modelling ............................................... 6 – 23 AprilEnvironmental Planning and Implementation ........................................... 6 – 23 AprilFinancial Management of Water Organisations ........................................ 6 – 23 AprilGroundwater Exploration and Monitoring............................................... 6 – 23 AprilHydrological Data Collection and Processing .......................................... 6 – 23 AprilIntegrated Asset Management Systems .................................................. 6 – 23 AprilNanotechnology for Water Technology* ............................................... 6 – 23 AprilRiver Basin Modelling .......................................................................... 6 – 23 AprilService Oriented Management of Irrigation Systems ................................ 6 – 23 AprilSustainable Wastewater Treatment and Reuse ......................................... 6 – 23 AprilWater Resources Planning .................................................................... 6 – 23 AprilInternational Port Seminar ..................................................................12 – 29 AprilIntegrated Coastal Zone Management ..................................................19 – 29 AprilCleaner Production and the Water Cycle ........................................26 April – 14 MayTracer Hydrology and Flow System Analysis ...................................26 April – 14 May Urban Flood Modelling and Disaster Management ..........................26 April – 14 MayWater and Environmental Law and Institutions ................................26 April – 14 MayWater Transport and Distribution I ................................................26 April – 14 MayModelling of Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment ...............................3 – 14 MayApplied Groundwater Modelling ...................................................... 14 June – 2 JulyAquatic Ecosystems: Processes and Applications ................................. 14 June – 2 JulyEnvironmental Systems Modelling .................................................... 14 June – 2 JulyFlood Risk Management ................................................................ 14 June – 2 JulyIndustrial Wastewater Treatment and Residuals ................................. 14 June – 2 JulyManaging Water Organisations ...................................................... 14 June – 2 JulyUrban Water Systems Modelling ..................................................... 14 June – 2 JulyWater Treatment Processes and Plants ............................................. 14 June – 2 JulyDecentralised Water Supply and Sanitation .............................................. 5 – 23 JulyPublic-Private Partnerships in the Water Sector ........................................ 5 – 23 JulySolid Waste Management and Engineering .............................................. 5 – 23 JulyWater Transport and Distribution II ......................................................... 5 – 23 JulyWatershed and River Basin Management ................................................ 5 – 23 JulyRemediation and Handling of Contaminated Sediments* ..... 30 August – 3 SeptemberClimate Change in Integrated Water Management ......................... 6 – 17 September Spate Irrigation and Water Management under Drought and Water Scarcity 6 – 17 Sept Morphological Modeling using Delft3D* ................................... 13 – 17 SeptemberSustainable Sanitation* ............................................................ 13 – 17 SeptemberWorld History of Water Management* ....................................... 13 – 17 SeptemberSoil and Water Assessment Tool* ............................................... 20 – 24 SeptemberMembranes in Drinking & Industrial Water Treatment* ........................ 4 – 8 OctoberGIS Modelling SWAT .................................................................. 1 – 12 November GIS and Remote Sensing .............................................................. 1 – 12 November

Master ProgrammesMSc in Environmental Science - Environmental Science & Technology - Environmental Planning & Management Limnology and Wetland Ecosystems - Water Quality ManagementMSc in Municipal Water and Infrastructure - Sanitary Engineering - Urban Water Engineering and Management - Water Supply EngineeringMSc in Water Management - Water Quality Management - Water Services Management - Water Resources Management - Water Conflict ManagementMSc in Water Science and Engineering - Hydrology and Water Resources - Hydraulic Engineering and River Basin Development - Hydraulic Engineering - Coastal Engineering and Port Development - Hydraulic Engineering - Land & Water Development - Hydroinformatics - Modelling and Information Systems for Water Management

Joint ProgrammesUNESCO-IHE has several joint MSc programmes, developed together with partner institutions. Please see below our current joint programmes:- Hydroinformatics and Coastal Engineering programme, in collaboration with Hohai

University in China- Limnology and Wetland Ecosystems specialisation, iIn collaboration with the Austrian

Academy of Sciences Institute for Limnology, Mondsee and Egerton University in Kenya- Lowland Development, in collaboration with the University of Sriwijaya in Indonesia- Urban Water Engineering and Development, in collaboration with Asian Institute of

Technology in Thailand- Water Conflict Management specialisation, in collaboration with the University of

Dundee in the UK and the UNESCO programme Potential Conflict to Cooperation Potential (PCCP)

Online CoursesService Oriented Management of Irrigation Systems ................... 15 January - 15 May Flood Modelling for Management ................................................ 1 March - 10 MayPolicy and Management in Developing Countries* ........................ 1 March - 21 JuneWetland Management ................................................................ 1 March - 28 JuneWater Quality Assessment* ........................................................ 1 March - 30 JuneSanitation-related Urban Groundwater Pollution ............................... 1 March - 1 JulyEcological Sanitation ...................................................................... 1 March - 2 JulyIntegrated Coastal Zone Management ............................................. 1 March - 2 JulyIntegrated River Basin Management ................................................ 1 March - 2 JulyWater & Environmental Law and Policy ............................................ 1 April - 14 JulyWater and Climate Change .............................................. 30 August - 26 NovemberPublic Private Partnerships ........................................... 1 September - 17 DecemberSolid Waste Management ............................................ 1 September - 31 DecemberCleaner Production and the Water Cycle ........................ 1 September - 31 DecemberConstructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment ........... 1 September - 31 DecemberWater Transport and Distribution I ........................ 6 September - 25 February 2011

Innovative learning at the UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education equips professionals with the research, managerial and techni-cal skills needed to deal with challenges in the fields of water, the environment and infrastructure in their countries. For the latest informa-tion on the above courses, including content, dates, duration and tuition fees, please see our website: www.unesco-ihe.org/education.

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resources | Publications

Capacity Development for Improved Water ManagementM.Blokland, G.Alaerts, J.Kaspersma, M.Hare (eds.)Taylor & Francis GroupISBN 978-0-415-57398-6

This publication is a compilation of expert knowledge on water-related capacity development. Jointly edited by UNESCO-IHE and UNW-DPC, it discusses how knowledge and capacity development can contribute to im-proved, effective water management, with a digest of lessons learned in the areas of tools and techniques, applica-tions and evaluation. Topics presented range from e-learning and networking, to community knowledge management and the running of training-of-trainers courses, and includes examples from Asia, Africa, the Americas and Europe. The authors represent a diverse and representative group of prominent practitioners, capacity developers and academics within the field of water-related capacity development. This book is an expanded version of the collection of chapters first intro-duced at the Fifth World Water Forum held in Istanbul, Turkey, from 16–22 March 2009, in support of the vari-ous sessions organized under the topic “Education, Knowledge and Capacity Development Strategies”.

The New Presence of China in AfricaMeine Pieter van DijkAmsterdam University PressISBN 978-9089-641366

This book analyses China’s growing range of activities in Africa, espe-cially in the sub-Saharan region. The three most important instruments China has at its disposal in Africa are development aid, investments and trade policy. The Chinese government, which believes the Western develop-ment aid model has failed, is looking for new forms of aid and development in Africa. China’s economic success can partly be ascribed to the huge availability of cheap labour, which is primarily employed in export-oriented industries. China is looking for the re-quired raw materials in Africa, and for new markets. Investments are being made on a large scale in Africa by Chinese state-owned firms and private companies, particularly in the oil-producing coun-tries (Angola, Nigeria and Sudan) and countries that are rich in minerals (Zambia). A review of China’s aid for and investment in Africa, and the trade policy it is conducting, is analysed and compared with that of Europe and the United States. The concluding chapter considers whether corporate social responsibility (CSR) can be expected from Chinese companies - and if this is desirable - and to what extent the Chinese model in Africa can act as an example – or not – for the West and for Africa.

Innovative Practices in the African Water Supply and Sanitation SectorMarco Schouten, Edwin Hes & Zvikomborero HokoSUN PReSSISBN 978-1-920109-96-7

Africa continues to struggle to make progress in supplying water and sanita-tion to its people. Often the chal-lenges can feel overwhelming and the looming threats of climate change, increased urbanization and expan-sion of urban slums make action all the more urgent. Innovative practices in the African Water Supply and Sanitation Sector is a must read for practitioners who are interested in getting started on the path towards more sustainable water management. It is a rich collection of practical African case studies cover-ing innovative ways to approach such diverse topics as financing, capacity building, community ownership and management through to water loss reduction and health risk prioritisation provide a variety of entry points for governments and NGOs to take action. Donors should take notice, as replica-tion and upscaling of local initiatives such as those presented are the way to success for water and sanitation in Africa.

Water: A Way of LifeLidya Schelwald-van der Kley and Linda ReijerkerkTaylor & Francis Group ISBN 978-0-415-55104-5

How can water management projects be made more successful and sustain-able? Why is it that large infrastruc-tural water works often encounter opposition? Is it perhaps, among other things, the lack of attention for the cul-tural context? The reader is taken on a water journey through time and across the world’s continents. Along the way, we discover the past and present ways in which different cultures around the world, both traditional and modern, view and manage water in response to their own respective environment. As beliefs and values are at the heart of every culture, the views of the world’s major religions about water and its use are also highlighted.

This book, jointly edited by UNESCO-IHE and UNW-DPC, is a compilation of existing expert knowledge on water-related capacity development. It discusses how knowledge and capacity development can contribute to improved, effective water management, with a digest of lessons learned in the areas of tools and techniques, applications and evaluation. Topics presented range from e-learning and networking, to community knowledge management and the running of training-of-trainers courses, and includes examples from Asia, Africa, the Americas and Europe. The authors represent a diverse and representative group of prominent practitioners, capacity developers and academics within the field of water-related capacity development.

Capacity Development for Improved Water Management has been set up in four parts and 17 chapters. It begins with an introduction and overview of progress and challenges in knowledge and capacity development in the water sector. The second part presents different tools and techniques that are currently being used in knowledge and capacity development in response to the prevailing challenges in the water sector. The third part presents a number of cases that cover capacity development experiences in the water resources and water services sectors, including experiences in water education for children and on developing gender equity. The fourth part concludes the book by providing examples of the monitoring and evaluation of knowledge and capacity development activities.

This book is an expanded version of the collection of chapters first introduced at the Fifth World Water Forum held in Istanbul, Turkey, from 16–22 March 2009, in support of the various sessions organized under the topic “Education, Knowledge and Capacity Development Strategies”.


M.W. BloklandG.J. Alaerts

J.M. Kaspersma

UNW-DPC Editor

M. Hare

capacity development for improved water management

capacity development for improved water management

PhD Student Thesis ISBN number

Mr. Marco SchoutenNetherlands

Strategy and Performance of Water Supply and Sanitation Providers: Effects of Two Decades of Neo-Liberalism


Mr. Giles LesserNew Zealand

An approach to medium-term coastal morphological modelling 978-0-415-55668-2

Mr. Carlos Lopez Vazquez Mexico

The competition between polyphosphate-accumulating organisms and glycogen-accumulating organisms: Temperature effects and modelling


Ms. Hong LiChina

Spatial pattern dynamics in aquatic ecosystem modelling 978-0-415-55897-6

Mr. Gerald Corzo Perez Colombia

Hybrid models for hydrological forecasting: integration of data-driven and conceptual modelling techniques. 978-0-415-56597-4

Mr. Durga Lal ShresthaNepal

Uncertainty analysis in rainfall-runoff modelling: Application of machine learning techniques 978-0-415-56598-1

Ms. Aya Lamei Egypt

A Technical-Economic Model for Integrated Water Resources Management in Tourism Dependent Arid Coastal Regions; the Case of Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt


Mr. Richard BuamahGhana

Adsorptive Removal of Manganese, Arsenic and Iron from Groundwater 978-0-415-57379-5

Mr. Schalk-Jan van AndelNetherlands

Anticipatory Water Management: Using ensemble weather forecasts for critical events 978-0-415-57380-1

Ms. Dima Nazer Palestine

From Water Scarcity to Sustainable Water Use in the West Bank, Palestine 978-0-415-57381-8

Mr. Nahm-ChungKorea

Eco-hydraulic Modelling of Eutrophication for Reservoir Management 978-0-415-57382-5


Full text versions of most of the UNESCO-IHE PhD dissertations are available through NARCIS. NARCIS provides access to 163,228 full-text publications and research output from all Dutch universities, KNAW, NWO and a number of scientific institutes www.narcis.info/repositories/re-pository/UNESCO/Language/nl/

Alternatively you can also purchase the dissertations from CRC Press / Balkema, Taylor & Francis Groupwww.crcpress.com

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