UNESCO-IHE INSTITUTE FOR WATER EDUCA UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft, the Netherlands

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    Performance of Water Utilities with Emphasis on Wastewater Services Provision Moses Bigabwa Bategeka MSc Thesis (WM. 08.19) April 2008

    UNESCO-IHE INSTITUTE FOR WATER EDUCATION

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    Performance of Water Utilities with Emphasis on Wastewater Services Provision

    Master of Science Thesis by

    Moses Bigabwa Bategeka

    Supervisors Dr. Klaas Schwartz (UNESCO-IHE)

    Prof. Meine Pieter van Dijk (UNESCO-IHE)

    Examination committee Prof. Dr. J.J. Workinghere (UNESCO-IHE), Chairman

    Prof. Meine Pieter van Dijk (UNESCO-IHE) Dr. Klaas Schwartz (UNESCO-IHE)

    This research is done for the partial fulfilment of requirements for the Master of Science degree at the UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft, the Netherlands

    Delft

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    April 2008

    Abstract

    Insert text here Keywords:

    Acknowledgements

    Insert text here Contents

    Abstract ......................................................................................................................... 3 Acknowledgements ...................................................................................................... 3 List of Tables ................................................................................................................ 5 List of Figures ............................................................................................................... 6 List of Acronyms .......................................................................................................... 6

    1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 7 1.1 Background ....................................................................................................... 7 1.2 Problem Statement ............................................................................................ 9

    1.2.1 What has been looked at? ......................................................................... 9 1.2.2 What has not been looked at? ................................................................. 10

    1.3 Objectives ....................................................................................................... 10 1.3.1 Other Objectives ..................................................................................... 10

    1.4 Propositions .................................................................................................... 11 1.5 Research Questions ........................................................................................ 11 1.6 Summary of the Chapters ............................................................................... 11

    1.6.1 Literature Review ................................................................................... 11 1.6.2 Methods .................................................................................................. 12 1.6.3 Data and Findings ................................................................................... 12 1.6.4 Discussions ............................................................................................. 12 1.6.5 Conclusions and Recommendations ....................................................... 12

    2 Literature Review ............................................................................... 13 2.1 Overview ........................................................................................................ 13 2.2 Conventional approach to sanitation services ................................................ 13

    2.2.1 Public management ................................................................................ 13 2.2.2 Financing (government subsidies) .......................................................... 13 2.2.3 Conventional Sewerage .......................................................................... 14 2.2.4 Limitation of the Conventional Approach for Developing Countries .... 14

    2.3 Alternative approaches to sanitation services ................................................. 15 2.3.1 Management Models .............................................................................. 15 2.3.2 Financing ................................................................................................ 16 2.3.3 Appropriate technologies ........................................................................ 17

    2.4 Characteristics of Well Performing Utilities .................................................. 17 2.4.1 Leadership .............................................................................................. 17 2.4.2 Capacity .................................................................................................. 18

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    2.4.3 Autonomy ............................................................................................... 18 2.4.4 Government support ............................................................................... 19 2.4.5 Commercial Orientation ......................................................................... 19 2.4.6 Consumer Orientation ............................................................................ 19 2.4.7 Corporate culture .................................................................................... 19 2.4.8 Development of human resources .......................................................... 20 2.4.9 External accountability ........................................................................... 20 2.4.10 Internal accountability of results ............................................................ 20 2.4.11 Interaction with key external institutions ............................................... 20

    3 Methodology ........................................................................................ 21 3.1 General............................................................................................................ 21 3.2 Desk Study ...................................................................................................... 21

    3.2.1 Review of Literature ............................................................................... 21 3.2.2 Required Data ......................................................................................... 22

    3.3 Field Study ...................................................................................................... 24 3.3.1 Introduction of the Research Topic to NWSC ....................................... 24 3.3.2 Documentary Review ............................................................................. 24 3.3.3 Surveys ................................................................................................... 24 Collection of Data from Johannesburg Water ........................................................ 25

    3.4 Data Analysis .................................................................................................. 25 3.4.1 Analytical Framework ............................................................................ 25 3.4.2 Surveys ................................................................................................... 25

    3.5 Challenges ...................................................................................................... 26 3.6 Brief Description of the Cases ........................................................................ 26 3.7 Why the above Cases? .................................................................................... 26

    4 Data and Findings .............................................................................. 27 4.1 General............................................................................................................ 27 4.2 National Water and Sewerage Corporation, Uganda ...................................... 27

    4.2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................ 27 4.2.2 Wastewater Services ............................................................................... 28 4.2.3 Population Trends ................................................................................... 30 4.2.4 Utility Environment (NWSC) ................................................................. 31 4.2.5 Conclusions ............................................................................................ 43

    4.3 Johannesburg Water, Johannesburg, South Africa ......................................... 45 4.3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................ 45 4.3.2 General Performance for the period 2001-2006 ..................................... 45 4.3.3 Utility Environment (Johannesburg) ...................................................... 47 4.3.4 Conclusions ............................................................................................ 54

    5 Discussions .......................................................................................... 55 5.1 General............................................................................................................ 55 5.2 Performance of Utilities.................................................................................. 55 5.3 Relationship between performance and causal factors ................................... 56

    5.3.1 Organization Autonomy ......................................................................... 56 5.3.2 Organization Culture .........................