Radical DemographyA beginning
The need for public demography some examples New Orleans mayor expects only half of the citys population to returnWhich half?Trevor Phillips ghettos: Black holes which people fear to enter and from which no-one can leaveAre there such areas?UK census questions: Colour cannot and will not be asked (1966) Ethnic group must be asked (1986).A focus on survey data encourages individualised explanations and solutions, and discourages study of the social and structuralAttempts to define Britain and Britishness, also in USConcern with economic and social progress of 2nd generation children of immigrants
Structure of this sessionJamie US academic geography, and moreWhat is radical demography?Ludi shifting the accepted view on race and population changeWhat is radical demography?Participants Migration WatchWhat is radical demography?
Academic Theory: Spatial Assimilationand Concentration in Space US academic framework has permeated public discussion: spatial assimilation theorys normative concerns with concentrations of non-whitesImmigrant progress marked by move into % white neighbourhoods (of which, in immigrant cities there are increasingly few)Also demographic composition issues: age structure means that these white neighbourhoods are olderEmphasis on individuals rather than place limiting
A case study: leaving Los AngelesMuch academic and policy attention devoted to problem of immigrant Latinos clustering in concentrated unequal Los Angeles - and idea that 2nd generation will fail to assimilate if they continue to live thereYet 2nd generation Latinos are less likely than their parents to leave Los Angeles, especially if university-educated - emergence of Latino immigrant middle classHarold Meyerson: neighborhood clustering has allowed Latinos in LA to organise political power (American Prospect 2003 article)
Configurations of Immigrant Inequality in Los AngelesDecreasing immigrant Latino inequality in Los Angeles in last decade: Living Wage movementEven though immigrant/native wage gap is still high in Los Angeles, racial wage gap (Latino/white) is narrower than in other (non-immigrant) cities So, dispersal from Los Angeles may not be sign of economic progress, and remaining may not be linked to a failure to assimilate/integrate - but a sign that LA itself is changing
Instrumental GeographiesLondons East End discussion: class versus race politicsWho are the engineers?British/American values?: ie former strategies of extended families and support networks lamented in East End and US midwest - but coded as crowding and voluntary segregation when immigrants perform them - especially in contested (integrated!) spacesPlace and space used in anti-immigrant (and academic debate) to frame difference (segregation, invasion, non-white spaces)
The Nation in the Neighbourhood: Popular Public ConcernFocus has not been about regions or neighbourhoods in terms of why place matters (jobs, housing, inequality, health, access) - but rather in terms of what/how bodies mark that space (ghettos, immigrant areas)
Multicultural Britain/London discussion and maps in Guardian - where are they? How many?But in US, as well as in Britain, neighbourhoods themselves are changing in ways that make dispersion a problematic concept
Suggestions for a Radical DemographyFocus on concentration without attention to place problematic (Why are people in certain places rather than others?)Radical Demography would explore, for example, disinvestment in East End and restrictions on immigrant/refugee settlement rather than promoting racialised citizenshipsDoes not allow that assimilation and integration, in multicultural societies, are shifting referents (ie what is Britain/US? What is an immigrant neighbourhood?)Radical Demography would question spatial dispersion as integration, concentration as (self)segregation, and static notions of place
Radical Demography ContinuedRadical Demography would seek to challenge ideas of place (whether Britain or America, London or Los Angeles) that are:
Racialised in their definitionsEveryone is mixed, but not everyone counts as mixed (Gilroy)
Historic rather than processural
Theoretically rather than democratically instrumental (or investigative)
Shifting the accepted view on race and population changeBlack areas are bad for all of usPreviously: Black people are bad for all of usAn alternative, demographic view of segregation / integrationEvidenceWhat is Radical Demography?Burawoys Public Sociology
Views of segregation, summer 2005Segregation at levels of black ghettoes in US cities (Guardian, 1 Sept 2005)Ghettos blighting Asian integration (Times, 1 Sept 2005)Multiculturalism is failing to bring Britain's races together, says Ted Cantle (Times, 21 Sept 2005)Are we sleepwalking towards apartheid? (Sunday Times, 18 September 2005)Our worry is this is fertile breeding ground for extremists. (Trevor Phillips radio interview reported in Daily Mirror, 23 September 2005)
Academic viewsSegregation indicesHow evenly spread is a group across areas (schools, )Remarkable, stubborn segregation, not optimisticMichael Poulsen, Telegraph 1st Sept 2005Dr Poulsen said isolated enclaves were a feature of immigration: "You could argue that tighter control on immigration was the only way to curtail continuous growth."He said that Europeans' assumption that immigrants would be assimilated into the wider culture with time had not been thought through.The danger is the assimilation process is so slow that for many it is just not possible."Danny Dorling, Ludi Simpson, Ceri Peach, Tariq ModoodTrevor has got it wrong; segregation indices mis-interpreted (sensitive to geog scale and population composition); there are no ghettos in Britain; White ; flight worth investigating
Founding fathers of statistics and demographyFrancis Galton It would be quite practicable to produce a highly gifted race of men by judicious marriages during several consecutive generations (1869) as much superior mentally and morally to the modern European, as the modern European is to the lowest of the Negro races (1892). Ronald Fisher To increase the birth rate in the professional classes and among the highly skilled artisans would be to solve the great eugenic problem of the present generation and to lay a broad foundation for every kind of social advance. (1917: 206)PK Whelpton By means of eugenic sterilization, it is planned to lower the incidence of certain undesirable qualities in the next generation this plan should be watched carefully by populationists in all parts of the world and such tests of its effectiveness made as are possible. (1938: 183)Also Spearman, Yule, Edgeworth, Dublin and Thompson (see Donald MacKenzie (1999), and Tukufu Zuberi (2001)
Alternative view of Britains changing cities
Race and population geography- hypotheses (1) -Immigration leads to clusters and population growthOccupational labour shortages in specific locationsClustering provides social and economic capitalChain migration and family building followsAge-structure leads to rapid natural growth in settlement areasNatural growth becomes greater than immigration
Race and population geography- hypotheses (2) -Pressure on housing leads to dispersalTo neighbouring areas with similar social conditionsCounter-urbanisation to better housing, further awayNew clusters to maintain cultural and economic capital: a residential mosaicConstraints to dispersal: forced segregationIndigenous population: flight, avoidance, racial housing market, or none of these?
Race and population geography- headline evidence -
Population dynamicsAfter immigration, clusters are to be expectedGrowth of Caribbean, Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi populations is more through natural growth (reproduction) than immigrationBlack: natural change (excess of births over deaths).
Grey: Net migration.
Source: Williamson (2003)
What is Radical Demography?
Burawoys Public Sociology
Case study: Migration WatchDistribute MW leaflet and MW Advisory Council
Ask for professional, policy, critical and public challenges/questions to the MW leaflet
Canvass for willingness to collaborate on a fuller critique of MW.
IdeasIdea of population changeTiming of integrationLanguage undefined/flexibleIs overcrowding uniform? Everyone? Just immigrants? All immigrants (EU/non-EU)? Who crowds? How is crowding/overcrowding determined? Is it overcrowded?Where do they (MW people live?What about skilled immigrants? Emphasis on asylum seekers?Immigration (esp skilled) has been increasingly encouraged as UK population has aged this is part of increase/change. Immigration has been recruited/encouraged. Scare story of job-taking from earlier labour-shortage recruitment periods.
Give examples of good practise (Finland)Issues surrounding National ID card / estimation
(ie where are jobs, schools, opportunities?)The politics of placeMulticultural Britain/London discussion (as well as estate listings!) shows 2nd generation dispersion (ie redress to TPs ghettos comment in that they are both escapable and NOT ghettos in US sense - cite Peach and also Wilson on joblessness)What focus on dispersion and concentration reveals is idea that place itself is staticSuggestion: emphasis on places as process rather than history both more democratic and critical for understanding issues
Segregation at levels of black ghettoes in US cities (Guardian, 23 Sept 2005) [US COMPARISONS]Ghettos blighting Asian integration (Times, 1 Sept 2005) [RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION CONTRASTED WITH INTEGRATION]Multiculturalism is failing to bring Britain's rac