2. Demography

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    DEMOGRAPHYSize of populations/ reasons for the increase and decrease

    of the numbers of people/ way in which people are

    distributed/ general changes or trends.1

    Train pushers

    in Japan.

    Japan is a

    HEDC countrywith a

    population of

    127.5 million.

    Their

    population

    however isageing, and

    declining.

    June, 2012(PCH)

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    How we use demographic statistics

    Study the current state of a population

    Make predictions about how the population

    may change in the future

    Compare the changes that have occurred in

    the population between one time period and

    another.

    2

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    Australia Timor Leste

    Median age life expectancy at

    birth (years)

    81.6 67.3

    Birth rate (no. births per 1000 of

    pop.)

    12.47 26.25

    Death/mortality rate (no. deaths

    per 1000 of pop.)

    6.74 5.98

    Fertility Rate (no. of children per

    woman)

    1.78 3.28

    Infant mortality rate (no. of

    deaths per 1000 live births)

    4.75 40.65

    Literacy rate (age 15 and over

    who can read and write)

    99% 58.6%

    GDP per capita (US dollars) $38,200 $2,300

    3

    Comparison of Australia and Timor-Leste, 2009(Source: CIA, World Factbook, 2009)

    These stats can provide demographers with important information to plan for

    the two communities.

    Anomaly: (but correct!) Timor Leste has a lower death rate than Australia

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    Timor-Leste

    One of the worlds newestcountries Was Portuguese colony

    Then occupied byIndonesia (brutal times-100,000 died in this 25 yrs)

    Roman Catholics One of the poorest

    countries

    Citizens faceunemployment, poorhealth

    40% live on less thanA$1 a day.

    4

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    Common statistics used by demographers:

    5

    Birth rate

    Death rate

    Infantmortality

    rate

    Populationdensity

    Educationlevels

    Age

    Occupation Maritalstatus

    Populationgrowth rate

    Fertilityrate

    Populationgrowth rate

    Literacyrate

    Important source of this information is a national census

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    Indigenous Australians, 2009 data shows:

    Just over million indigenous Aussies (currently 22.3million Australians, 2012)

    Majority live in NSW

    Non Indigenous Australians have a much older average

    age Indigenous women have more children at younger ages

    Cardiovascular disease- main cause of death

    These statistics illustrate the inequalities between theIndigenous and non-Indigenous communities.

    6

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    Source: Heinemann Atlas 5th Ed.

    Developed countries have lower fertility rates than many less developedcountries

    In 2011, ranged from 0.9 (Taiwan) to 7.0 (Niger) Source: PRB 2012 7

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    Birth control in Timor Leste

    High fertility rate of 3.28 because:

    Lack of contraception

    98% Roman Catholic (Pope Benedict condemns

    artificial birth control). This shows the

    considerable influence the church has on family

    planning

    8

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    Fertility in developed countries

    Declined significantly over last few decades

    Decline has become an issue of major concern

    to policy makers

    The average fertility rate of 1.6 in developed

    nations is falling below replacement level.

    9

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    Fertility in least developed countries

    Fertility increases in the least developed countries due to: Lack of proper health facilities and lack of education for children,

    particularly girls Women are not empowered to make informed choices about family

    size

    The average age of marriage is low, resulting in couples havingchildren at a much younger age

    Lack of access to family planning and to modern methods ofcontraception

    Government commitment to family planning is lacking

    A largely rural lifestyle means that parents may have more childrento ensure that they have adequate labour on the farm

    Larger families are culturally important and seen to be a sign ofvalue/wealth/ happiness

    No government pension is available and children are responsible forparent care in old age.

    High infant mortality rates, results in families trying to compensatefor the ones not likely to survive infancy

    10

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    Mortality

    No. of deaths per 1000 people per year

    Causes: old age, disease, accidents, naturaldisasters, poor general health/ sanitation.

    Mortality rate is related to life expectancy

    E.g. Australia Life expectancy has increased over the last century

    (now 81.6 yrs)

    Therefore mortality rates have fallen considerably (now

    6.74)

    Thus, mortality rate and life expectancy areinversely related (meaning when oneincreases, the other decreases).

    11

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    Indigenous Australians

    In QLD, WA, SA & NT combined

    75% of indigenous males amd 65% of indigenous

    females died before the age of 65 years

    This is in stark contrast to the non indigenous

    population where only 26% of males and 16%

    females who died aged less than 65.

    12

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    In 2009, Angola had highest IMR (180.2)

    Singapore had lowest IMR (2.31) 13

    Infant mortality rate (IMR)Source: Heinemann Atlas 5th Ed.No. of deaths of babies under one year of age per 1000 live births

    Angola >

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    Migration The movement of people from one area to another with

    the intention of living in the new location for a relativelylong period also influences the size of populations.

    Types: Internal migration (rural urban) or internationalmigration

    14

    Voluntary reasons for

    migration

    Involuntary reasons for

    migration

    Employment

    Better standards of living

    Economic incentives

    Greater freedom

    Family reunions

    Conflict/ war

    Persecution/ torture due to

    religious or social affiliations,

    ethnicity, race or political

    views

    Famine

    Natural disasters

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    15Source: Heinemann Atlas 5th Ed, 2010

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    Reading a population pyramid

    Population pyramids enable comparisons to

    be made between countries and can help a

    country plan for future service needs such as

    retirement homes or schools.

    Australian population pyramid:

    http://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/d3310114.nsf/h

    ome/Population%20Pyramid%20-%20Australia

    16

    http://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/d3310114.nsf/home/Population%20Pyramid%20-%20Australiahttp://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/d3310114.nsf/home/Population%20Pyramid%20-%20Australiahttp://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/d3310114.nsf/home/Population%20Pyramid%20-%20Australiahttp://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/d3310114.nsf/home/Population%20Pyramid%20-%20Australiahttp://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/d3310114.nsf/home/Population%20Pyramid%20-%20Australiahttp://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/d3310114.nsf/home/Population%20Pyramid%20-%20Australiahttp://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/d3310114.nsf/home/Population%20Pyramid%20-%20Australiahttp://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/d3310114.nsf/home/Population%20Pyramid%20-%20Australiahttp://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/d3310114.nsf/home/Population%20Pyramid%20-%20Australiahttp://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/d3310114.nsf/home/Population%20Pyramid%20-%20Australia
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    Population pyramids are used to show information aboutthe age and gender of people in a specific country.

    Male Female

    Population in millions

    In thiscountry

    there is ahigh Birth

    Rate

    There isalso a high

    DeathRate.

    This population pyramid is typical of

    countries in poorer parts of the world(LEDCs.) Source: slideshare

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    In some LEDCs the

    government isencouraging couples tohave smaller families.This means the birth

    rate has fallen.

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    Male Female

    Population in millions

    In thiscountry thenumber of

    people in eachage group isabout the

    same.

    The largestcategory ofpeople wereborn about

    40 yearsago.

    In this country there is a low Birth Rateand a low Death Rate.

    This population pyramid is typical ofcountries in the richer parts of the world

    (MEDCs.)

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    Population in millions

    Male Female

    In this

    country thebirth rate isdecreasing.

    In the future theelderly people will makeup the largest section

    of the population in thiscountry.

    This is happeningmore and more in

    many of the world sricher countries.

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    Male Female

    Population in thousands

    This country has a largenumber of temporary

    workers. These are peoplewho migrate here especially

    to find a job.

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    Population pyramid forMozambique.

    Population pyramid forIceland.

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    Wh