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  • Development of a low-cost alternative for metal removal from textile wastewater

    christian sekomo birame

  • Development of a low-cost alternative for

    metal removal from textile wastewater

  • Thesis committee Thesis supervisor Prof. dr. ir. P.N.L. Lens Professor of Biotechnology UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education Delft, the Netherlands Thesis co-supervisor dr. ir. D.P.L. Rousseau Senior Lecturer Environmental Engineering UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education Delft, the Netherlands Other members Prof. dr. ir. C.J.N. Buisman Wageningen University Wageningen, the Netherlands Prof. dr. ir. G. Du Laing Ghent University Ghent, Belgium Prof. dr. ir. E. van Hullebusch Universit Paris-Est Paris, France dr. S.K. Sharma UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education Delft, the Netherlands

  • Development of a low-cost alternative for metal removal from textile wastewater

    DISSERTATION Submitted in fulfillment of the requirement of

    the Academic Board of Wageningen University and the Academic Board of the UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education

    for the degree of DOCTOR to be defended in public

    on Friday, 29 June 2012 at 16:30 hrs in Delft, the Netherlands

    by

    Christian SEKOMO BIRAME born in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo (D.R.C)

  • CRC Press/Balkema is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business 2012, Christian Sekomo Birame All rights reserved. No part of this publication or the information contained herein may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, by photocopying, recording or otherwise, without written prior permission from the publishers. Although care is taken to ensure the integrity and quality of this publication and the information therein, no responsibility is assumed by the publishers nor the author for any damage to property or persons as a result of operation or use of this publication and/or the information contained herein. Published by: CRC Press/Balkema PO Box 447, 2300 AK Leiden, the Netherlands e-mail: [email protected] www.crcpress.com - www.taylorandfrancis.co.uk - www.ba.balkema.nl ISBN 978-0-415-64158-6 (Taylor & Francis Group) ISBN 978-94-6173-296-5 (Wageningen University)

  • Development of a low-cost alternative for heavy metal removal from textile wastewater

    v

    Contents

    Dedication ....................................................................................................................... viii Acknowledgements .......................................................................................................... ix Abstract.............................................................................................................................. x Chapter 1: General introduction ..................................................................................... 1 1.1. Water and sanitation in Rwanda.............................................................................. 2 1.2. Textile wastewater and quality problems ................................................................ 3 1.3. Need for research on cost effective textile wastewater treatment systems for developing countries ......................................................................................................... 4 1.4. Heavy metal removal from wastewater ................................................................... 5 1.5. Research Objectives................................................................................................... 6 1.5.1. General objective ...................................................................................................... 6 1.5.2. Specific objectives .................................................................................................... 7 1.6. Outline of the thesis ................................................................................................... 7 1.7. References ................................................................................................................... 8 Chapter 2: Treatment methods for textile wastewaters .............................................. 11 2.1. Introduction.............................................................................................................. 12 2.3. Biological methods for textile wastewater ............................................................. 15 2.3.1. Aerobic and anaerobic bioreactors.......................................................................... 15 2.3.2. Natural and constructed wetlands ........................................................................... 17 2.3.2.1. Potential of different macrophytes plants in improving water quality ................ 18 2.4. Physico-chemical methods....................................................................................... 22 A) Electrochemical techniques ......................................................................................... 22 B) Oxidative techniques.................................................................................................... 23 C) Evaluation .................................................................................................................... 23 2.5. Conclusions ............................................................................................................... 24 2.6. References ................................................................................................................. 25 Chapter 3: Fate of Heavy Metals in an Urban Natural Wetland: The ...................... 34 Nyabugogo Swamp (Rwanda)........................................................................................ 34 3.1. Introduction.............................................................................................................. 35 3.2. Materials and methods ............................................................................................ 36 3.2.1. Study area................................................................................................................ 36 3.2.2. Sampling sites ......................................................................................................... 36 3.2.3. Sample collection and processing........................................................................... 37 3.2.4. Data analysis ........................................................................................................... 38 3.3. Results ....................................................................................................................... 38 3.3.1. Physico-chemical parameters.................................................................................. 38 3.3.2. Heavy metals concentrations in the water phase .................................................... 40 3.3.3. Heavy metals in Cyperus papyrus plant ................................................................. 40 3.3.4. Heavy metals in the sediment ................................................................................. 41 3.3.5. Heavy metals in fish and invertebrates ................................................................... 42 3.4. Discussion.................................................................................................................. 42 3.4.1. Heavy metal concentrations in the water phase...................................................... 42 3.4.2. Heavy metals in Cyperus papyrus plant ................................................................. 43 3.4.3. Heavy metals in the sediment ................................................................................. 44 3.4.4. Heavy metals in fish and invertebrates ................................................................... 45

  • Development of a low-cost alternative for heavy metal removal from textile wastewater

    vi

    3.4.5. Bioconcentration factor........................................................................................... 46 3.4.6. Physico-chemical parameters.................................................................................. 47 3.5. Conclusions ............................................................................................................... 47 3.6. References ................................................................................................................. 48 Chapter 4: Heavy metal removal in duckweed and algae ponds as a polishing step for textile wastewater treatment ............................................................................ 51 4.1. Introduction.............................................................................................................. 52 4.2. Materials and methods ............................................................................................ 54 4.2.1. Laboratory set-up.................................................................................................... 54 4.2.2. Wastewater characteristics...................................................................................... 54 4.2.3. Operating conditions............................................................................................... 55 4.2.4. Sampling, preservation and analytical procedures.................................................. 55 4.2.5. Data treatment......................................................................................................... 56 A) Duckweed system ........................................................................................................ 56 B) Algal system.....................................................................................................

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