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HIV Demography

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  • 1. 19 2012

2. Pneumocystis Pneumonia --Los AngelesMMWR 1981; 30: 250-2(June 5, 1981) 3. , - 4. : (1926-1984), , (1960-1986), (1951-1989), 1972 , (1941-1990), - Creedence Clearwater Revival (1936-1991), Queen, (1920-1992), - (1930-1992), , (1922-1992), (1938-1993), , (1949-1994), 1976 , (1957-2000), , - (1967-2004), -, (1950-2005), , , , 5. ? 6. 100 180 . , . -. , . 7. o Case Reporting o Sentinel Surveillance 8. (western blot) () 9. ; , , . 10. ( ,. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA) . () - , . 11. , () () 12. " ", ; -1 -2; ; - , - . 13. 14. 15. (window period) ; , , 16. : : , , .. () 17. Exposure Route Estimated infections per 10,000exposuresBlood Transfusionto an infected source 9,000Childbirth2,500Needle-sharing injection drug use67Receptive anal intercourse*50Percutaneous needle stick30Receptive penile-vaginal intercourse*10Insertive anal intercourse* 6.5Insertive penile-vaginal intercourse* 5Receptive fellatio* 1Insertive fellatio* 0.5 * assuming no condom use 18. Smith, D. K., Grohskopf, L. A., Black, R. J., Auerbach, J. D., Veronese, F., Struble, K. A., Cheever, L., Johnson, M., Paxton, L. A., Onorato, I. A. and Greenberg, A. E. (2005). "Antiretroviral Postexposure Prophylaxis After Sexual, Injection-Drug Use, or Other Nonoccupational Exposure to HIV inthe United States". MMWR 54(RR02): 1-20.Donegan, E., Stuart, M., Niland, J. C., Sacks, H. S., Azen, S. P., Dietrich, S. L., Faucett, C., Fletcher, M. A., Kleinman, S. H., Operskalski, E. A., et al. (1990). "Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) among recipients of antibody-positive blood donations". Ann. Intern. Med. 113 (10):733-739. PMID 2240875.Coovadia, H. (2004). "Antiretroviral agentshow best to protect infants from HIV and save their mothers from AIDS". N. Engl. J. Med. 351 (3): 289-292. PMID 15247337.Kaplan, E. H. and Heimer, R. (1995). "HIV incidence among New Haven needle exchange participants: updated estimates from syringe tracking and testing data". J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 10 (2): 175-176. PMID 7552482.European Study Group on Heterosexual Transmission of HIV (1992). "Comparison of female to male and male to female transmission of HIV in 563 stable couples". BMJ. 304 (6830): 809-813. PMID 1392708.Varghese, B., Maher, J. E., Peterman, T. A., Branson, B. M. and Steketee, R. W. (2002). "Reducing the risk of sexual HIV transmission: quantifying the per-act risk for HIV on the basis of choice of partner, sex act, and condom use". Sex. Transm. Dis. 29 (1): 38-43. PMID 11773877.Bell, D. M. (1997). "Occupational risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection in healthcare workers: an overview.". Am. J. Med. 102 (5B): 9-15. PMID 9845490.Leynaert, B., Downs, A. M. and de Vincenzi, I. (1998). "Heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus: variability of infectivity throughout the course of infection. European Study Group on Heterosexual Transmission of HIV". Am. J. Epidemiol. 148 (1): 88-96. PMID 9663408. 19. 20. 5 1988 . N 690 , , : N 264/-88 5 1 265/-88 6 1 , 266/-88 6 1 21. - , : , , , , , , , , , - , . 22. 23. 24. Incidence+Prevalence 25. - c 1987 2009 ., 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. : ,, [email protected]

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